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Prj>e Sei'cn Shillings and Sixpence, bound m cloth. 


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t'er/b— John Crawford. Eaq. 

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Rer. Baden Powell. Sav. Pof. 

Rev. John Jordan, II.A. 
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E. Moore, M.U., P.L.S., jfecretorf. 

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Rev. P. Kwart. M.A. 
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Major Sir William Lloyd. 
PanmnrtA— C. E. Rumbold. Ksf}. 

Dawaon Tarncr. Eaq 
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John Phillips, Esq., P.R..S., P.O.ak 

THOMAS COATES, Ew]., 8$erHary, No. 09. Uaeolo*! Inn Ptoldk 

Priulod by William Clowki and Sows, Stamford SireflL 





R I C 

RICHARDSON, SAMUEL, the inventor of the modern 
English norel, was horn in Derhyshire in 1689. His father 
had been a joiner in London, hut had retired to the country, 
and fixed himself at Shrewsbury, after the execution of the 
duke of Monmouth, with whom it appears he had been in 
some way or other connected. It is stated that both his 
father and his mother had been born in a superior station to 
(hat in which they had come to move. At one time the 
joiner hoped to have been able to educate his son for the 
church ; but a decline in his circumstances forced him to 
forego this ambition, and young Richardson was in his 
seventeenth year bound apprentice to Mr. John Wilde, a 
printer of London, after having hod merely the education in 
reading and writing to be obtained at a common village 
school. He has informed us himself however, that long 
before this the peculiar talents which he afterwards dis- 
V>layed in his novels had begun to show themselves. He 
was noted while at school, he relates, for his How of inven- 
tion ; his schoolfellows used to make him tell them stories, 
and were always most pleased with those he made out of his 
own head. ' All my stories,* he characteristically adds, 

* carried with them, I am bold to say, a useful model.* But 
already, as throughout his life, his most delighted listeners, 
and the associates who best drew forth his powers, were of 
the other sex. ' As a bashful and not forward boy/ he says, 

* I was an early favourite with all the young women 
of taste and reading in the neighbourhood Half-a-dozen 
of them, when met to work with their needles, used, 
when they got a book they liked, and thought I should, 
to borrow me to read to them, their moihers sometimes 
with them ; and both mothers and daughters used to be 
pleased with the observations they put me upon making. I 
was not more than thirteen when three of these young 
women, unknown to each other, having a high opinion of 
my taciturnity, revealed to me their love secrets, in order 
to induce me to give them copies to write after, or correct, 
for answers to their lovers' letters; nor did any one of them 
ever know that I was the secretary to the others.* This 
w as an employment well suited to nourish and strengthen 
Ri( hardsons wonderful faculty of entering into the feelings 
of other hearts* and giving them true and natural expres- 

He was so punctual and industrious during the seven 
years of his apprenticeship, that Wilde used to call him the 
)Hllar of his house; yet he did not neglect his private 
studies, finding time, by stealing it from the hours of rest 
and relaxation, both fur much reading and a good deal of 
letter- writing. He remained five or six years as foreman 
in Mr.Wilde'g printing-office after his apprenticcshm ex- 
pired, and then set up for himself in Salisbury-court, Fleet- 
streot. Soon finding himself in possession of a good busi- 
ness, he married Miss Allington Wilde, his old master's 
daughter, whom however he lost in 1731, after she had 
horixQ htm five sons and a daughter, all of whom he likewise 
survived. He afterwards married Miss Leake, sister of 
Mr. James Leake, bookseller, by whom he had five daugh- 
P.C, No. 1231. 

R I C 

ters and a son : of these, four daughters, with their mother, 
survived him. 

Richardson first became an author in the year 1 740. He 
had been in the habit of occasionally furnishing prefiices 
and dedications for the works which he printed, at the re- 
quest of the publishers; and had been often importuned by 
his friends Mr. Rivington and Mr. Osborne to draw up for 
them a small collection of familiar letters on subjects of 
general interest in common life; a task, they conceived, well 
adapted to his style and turn of mind. Many years before, 
he had been greatly interested by a story of real life that 
had been told him, the same in its general outline with that 
of 'Pamela;' he now thought of making it the topic of a 
letter or two in the proposed little volume ; but when he 
began to reflect on the subject, its capabilities gradually un- 
folded themselves to htm, and *I thought,' says he, 'the 
story, if written in an easy and natural manner suitable to 
the simplicity of it, might possibly introduce a new species 
of writing, that might possibly turn young people into a 
course of reading different from the pomp and parade of 
romance-writing, and, dismissing the improbable and mar- 
vellous, with which novels generally abound, might tend to 
promote the cause of religion and virtue.' The result was 
the composition of the first part of 'Pamela,' the two largo 
volumes of which were written betweei^ the 10th of No- 
vember, 1739, and the 10th of January, 1740. It was pub- 
lished in the latter year, and became immediately so popular 
that five editions of it were called' for within the twelve- 
month. So refreshing and exciting were mere nature, 
truth, and simplicity, even under many disadvantages and 
indeed positive ofiensivenesses of style and mannei*, found 
to be in a species of composition fitted above all otheis to 
amuse and interest the popular fancy, but which had 
hitherto been cultivated in our language only in a spirit 
and after a mode of working with which the taste of the 
most numerous class of readers was the least formed to 

The first part of ' Pamela' was soon followed by the second 
part, which was felt at the time by most people to be a 
great falling off', and which it has since been generally 
agreed is an attempt at improving the original story that 
might very well have been spared. The author was led to 
write it by the appearance of a sequel to his book by another 
hand, under the title of * Pamela in High Life,' the wretched 
speculation of some needy scribbler to turn to his own profit 
the interest and curiosity which Richardson's work had 
excited. It ought to be mentioned that Richardson also 
completed and published the ' Collection of Famdiar Letters* 
out of the project of which his novel had arisen: Mrs. 
Barbauld, his biographer, speaks of this performance in 
high terms, describing it as 'a work usually found in the 
servant's drawer, but which, when so found, has not un- 
frequently detained the eye of the mistress, wondering all 
the while by what secret charm she was induced to turn 
over a book apparently too low for her perusal.' Another 
incident connected with the publication of Richardson'it 

Vol. XX.— B 

R I C 

R I C 

flnt no^el is the circumBtance of its havinff been the means 
of impelling his celebrated contemporary Fielding into the 
tame line of writing; Fielding's first novel, properly so 
called, his 'Joseph Andrews,' which appeared in 1742, was 
an avowed burlesque of ' Pamela,' for which Richardson 
never forgave him. 

It was not till after an interval of several years that 
' Pamela' was followed by ' The History of Clarissa Har- 
lowe.' The first four volumes of this greatest beyond all 
dispute of Richardson's novels appeared in 1748, and im- 
mediately raised his reputation as a master of fictitious nar- 
rative to the highest point The admiration it excited was 
not confined to his own oountry ; the work, translated into 
the Freneh and German languages, soon acquired for him a 
Kuropean name. So strong was the hold which the story 
took of the imaginations of its readers, that, as if the events 
and characters had all been real, and the author's pen had 
had a power of actual creation and embodiment, man^ per- 
sons, Quring the progress of the work, wrote to him in the 
most urgent terms to gratify them by such a winding up of 
the plot as they had set their hearts upon, declaring that 
their own happinoM depended upon the extrication of the 
heroine from the miseries in which he had involved her. 
But Richardson obeyed his own high genius, and was not 
to be persuaded to turn the deep and noble tragedy of un- 
conquerable and triumphant endurance which he had so 
finely conceived, into a mere common-place stimulant for 

Riehardson's next and last great work, his ' History 
of Sir Charles Orandison,' appeared in 1763. This is of 
•11 his works that in whieh he has most freouentlv deserted 
the true field of his genius, and ventured farthest upon 
ground on whieh he was not qualified to appear with 
advantage; and aeeordtngly it contains much more that is 
tedious and uninteresting than either of his other novels ; 
the plot too has little that excites curiosity or sympa- 
thy; and the conception of the principal personage sins 
against all the principles both of poetical art and of proba- 
bility and the philosophy of human nature. Yet with all 
its fkults this novel too is full of its author's most graphic 
and dramatic genius ; the whole picture of Clementina, in 
partioolar, is perhaps surpassed by nothing in either ' Pa- 
mela' or 'Clarissa.' 

The only publioations of Richardson's that have not been 
mentioned are, M>>po>' ^n the 'Rambler* (No. 97); an edi- 
tion of 'Asop's Fables, with Reflections ;' a single printed 
theet, entitled *The Duties of Wives to Husbands' (a sub- 
ject on which, with all his amenitv of nature, he entertained 
somewhat strong notions) ; and his ' Case,* a statement of 
the piracy of his 'Sir Charles Grandison' by the Dublin 
booksellers. His works brought him a considerable harvest 
of profit as well as of flime; and his pen and a flourishing 
business together soon placed him not only in easy, but 
even, it may be said, in affluent circumstances. He early 
obtained, through the interest of Mr. Speaker Onslow, the 
luerative employment of printing the Journals of the House 
of Commons; and in 1760 he purchased the moiety of the 
patent of king's printer. In 1754 he was elected to the post 
of master of the Stationer's Company. He continuea to 
reside and carry on his business to the last in Salisbury- 
eourt ; but he had also his country villa, first at North End, 
afterwards at Parson's Green. He died on the 4th Julv, 
1761, and was buried beside his first wife, in the middle 
aisle of St Bride's church. 

No character oould be freer firom vice of every sort, or 
more perflKtly irreproachable, than that of Richarason. In 
all the duties of moralitv and piety be was the most regular 
and eiemplaryof men. His principal weakness was a rather 
greater than usual share of literary vanity, not untinctured 
With «>me disposition to underrate other writers of the day, 
mort especblly those who were fortunate enough to shure 
the public Ikvoor with him in his own walk. These were 
filings naturslly springing ftom the circumstances of his 
life, and the somewhat dfeminate constitution of his nature 
botn intelleetoal and moral; and they were further nou- 
rished by the habit of seclusion in a ooterie of female idola- 
ters — a sort of platonio harem— in which he indulged in his 
latter daya. 

RICH ARDSOTHA, the name of a genus of planU in 
the natural order Cinchonacem, giyen bv Houston in honour 
of Richardson, an English botanist of the sixteenth oentury. 
This genus waa called Richardia by Linn«us, but that 
anme nas been given to another plant. Most of the speciea 

of Richardsonia are natives of South America. They possess 
emetic properties, and under the name White Ipecacuanha, 
&c. are used extensively as a substitute for the true Ipeca- 
cuanha {Cepheelis Ipecacuanha), 


CARDINAL DE, a younger son of Francois du Plessis, 
Lord of Richelieu, was born at Paris, in 1585. He studied 
at the college of Navarre, and was at first intended for the 
military profession, but his elder brother Alphonse, bishop 
of Lu9on, having resolved to withdraw from active life and 
retire into a Carthusian convent, young Armand was looked 
upon as his successor in his see. Accordingly he applied 
himself to the study of divinity, in which he took a doctor's 
degree at the age of twenty. The pope objected to his 
beine consecrated bishop of Lucon on account of his 
youth ; but Armand repaired to Rome, and succeeded in 
convincing the pope of his aptitude for the episcopal oflUce, 
and he was consecrated in 1607. Having taken possession 
of his see, he applied himself sedulously to the discharge of 
his pastoral duties, and in preaching and converting the 
Calvin ists. In 1614 he sat as deputy of the clergy of Poitou 
in the assembly of the States-General, on which occasion he 
harangued the young king Louis XIIL, and so pleased the 
queen-mother Marie de' Medici, that she made him her 
almoner, which was the beginning of his fortune. He was 
soon made secretary of state, but in consequence of aquarre* 
between the king and his mother, Richelieu was banished 
to his diocese. He afterwards acted as mediator between 
those two personages, and acquired a permanent influence 
over both. In 1632 he was made a cardinal, soon aAer 
which the queen-mother obtained for him a seat in the 
council in 1624, when he became the chief minister of the 
crown, and continued such for the remaining eighteen years 
of his life. The history of his political career forms an im- 
portant period in the history of the French monarchy. 
Richelieu had three great objects in view: 1, to render the 
power of the crown absolute, and to humble the feudal no- 
bility ; 2, to annihilate the Calvinists as a political party ; 
3. to reduce the power of the house of Austria, both in its 
German and Spanish branches, and to extend that of France. 
Unscrupulous about the means, he succeeded in breaking 
down the political influence of the nobles, many of whom 
he sent to the scaffold on various pretences. He put to 
death Marshal de Marillac, the duke of Montmorency, Cinq 
Mars, and De Thou, and many more in a cruel manner. 
Others were shut up in dungeons during the oardinarb life. 
His great political opponent was Gaston d'Orl^ns, the 
king's brother, who conspired against the cardinal. The 
conspiracy failed, and was the cause of the death of Gaston's 
friends. Gaston then openly revolted against the kinc^. 
being assisted by the duke of Lorraine, whose sister he had 
married. He was not more successful in this attempt, was 
obliged to seek an asylum in the Spanish Netherlands, and 
the duke of Lorraine lost his dominions, which were seized 
by the French. The queen-mother, who had quarrelled 
with the cardinal and supported his enemies, waa obliged 
to quit France. She retired to Cologne, where she died, in 
1642, in great distress. 

Richelieu accomplished the second object which he had 
in view, namely, tne extirpation of the Calvin ist parly, by 
besieging in person and taking La Rochelle, the stronghold 
of the Calvinists, in 1628. But the motives of Richelieu 
appear to have been more political than religious: at all 
events he did not show himself after his victory a fonatic or 
a persecutor. He secured relii;ious tolerance to the Cal- 
vinists by a royal edict in 1629; and when the fkculty of 
theology of Montauban, which was then, as it is now, the 
Calvfnist university of France, went to visit the cardinal, 
be told them courteously that he could not receive them as 
a body of divines, but that he should always be willing to 
see them as men of learning. 

The third great object of Richelieu was that of humbling 
the House of Austria, which, since the time of Charles V., 
had been the preponderating power in Europe. For this 
purpose, setting aside all clerical scruples, he supported, first 
secretly and afterwards openly, the ProtesUnU of Germany 
against the emperor. His almoner, a Capuchin friar named 
Pdre Joseph, was his confident and trusty agent in all His 
diplomatic intrigues. The history of this singular character 
has been published, * Histoire du veritable Pdre Joseph,' 
and is a most curious biography. The friar repaired to Ger- 
many, to the camp of the PhHeatant princes ana of Gustavus, 

R I C 

R I C 

Tbo ehief mnaufnelorT U an ex (entire peper-mill. Gm* 
wiirku were eitublUhud in 1821, and watorworka in ]t»37. 
The tu>f n-ball U a convenient buildiiifc, in wbicb tlie public 
buHinoM of the town u tratii«^U;d and tbe quaiter-ieaiiont 
iield bulb for tbe town and Hidtog. It contains a spacious 

A court of record i* bold once a fortnight before the major, 
recorder, and aldermen ; it takes oognizattoe of all pleas, 
actions, and suits in which the debts or dajsages do not 
amount to more than 100/. ; the recorder is the sole judge in 
tbis court. A court baron for tbe liberty of Ricbmondnbire. 
of which the duke of Leeds is the chief bailiff, is hfAd once in 
three weeks for the rooovcry of debts under forty shillings. 

The parish church is a Gothic building, and conittsts of 
a nave, chancel, and aisles, with a tower at the west end« It 
ha« been enlarged several times, and exhibits several varieties 
of architecture. The rectory is in the patronage of the 
crown. Holy Trinity chapel stands in tne market-place. 
The eunttibtory court for the archdeaconry of Richmond is 
held in two rooms adjoining the north aisle. Some portions 
of this building are occupied as shops and dwelhngs. The 
unper part of the north aisle is (llted up for divine service. 
The other places of worship are a Catholic chapel, erected 
bv Sir John Lawson, Bart., in 1811; an Independent 
•hapel ; and a Wcsleyan chapel. 

Richmond free grammar-school was founded and en- 
dowed by the burgesses, and incorporated by Queen Elixa- 
beth, by which Act it was called *The free grammar-school 
of the bursesses of the borough or town of Richmond, in the 
county of York, for the education and instruction of boys 
and youths in grammar.' The four bailiffs were to be the 
governors of the possessions of the school. Tbe property 
now produces a yearly income of 337/. 7#. AcL All natives and 
the sons of burgesses and other persons residing within the 
borough are entitled to admission as free scholars by the pay- 
ment of seven shillings a year for fire, candles, and cleaning. 
Tho instruction in writing and arithmetic is also paid for. 

The Corporation School is endowed with an annuity of 50/. 
from the borough funds and charities, for which fifty scholars 
are taught. The National School contains about one hundred 
boys and eighty girls. There are also an infant-school, a 
mechanics* library, a subscription library, and a news-room. 

There are charities at Richmond for poor tradesmen and 
widows, for the distribution of coals, bread, and medicines, 
and various small beciue&ts for education and apprentice 
fees. (Clarkson*s Richmond; and Allen's YorhMhireA 


RICHMOND. [Virginia.] 

called Jean Paul, was born on the 21st of March, 1763, 
at WunsicdeU in the neighbourhood of Baireuth, where 
his father held tho office of tertius or under-schoolmaster 
and organisL Shortly after the birth of his son, he was 
made pastor of tho village of Jodiz, whence he was trans- 
ferred to Schwarzenbach on the Saale. Owing to the very 
limited circumstances of his parents, as well as to the Want 
«;f a good schoolmaster, tbe boy had hitherto been educated 
anl taught at home by his father. At Schwarzenbach bow 
ever he was sent to scluiol, and continued the study of Latin 
tiiid Greek, to which Hebrew and some other branches of 
learning were added. His stay at this school was short, and 
ho wad ftent to the gymnasium at Hof, where he continued 
hi4 suidien for two }cars, notwithstanding the death of bis 
father, which happened shortly afier his arrival there, and 
li'fr hM family almost in a state of destitution. The young 
srholar tiuwever was in some degree supported by his grand- 
father on hi« mother's side. In 1781 he went to the uni 
Vi-rn ty of I^ipzig, f >r his family vrtsbed that he should fol 
tow the example of bis father and study theology. He 
h'>pH to ohUiM some support from the university, but he 
fo'ii.rl the diftlciiUifs greater than he had anticipated ; and 
he «a« thrown entirely on his own resources. He had to 
coiiteo'l withcxircfnc want, end was sometimes even unable 
to olftdiii ticre««ary f'/od and clothing. The circumstances 
tit hu mother likewiM! grew worse, and she was unable to 
•ou('ly him with any niiney. Notwithstanding this pain- 
ful «iiuamn, he persevered in his studies, and he remained 
rhccrful. H#>oti after his arrival at Leipzig he bad given up 
the vtudy of tbeol'igy, wlurh he found ill-suited to bis taste, 
a*id now •Kf\n% no other \nt%^\\>\\iiy of satufying his moat 
urgent wants, ho wrote a Uiok called ' Grunlandiscbe 
FrofCMe,' 2 vols., Ilethti, I7b3. Tlie pittance which he 
rveei^ed for bia work, smsU as it was, determiocd him 

heneefortb to try to sopport bimdf by wntn^ A s ec on d 
book, * Auswahl ao4 d«i TeoMa POpicRn,* was sooa written, 
but DO poMiaber coold be loaiid, as his first work bad u«it 
met with a fiivoyrable leeeption. After aeny disappoint- 
menls, he qoitled Leipsig in 1 783, aad went to Hof to reside 
with bis mother, who with her bnuly inhabited a house 
eoDtaimng one apertnMDt. All that he posseased was a 
number of MSS.coQtainior eztracta fioa tbe various work^ 
which be bad read. At UoC hk poverty rather increased 
than diminished, but tbe nneonquenble vigour of bis mind 
and tbe benevolenoe of a fSew frienda kept bim no. He 
engaged himself as a tntor in a bmily. and in 17S8 ne sue- 
reeled in finding a publisher for bis * Aoswabi ans des Teu- 
feb Pap.ereo.' The little ineome which be thus gained was 
however not soffirieot to support bim and bis fiunily. Iii 
1 793 several families of Scbwaixenbacb onited to invite him 
to oome and undertake tbe education of their diildren, an 
offer which be gladly accepted. Here be tried and developed 
tbe principles of eilucation which be afterwards (1807) pub- 
lished in his * Levana.* His cirenmstances now beean to 
improve, especially after 1793, when, through the mediation 
of a friend, he found a publisher for a new work called * Die 
UDsichlbare Logo,' 2 vob., Berlin. This work attracted the 
attention of tbe pobUc and brought the author into notice. 
A fair prospeet of sueceas as a writer being thus opened to 
him, be left Schwarzenbach (1794) and returned to Hof, 
where in the coarse of a few years be wrote some of bis 
moat admired works: * Hesperus^* 4 vols., Berlin, 1794; 

* Quintus Fixlein,' Baireuth, 1796 (this work was the fitat 
which appeared under his full name, for in the preceding 
ones lie bad only called himself Jean Paul) ; * Biographische 
Belustigimgen unter der Gehimschale einer Riesin,' Ber- 
lin, 1796; *Siebenksas, oder Blumen-Fracht-und Dornen- 
stucken,* &c 4 vols^ Berlin, 1 796-97. and * Der J ubelsenoir,' 
ibid, 1 797. In this year his mother died, after having for 
a short time enjoyed the happiness of seeing her son appre- 
cialed, and Jean Paul now relumed to Leipsig. His name was 
now favourably known, and the most distinguished among 
his countrymen, such as Gleim, Herder, Schiller, Wieland, 
and others, esteemed the man no less than bis works. In 
1 798, in which year his work called ' Daa Osmpanertbal, 
oder die Unsterblichkeit der Seele,' was published at 
Erfurt, he was induced by Herder, whom he revered more 
than any other of his friends, to take up his abode at Wei- 
mar. It was about this time that be become acquainted with 
tbe Duke of Saxe-Hildburghausen, who afterwards ho* 
noured him with the title of councillor of Legation (Legations- 
rath). In 1801 he married Charlotte Maier, the daughter 
of a distinguished physician of Berlin. He first settled at 
Meiningen, which in 1803 he exchanged forCoburg; but 
after a short stay in this town he took up his permanent 
n'sidence at Baireuth. During this period of wandering he 
wrote ' Briefc und Bevorstehender Lebenslauf,* Grera, 1799 ; 

* Titan,' 4 vols., Beriin, 1800-3 ; * Die Flegeljahre,' 4 vols., 
Tiibingen, 1804-5. 

At Baireuth he enioyed the well deserved fiiiits of his 
mdefatigable zeal— the esteem and admiration of the most 
illustrious and best among hia countrymen. In 1809 the 
Prince Primate, Carl von Dalberg, granted him a pension of 
1000 florins per annum. In 1815 the prince was obliged to 
resign his secular sovereignty of Regensburg, Aschafienburg, 
Frankfurt, Witzlar, &c, which be had before possessed, 
together with his archbishopric and primacy of Regens- 
burg, but the pension was continued by Maximilian, kins 
of Bavaria. In 1817 the universitv of Heidelberg honoured 
Jean Paul with the diploma of doctor of philosophy, and 
three years afterwards he was elected an ordinary member 
of the Academy of Sciences of Munich. From the time of 
his settlement at Baireuth, Jean Paul pursued his hterary 
occupations as zealously as ever, and only now and then 
made either little excursions into the neighbouring country, 
or short journeys to Heidelberg, Munich, Berlin, and Dres- 
den. Among the works which belong to this last and 
happiest period of his life, we shall only mention * Vorschule 
der Aesthetik,' 3 vols., Hamburg, 1804; * Katzenbergeis 
Badereise,' 2 vols., Heidelberg, 1809; ' Des Feldprediger 
8cbmekle Reise nach Flatz,' Tubingen, 1809 ; * Der 
Komet, oder Nieolaus Mork^raf,* 3 vols^ Berlin, 1820*22. 

During the last years of his life he was attacked by a com> 
plaint in the eyes, which at the beginning of the year 1&25 
terminated in complete blindness. His physical powers also 
began to decline, and he died on the 14th ofNoven^r, 
1^25. Some time before his death he had made pcepani- 

R I C 




to W wA hnmtA m « nortir: add to Um noto ihm 
ten laeasBret of wmtor. and mC the whole oo the ire 
to boil, tak'.nc care to keep eootiaull j ctirring the eonteDto 
ef the pot QDiJ all the oil appears at the top, when it ia to 
he carefwlly strained off and buttled for use. The quantity 
ef nau menUooed in ths funnula ought to yield about one 
mxX bottle of osL* The proeeasea naed in the United 
aiea and the Weal Indiea are both objectionable, from 
r:cg DK only heat bat water, which last wocnotea the 
rai^r Xti of the oiL The achd property and the rancidity 
are ovifig to dillcceot canaet. the KMmer being always in 
pr.*;«>ru^ to the freahneaa of the oil, the Utter to the im- 
pcTferriwSi of the iBca-is used in extnctiog it, or to its age. 
The pUa a^optol in France ia the beat ; it it as follows: — 
The ii€ih iecds are hruised, and then pot into a cold pres 


-conta<« ^"^'^ 
^^^ Brown gi 


& Nndcnaof 

wdA I 

Ligneous Ibre • 
Fatty oil 
Gum • 
Caaenni (albumen) 
Ligneous fibre, with 

starch, &c. 





For further details r e s pe cti ng the rheniatry of eastor-oil* 

Pereira*s Ifof. Med^ it, p. 770. 
Castorofl is a mild apeneot or laxatjra when pure, ope- 

«. .. eipre3*:d is al'«uved to stand some time to permit the 
a : 1.1^:0, mi^.'.age, aad oiher matters to subside, or it is 
f .:<ne-i lo s^panie ibem m.>re rsp »diy. {Jottmal de Phar- 
m^e%t^ :>nL ▼, pp. 207, ^vb > The prt?dufe is equal to about 
a :t :d of tbe seeds erspioyed, and ibe o:l po sic a ic i all ito 
CAionu qu&l.ises. Tbe Amencan jpfxweas yields only 25 
per rent, of o J. In the French VTest Indian Islands^ a 

I »>me persons improperiy beat the plates of the pre^). Tbe I rating without griping or other inoonTenieoea, and eom- 

monly Tory soon after its administmtion. It b the most 
proner laxatiTe for in&nts, and in many inflammatory stataa 
of tne abdomen or of the kidneys. Madder, &e. It is al«o 
one of the best puintires in rheumatism, espeeially in lum- 
bago, and one of the bat meant of reliering habitual eon- 
stipation, as^ unlike other purgatirea* the dose may be ane- 
eeasiTely reduced without its power being impaiied. It ia 
pe^ru'^AT ranety of Rkicos^ caued R. m&fr, more act ire, is I also a most eligible medicine m piles or other affections of 
i.i«d, «L ;h 5ir'.ds an oU called carapai^ or karahat^ but | the rectum. Alone or with turpentine it is a feiy elDcacioua 
ti.i« n ik>>n{ and us pleasant, and must not be confounded ' means of espelling worms. The diief obstacle to its exten- 
With or svb»i.tuted A>r the fine oJ procured in France. Both j sire use is the repulsive taste which it of^en possesses. Many 
tiic French aoi ItailiAa are much weaker than oil pro- 1 expedients have been adopted to remove or le«en this ; but 
r«.red fr.-a tr^f cal eountries. Another mode of obtaining ! no artifice can make had or old oil (^ood or palatable. Rancic 
XJLe oil IS to macerate the bruised aeeds in cold akohol, by ' oil mty be purified br calcined magnesia; but the careful 
wh ch %^ osooes of oil are procured from every pound of exclusion of the air, which prevents the rancidity occurring. 
seediw ijmn^de /^vznnjcte, vu*^ 47 j.) The expense of , is preferable to any process fur removing it when it has 
tLi« pTPoeai IS the objectji>n to i6 general employment, j affected the oiL Mixins the oil. immediately before awal- 

O.. ji goiii q»ul.tT IS a th*:k:sh fluui, of a ver) pale yellow { lowing it, with milk, coffee, or broth, ia sometimes a sue- 
c '..•artti^e best xk:rv almost hmpsdi, with a slightly nauteous , cessful means of escaping the nnpleasantneaa. Brandy and 
oc^ r, and as oilj taste, mUd at first, but causing a feeling gin are improper in many cases, owing to their heating pro- 
lo :be hack of thie throat which is mere or less intent in ! perties. Sjrup of orange and lemon are beneficial adjuncts. 
|r^»xt:^n to the freshness of the specimen. Old or badly > especially if a portion of the orange-peel be mastieated im- 
prepared o \ is ra&cjd and disagreeahie. Tbe specific gravity I mediately after swallowing the mixture. An emulsion with 
M^ at >i* Faia*., v'iO, aecord^og to Saussure, but according yolk of egg is sometimes acceptable, if made immediately 
to G^j^er it is o:/.} r^. | before it is administered. Bv far the best plan however is 

It cai: be fCi^l^ed ocly by a very low tempenture. It is to take advantage of tbe teodeiicv to combine with alkalis, 
dM T^aahed am <az fixed o Is by its compiCte or nearly and so form a soapy emulsion, wLich does not destroy the 
cz&p'«tte s^I»l-.« ;y m pjre svlphune mther and in alcohol, purgative power, while it completely alters the appearance, 
itieTt,yi a7prjacL.iig i:^ casecuai oils is its habitudes, and and prevents any one recogn:!»ing' the oily olyect of bis 
ju easi c -n ^.s^!>x2 w«ih alkahije leys, and consequently its | aversion. To effect this however requires care and skill, 
readv sa|Oi .£fau>>a. two propcrues of much importance, the especially aa a variable quantity of alkalme ley is needed, 
c*:«e f**r:..v. '.t a euave&icct test of lU purity, the other faci- according to the age of the oil, very old oil requiring more 
1 .a:.^7 ns ad=.3.»uaUda ic a form less repulsire than its . ley than fresh oil. In general from fifteen to twenty drops 
urd^MLTv rato. l;s v«Ty m^iexaTe pnce (in the year ending ' uf pure liquor potasse will saponify half an ounce of oil, to 
^'i< «/ J&roaxT, 1«4a, u raiiged. acoorLng to quaiity, from i whxh oneouiK^e of dl^tilled waier,and one drachm of spirit 
4^ to iwi. per lb. J neoders u icarceiy wonh adulterating. , of pimento or of nutmeg are to be added. 

its p*>r.:f 
Q^az: :i uf 

y be tcs;ed by mix^ag it with an equal 
aleo:»^ m which it ahould ba entirely 
oX if titers be anv, viU 



Ok 1 4^3 

4 4 







74 -cC 


li tbns ar-«an tc be fr>e of tbe m-vft highly oxyr^nated 
*9i* VT fi's. i..ce-.** «ar^ -^ wL. h. oo exposorp to the air, it 

m:«e cx«r«x, arid cujcklv become 


1. Quantity of castor-oil on which duty was paid for home 
consumption iu tbe United Kingdom, showing the average 
annual consumption in each of the following periods of five 
years each, with the net revenue annually receired in each 
penod* — 



BoAf CocMam|»tio«. 






% Rates of duty :^ 

%t^r rru'^ v 

n.-*' "i : K I* b'. ▼*▼«• »"•* m ^ dni -g. U t§ t.«at<^ to cioD«>ist 
t/ ii^i'n- z^ X irk'e pr !•-;•**. l»-: »^i*:brr ibese are edv.cts 
«r : -^r^—A *♦ L'»'^t'^a r. B-t*i a>d Loraao, who have pa.d 
t: ai"*^* « ^t tbe f-V e-n *J'tr^r»ai d* I^irmxt^^ xi:l 
'^ ' p. <" •*.» 5«.n*r ••: -i - wr.r i. ** tbe m?st p'oiiaVje. 
•T- »♦ 1- •• *n s-.i*. * ra tj.-: •* nr:rd*-4 as a wirrie im- 
ct •!—»<- \ ^^^ji ks % ^i'vr'^vti "Tra^f f?r'*^A*c^ re- 





] "1 p<^.t 





Bhtish P 

c 4. 


3 per lb. 
6 .. 
3 ., 
6 per cvt. 
3 .. 

CmI Indial 

3 per lb. 
9 .. 
3 .. 
6 per cwt 
3 .. 





3 per lb. 


r :- - 



:• TT fir* -f a: ^^aa't:*: i f^?:'ef.t §-t>*'iaoreft.* 
r T"'— - i r ;-. Liie prices* of sa;>Cff.:^caL):-c 

.r-j. v.* ifC — 

I' 1- 

r. tV:-i %a-4 


T:.. - 

I \* i^\* 

** is il^t of G^^ex {HjfLi- 

Tbe d.siinction formerly made in tbe rate of duty betwtvn 
^%icr-oii from B^«ti^h pos:scs&«ons and foreign oountries na^ 
qui'^ UQiiecesaar}-, as nine-tenths of the quantity on wlucl 
liwt} IS p^id cjmes from countries with.n the limits of the 
East Iclia Company's territories, and nearly the whole gf 

' the rt:aa.aing leaih is from the British TTest Indies. About 
or.c-f.ur:h of the imjx>ried is re-exported. In 
.^^'-5-9 tlie importuiijus avorAged annually 905,726 lh», 

, arwi :Le b.-aie consumption 6^6,^55 lbs. 

C^ior-o.l IS extensively used in the East, France, luh, 

j and csewLerc, for burning. 

R I C 


R I D 

^•Vwi^ the eoTMing parmpet woald not» to a considerable 
dtftanee from theoee. be struck. In proportion as tUe eleva- 
Um of ibe piece is increased above tbe same limit, the ver- 
tes of ibe trajectory is nearer to tbe battery, and tbas the 
sboc is in tbe descending branch when it passes over the 
crest of tbe work. 

Wbeo tbe parapet over which the shot is to pass has 
little deration abore the battery, it requires considerable 
ehargea to albw the vertex of the trajectory to coincide with 
the crest ; bat the chai^ diminish rapidly as tbe height of 
the parapet increases, or as the distance of the battery from 
tbeore diminishes : the etfect of this is to produce the kind 
of ricochet fint mentioned aboi^e, for the ande made by the 
descending branch with the horixontal ground being greater, 
tbe rebounds of the shot are more numerous within a given 
extent of ground, and between the successive grazes the 
curves are higher and shorter. In this case, and when the 
descending branch passes through the crest, the shot falls 
ahnost immediately behind the parapet, and no part of the 
ground to be ricochetted is free from its action : this is not 
always certain, when by great charges and low elevations 
the second kind of ricochet is used, since it may happen 
that the shot will pass above tbe objects which it should 
strike within the limits of the ground. In the modern 
system of fortification the greatest length of the faces of 
works which are liable to the ricochet is about 100 yards ; 
therefore when there are no traverses on the terreplein, and 
it is merely required to strike an object somewhere between 
the crest of the covering parapet (supposed to be about 8 
feet high) and tbe further extremity of any such face, the 
descending branch of the trajectory will make with tbe no- 
risen an angle of about one aei^ree. and the charge and ele- 
vation of the gun should be determined so that tliis condi- 
tion may be fulfilled. From shot so fired a traverse near 
the covering ]wrapet would entirely protect the ground, 
since tbe projectile would lodge in it, and do no harm to tbe 
defenden ; and in order that the fire of shot may do execu- 
tion, whether made in that manner or with an increased 
elevation of tbe piece so as to produce recochets, it is neces- 
sary previously to destroy the traverse by shells fired as 
above described. For such a purpose General Millar's 
8- inch howitzers will probably be found to be the most ser- 
viceable ; and if the large shot subsequently fired a ricochet 
to dismount tbe artillery should not succeed in clearing an 
enemy's work of the troops who defend the parapet, sphe- 
rical case shot fired from 24-pounder guns might be 
advantageously employed. One gun in a ricochet battery 
should be exactly in the prolongation of the crest of tbe 
parapet on tbe face to be enfiladed, in order that its shot 
may graze, with the long ricochet, the interior &lopo of such 

Bxperiments in ricochet firing were carried on at Wool- 
wich, in the months of June and October, 1821, when a 
work 100 yards long, and resembling tbe face of a bastion 
or ravelin, was enfiladed in that manner with iron and brass 
ordnance of different natures ; the covering face was eight 
feet high, and its crest was nearly on a level with the axes 
of the guns in the batterv. The results were, that with a 
range equal to 400 yards, and a charge of powder equal 
to yy of the weight of the shot, about two-thirds of the 
number of rounds took effect ; at GOO yards, with charges 
varying ftrom J^ to ^^ of the weight, from one-third to one- 
half took effect ; and at 800 yards, with charges from ^ to A> 
between one- third and two-thirds took effect. It was con- 
cluded therefore that ricochet batteries ought, if possible, to 
be at a distance varving from 400 to 600 yards from the 
nearest part oi the line of rampart to be enfiladed ; for be- 
yond tbe latter distance tbe effect of the fire is uncertain. 
The long ricochet, with .high charges and small elevations 
or depressions of the guns, may however be advantageously 
employed in firing from the ramparts of a fortress on the 
ground in front, or against extensive lines of works when 
tbe battery is at a much greater distance. 

It appean from the experiments above-mentioned that 
tbe best elevations of ordnance for enfilading a work a-rico- 
chet with shot or shells is that in which the axis of the 
piece is directed at an angle varving from 6 to 9 degrees 
above a line drawn from the chamber of the gun or howitzer 
to the crest of the parapet over which tbe projectile is to 
pass. It IS stated that of 170 shells filled with powder which 
were fired, 58 took effect, but only 33 burst in the work. 
Before the traverses were constructed several guns on the 
work were struck and rendered useless; but afterwards. 

though tbe traverses were much injured, none of the guns 
protected by them were disabled. 

When employed against troops in the field, ricochet firing 
is found to be of essential service ; for the sliot making on 
the ground eight or ten grazes, it cannot fail at some of 
these to take effect In 1757, the King of Prussia had 
several six-inch mortan mounted on travelling carriages ; 
attd from these he caused shells to be thrown &- ricochet, in 
an oblique direction, aeainst the enemy's line, whioh it im- 
mediatelv put in great disorder. ' 

Ricochet firins^, when fint employed in sieges, from the 
defenden not being prepared with means to diminish its 
destructive effects, produced immediately a strong impres- 
sion of its power ; and tbe opinion of its superiority to the 
direct mode of firing has continued to prevail from the time 
of Vauban to the present day, though the service of artil- 
lery is now so precise, that when the guns in an enemy*s 
work can be seen, they can be as readily dismounted by the 
latter mode as by tbe ricochet. It ought also to be remem- 
bered that before the latter can be usefully employed, the 
parapets, traverses, or blindages which cover the artillery of 
a fortress must be ruined by other means ; and it may rea- 
sonably be concluded that tho rapid reduction, or the most 
S retracted defence of a place, will always be owing to a ju- 
icious combination of tne different modes in which, accorfl- 
ing to the circumstances, artillery can be used during tbe 
siege. [SiBGK.l 
RIDEAU CANAL. [Canada.] 


RI DINGER, JOHN ELI AS, was bom in 1695. at Ulm 
in Suabia, and was instructed in drawing by his father, 

I who was a schoolmaster, and in the rudiments of painting 
by Christopher Rasch. His genius led him to animal 

I painting. * He was,* says Fusel i, * one of the greatest dc- 
signera of animals of every denomination whom the annals 

I of painting can produce. If he has been excelled by Ru- 

' gendas in horses, and by Rubens perhaps in the iflcal 
dignity of the lion, he far surpassed them and the rest of 
his predecessors and contemporaries in the wide extent of 
bis powers *over every species of brute creation.' Brjan 
thinks this encomium exaggerated ' by the pardonable 

Firtiality of his countryman and biographer M. Fuseli ' (but 
useli was a Swiss, not a German). His biogntpber in the 
' Conversations Lexicon * says, ' No painter ever represented 
with such truth the characters of wild animals. His de- 
lineations of them are, as it were, their natural history. 
They take the spectator into the recesses of tbe forest, 
amidst lions, tigen, and other wild beasts, whose figures, 
dens, and mode of life are represented by him with the ac- 
curacy of a naturalist. His landscapes are always suited to 
the animals. He was less happy in the representation of 
the human figure, and of tame animals, for instance 
hones. His paintings are rare, for he painted but little, 
bis time being almost wholly taken up by his numerous 
drawings, which are executed with great accuracy and 
taste. The largest and most choice collection of them 
(about 1400) are in the possession of Mr. Weigel at Leipzig. 
His copper- plates or etchings are very numerous, of which 
the following are considered as tbe best: — eight plates of 
wild animals ; forty plates of observations of wild animals ; 
fables of animals, sixteen plates ; hunting of animals of the 
chase by dogs, twenty- eight plates; Paradise, in twelve 
plates. The coppera are in the possession of Schlossin, 
repository of arts at Augsburg. Ola impressions are scarce, 
and pretty high in price.' Ridinger was chosen, 1757, di- 
rector of the Academy of Painting ut Augsburg, where he 
died in 1767. HLs sons Martin Elias and John Jacob fol- 
lowed their father's profession. The fint, and Uiding«r*s 
son -in law John Gottfried Seuter, bad some share in the 
execution of his copper-plates. Tbe latter engraved in 

RIDLEY. NICHOLAS, was born in the county of 
Northumberland, near the beginning of tbe sixteenth ccn- 
turv. He was educated fint at Newcastle, and afterwards 
at Pembroke College, Cambridge. He received further in- 
s:ruclion in France, and having gained some reputation for 
learning, returned to Cambridge, took orders, and became 
master of bis college. His knowledge and power of preach- 
ing having attracted the attention of Cranmer, he was pre- 
sented with clerical preferment, became one of the king's 
chaplains, and in 1547 was nominated bishop of Rochester. 
His denunciations from the pulpit of the use of images and 
of holy water soon showed him the strenuous supporter of 

R I E 


throttffh It aeoluded but intorestiug valley called Oioolono, 
belonging to the Neapolitan territory. This TtfUey has been 
explored of late yeara by Dodwell and by Keppel Craven, 
for ihe purpose of examining the remains of Cyclopian con- 
•mictions which are scatteted all about this district, and 
which are supposed to belong to the towns of the aborigines 
mentioned by Dionysius (i. 14) as destroyed long before his 
time. (Keppel Craven, Excurtiona in the Abruzzu 1838, 
Yol. i., chap. 7.) Others look for those towns. Palantium, 
Btttia, Tiora, and LisU, on the banks of the Vellno above 
Rieti, where remains of Cyclopian walls are also found. 
(Review of Dr. Cramer's Ducriptiw qf Anlient Italy, in 
the 'Quarterly Journal of Education,* No. xlv.) Cutiliw, 
another town mentioned by Ca to and Dionysius, is supposed 
to have been also in the valley of the Voliuo near Paierno. 
where there is a small but deep lake, which is still called 
Cutilia. The ruins of Trebula Mutusca are south of Rieti, 
near Osteria Nuova, on the Via Salaria, and in the same di* 
reotionare the remains of Cures, near the village of Correse; 
at the (bot of Mount Lucretilis are other remains, supposed 
to be those of Buna and Orvinium, also mentioned by Dio^ 
ti} sius as cities of the aborigines. 

In modem times, the district of Cicolano, in the valley of 
the Salto, has acquired a certain historical interest on ac- 
count of the tragical end of the Cenci, a Roman baronial 
family of the middle ages, the head of which, Francesco Cenci, 
was murdered in the castle of Pelrella, at the instigation of 
his wife and daughter, who were put to death after a long 
trial, which has been the subject of many compoaitions both 
in prose and verse. 

The Velino, after its confluence with the Salto, passes 
through Rieti, dividing the city from ihe suburb, and then 
turning to the north-west receives the Turano also firom 
the south. The Turano, the antient Telonius, rises in the 
Neapolitan territory, not far from the Anlo, in the moun- 
tains which border the basin of the Fucino to the west- 
ward, and on the opposite side of which the Liris has 
its source. The Turano runs in a north-west direction 
nearly parallel to the Salto, passes by Carseoli on the Via 
TiburtinV which leads from TivoU into the country of the 
Marsi, flows along the eastern base of Mount Lucretilis, 
and then enters the plain of Rieli, where it joins the Velino 
after a course of about 40 miles. In the valley of the 
Turano, the greater part of which lies in the Papal State, 
but which, like the rest of this region, is almost unknown 
to travellers, is the town of Rocca Sitiibalda, near the site 
of the antient Trebula Mutusca. It was on the banks of 
the Telonius that the consul P. Rutiliusand 8000 men were 
defeated and killed during the Marsian or Social war. 

The plain of Rieti is one of the must delightful spots in 
Italy. It is covered with plantations of mulberry-trees, 
vines twining round elms and maple trees, fields of wheat, 
Indian com, beans, flax, hemp, wood, and vegetables of 
every kind. It is traversed by two clear streams, which 
unite their waters about three miles below the town of 
Rieti, whose churches, steeples, and other massive build- 
ings make a fine contrast with the brilliant verdure of the 
surrounding country. Farther down the river, between 
the right bank and the base of the Apennines, is a succes- 
sion of marshes and lakes, the largest of which, called Pid 
di Luco, is about 10 miles in circumference; the banks are 
very bold and picturesque, but are considered unwholesome, 
llie waters of the lake have an outlet into the Velino. Near 
this place the two ridges, eastern and westem, which bound 
ihe plain of Rieti, approach near each other, leaving only a 
narrow gorge through which the Velino flows on a rocky 
bed with a rapid declivity until it reaches the edge of the 
terrace, where it falls into the valley of the Nera amidst clouds 
of mist. According to the measurement taken by the engineer 
Brandolini, the whole perpendicular height from the c<lge 
of tho rock to the level of the Ncra below is 143 metres, or 
about 4j5 English feet. The fall however is broken into 
two parts, the first of which is perpendicular, after which 
the water forms a succession of cascades or rapids, until it 
meets the Ncra. A pavilion called * k Specola,' erected by 
Pius VI. on a projecting shelf of rock which overhangs the 
precipice, cum man ds a fine view of the fall and of the valley 
of tho Ncra below. The cascade, called Delia Marmora, 
has been considered by many as the finest in Europe, the 
mass uf water being su|)crior to all the Alpine cascades, 
and the height far superior to the fall of the Rhine at 
Schaffhausen. A rainbow is often seen hovering on the 
mist produced by the spray : 

R I E 

K tnalchltM cataract I 

Horribly boauUtul 1 but «i tbe verj^e. 

Prom Bide to side. beneaUi the ((Uttering mora. 

All irii eUe, amjdct the infbmel tarm. 

(.CAiMtf Hmrotd, cantu It.) 

The best view of the cascade is from the banks of the 
Nera below, about three miles distance ftrom the village of 
Papigno, which is near Terai. (Tournon ; Valery.) The 
name of Marmora has been given to the mountain from 
which the river falls, on account of the abundant incrusta- 
tions, resembling marble, produced by the deposit of the 
waters of the Velino. The inhabitants of the neigh- 
bouring country are said to be subject to the gravel and 
the stone. 

Tne valley of the Velino is said to have been in very re- 
mote times occupied by the Umbri, before that people 
descended from the highlands of the Apennines into the 
valley of the Upper Tiber, which has ever since retained the 
name of Umbria. [Etrurxa.] After the migration of the 
Umbri, another race of mountaineers ft'om the central parts 
of the Apennines about Amiternum, near the sources of 
the' Aternus or Pescara, became possessed of the valley of 
the Velinus ; they were known bv the name of Sabini, 
and they spread from thence into tlie country between the 
Nera, the Anio, and the Tiber, which they occupied almost 
as far as the gates of Rome. [Osci.] The Sabini were a re- 
markable people ; their manners were simple, and their habits 
austere ; they had a reputation for good faith and domestic 
virtue They were rehgious, and even superstitious, and their 
country was famed for omens and prodigies. Prodigies, such 
as monstrous births, showers of stones, £c«are mentioned by 
Livy (XXV. 7; xxvi. 23; xxxvii. 3; Ix. 11; liii. 13) as 
being of frequent occurrence at Reate previous to some 
great event or calamity. The Sabini had adopted a periodi- 
cal system of emigration. As their population increased 
beyond the means which the country afforded, they sent out 
colonies in the spring of the year, and the migration was 
attended with religious ceremonies. The Piceni and Sam> 
nites were colonies of the Sabini, anterior to the foundation 
of Rome. The subsequent history of the Sabini forms part 
of the history of Rome. 

The principal towns of the Sabini were: — Amiternum, 
Testrina, Reate, Cures, Nursia, Eretum, Trebula Suffena. 
Mutusca, and Nomentum; the last was in the lowlands of 
the Sabini, which extended on the side of Rome as far aa 
the conduence of the Anio with the Tiber. 

The name of Sabini has continued to be applied to the 
country of the antient Sabini down to our own limes. Prts* 
vious to Napoleon's occupation of Rome, in 1809, Subinu 
was one of the provinces of the Papal State. After the re- 
storation of 1814, it was styled the Delegation of Rieti, which 
has been since united to that of Spoleto. [Spojuktu b 
Rieti, Provincb op.] 

The plain of Rieti was almost entirely covered with water, 
when the consul M. Curius Dentatus, 240 b.c, made a cut 
through the rock, deepening and widening the outlet fur 
the waters of the Velino, and drained thereby tho fields of 
Reate. The outlet must have existed before, for the waters 
of the valley above could have no other issue, but the natural 
channel was probably not deep enough to prevent the 
country being overflowed, until Dentatus deepened it. The 
people of Interamna, or Terni, oomplained of the damage 
occasioned to their fields by the overflowings of the Nero, 
in consequence of the additional stream thus poured into iL 
The senate sent a consul and ten legates to toe spot to de* 
cide the matter, and Cicero repaired thither to plead for the 
people of Reate. (Ep, ad Atticunh iv. 15.) The result was 
that the cut was maintained. 

Under Tiberius the question was again agitated in the 
senate * this time it was the people of Rome, who, alarmed 
at the inundations of the Tiber, ascribed them to the Vehnus, 
tho Clanis, and other affluents of the Tiber. The Reatini 
made a sensible defence, and the opinion of Piso, who was 
for maintaining things as they were, was adopted. (Tacit., 
Ann,, i. 79.) In more modern times the bed of the Vehno 
j above the fall has repeatedly become obstructed bv cal- 
\ careous deposits, and the river has again overflowed the 
plain ; to remedy which Pope Paul lu. made a new cut, 
and Clement VIII. afterwards restored the old one made 
by Curius. (Angclotti, Descnsione di Rieti.) 

Reate is said to have derivc<l its name from Rhea or C\- 
belo, the antient patroness of the place. Like the rest of 
the Sabini, Reate was an early ana constant ally of Rome. 
and is mentioned by Livy as having, together with Ami- 

R I F 12 RIG 

pOMiag iKroogh ft ample iMireT. He alko aseertained that | often took effect mish filial pnrtnon asaiut the offeen ftnd 
tbe Tvioeitv anil range of a rifle-ball were greater after the in the ranks of the BritHfa fbim. From that time the in- 
had been long m use than they were at first, probably corporation of bodies of riflemen with the armies began to 

take plaee among the nations of Europe, and it is now be- 
come a general practice. In the British aerrice, the 60th. 
formerly called the Royal American regiment, is a rifle corps ; 
and Manninghara's rifle corps appears in the 'Army List' 
for 1801, but this V'^^m*^ in 1803, the 9Sth r^^ment* In 
1816 it was formed into the present rifle^vigade, and placed 
under the command of Sir Darid Dondas, who had before 
been colonel of the 60th legimenL Subsequently to that 
year, a raiment of native riflemen has been raised in 
Ceylon, and a rifle corps of caralrr at the Cape of Good 

When a company or corps of riflemen act with closed 
ranks and files, the manner of performing the exercises 
differs but little from thai which is practised by other troop*. 
of infantry ; the men however are instructed to be careful 
that the rifle do not fall to the ground, as it is easily da- 
maged, and on serrice it may happen tint it cannot be re- 
pau^ or replaced. 

If a ocH-ps of riflemen is detached from a main body of 
troops in order to skirmish with the enemy, one-half ad 
which are in common use. ! Tanres with tniled arms about 100 paces towards the front. 

In the year 1774, Captain Blair proposed the formation of ; when it extends iu files so as to corer the whole body from 
rifled guns of iron to be used as field artillery. Agreeably | which it was detached, whi*.e the other half adrances uTily 
to the old practice, they were to be made hollow in the act ' 50 paces, and remains at close order for the prnpose of Mifv- 
of being cast, and in the same operation the grooves were . porting the former party. On a signal for alarm bciii;; 
to be formed The balls were lo be of lead vitb knobs on given, the skirmi>hen retire quickly through their re<pec- 
them to fit the grooves, and they were to weigh not more ' live intervals in the main body, and' re-form themselves in 
than two pounds. During the late war, the French at- ^ its rear. When a bodv of troops retreaU across a plain, the 
tem^-led to introduce into their service cannon-shot of riflemen on the right and left flanks of each division remain 
m rtl.r^dro-spherical furm, the cylindrical part be:n^ in ^ fronted, while the main body foces to the right-about ai.d 
eofiiart with the char^ of povder, and a o/ lead ' retires; those men then extend themselves so as to cover 
surroouduig the shot near iU middle, so as to render this ^ the retreating troops, whom they follow at the distance of a 
part ra'ber grcra:er than the bore of the gun. The circum- | few paces, keeping off the enemy's flankers at the same lime 
Icrence of the nng, being tcraped down by the edge of the . by their fire. 

muzzle when the shot was forced into the gun, became in | 'On firing at close order, the two right-hand files of each 
CMte contact w.ih the surface of the bjre, and thus no * section step three paces to the front, and the rear-rank 
ds^e wa§ left: bv this contrivance it was expecte*! that • men step to the right of their file-leaders. Each man fires 

•• aeeoont of a diminution of friction consequent upon an 
enlargement of the breadth of the groovet. 

Mr Robins moreover pro\cd by experiment that a rifle- 
ball in its flight presents always 'the same side to the front, 
or rather, that the axis of rotation continues nearlv parallel 
to itself; and to this circumstance he ascribes the devia- 
taoo whidi such m ball experiences when fired with an 
c)eTat:on of the p'eee so that its trajectory becomes greatly 
curved, Lr the axis of rotation not coinciding with the 
direction of the path, the inequality of the air's resistance 
oo difl!erent parts of the bullet is no longer corrected by the 
revolution about that axis. Mr. Robins, in order to remedy 
the cnl, proposed that bullets should be formed like eggs, the 
lotttcr axis to be plaeed in the direction of the axis of the piece, 
and the larger end to be in front ; for then, the centre of gra- 
vity being thrown forward, there will be a tendency of the a^ 
of the bullet, at least in the descending branch of the curve, to 
keep in the direction of the line of flignL The suggestion has 
not however been adopted, and probably such balls would 
not be found to possess any practical advantages over those 

to the d.rt* vA ran^e of the sho». b-jt tlie labour and , companv. Rifle-firing in extended order is performed by 
lime required to kad :he gun were ereat, and ibis circum- | sound of bugle, and the regulation is, that the whole body 
sUoce pro^^LIf prevented the inrenti^n fr^m adopted, j of men should not have their pieces unloaded at the same 
No kii.d of n!le ordnaiK^e has ever been used in i^arfaie, time. For this purpose, on the signal being given, each 
and the sf bencal form has alva}s been found preferable to I man of the firont rank selecU his object and fires ; then, as 
aof o'.Iks" fur sL.4. j socn as each rear-rank man sees hii file-leader put another 

li may be nMrn:.>ned here, that bc!1e!s for common mus- ball in his piece, he fires through the interval between two 
kels. as well as f^ rifle-barrels, are not now cast in their • front-rank men. Afterwards, when the reaf^rank men are 
acloal forms, but are made torn lead »hich has been previ- [ putting other halls into their pieces, they give notice lo 
ciu*ay cast in cylicdncal rods ratl^er greater in diameter . their file-leaders that thev mav fire ; and this is continued, 
than li* mtcvied ball. Each rod is passed between two ; the men either standing' or lying on the ground, till the 
rev'^'v.a^ cj'.^ryitrs, vhose convex surfaces are indented, signal is pi ven to cease. 

a.-.i, bj iLe prcMure, tU jrA bceomes a «eaes of n.drly j On a signal being made to fire advancing, eech rear-rank 
foris^ be^i*: the r>i in th.s itate u pi«ed beiireen two I man moves brisklv six paces before the front rank and fires ; 
$A'^ rev,.T,-.? riljr.'ieri, on wiwsc convex surfa?^ are ' then, after reload'ing. he trails his arms. When the ser 
several crxrej^xid t,z UT2:..> cav.i:i=s, and the pres- | geant of the front rank sees the other rank reloiding, he 
•Nrf* :',*«i re--v<e« i^ \j(=:M to a »-bencai form, the whole | steps forward and nives a signal with his whistle, on winch 
ter^ rA U jk '^ r,z oor -.^-^ ir^ by a th:n portion of , the front-rmnk men pass six paces before the rear-rank and 
lekd »D^re li* £.*=;.*- mt« ,f 'he tills unite; this portnn fire, and so on aliernaiely. If the signal be made to fire 

retreating, the rank which happens to be in front fires and 
then goes twelve paces to the rear of the second rank; there 
each man faces to the front and reloads. As soon as the 
the sergeant on the flank of the second rank sees the first- 
rank men loading, he gives a signal with his whistle, on 
rhich the second rank fires and goes twelve paces to the 

W.-./ aArrwa/d* rtci-val, I'ur b-'.letj are complete. Tne 

ca^»..A« fiC r.5e'i«i j?tj x^*/m. H^ the pressure, a projec- 

U'M f/» l-TTi TmJ aV/at eat-h in the i::anner al»ve men- 

l.^-w^-l. Tfte g**at f re*^u.'c to • the lead is subject 

ws*«. f.t^ 'z ---t^***^ ttwe cy..-.deri. by fcrcin? the par- 

t^ .«• V^*^utr, t .4 v^ ar.y v^r-«.!.e« wh.rh may furm ihem- 

•*"!•% - '1^, rviii •-''.? *^^ ex.: iz pr^/^^f. ar^ pro'wAbly I rear of the former men; andsoonr The ranks thus support 

rt ,.-'• --^ '^*'.j y ;>t vi.: n^.f^f u ..rVm. one another by their fire, till the signal is made to halt. 

R;?L?-MEN i/a..r^ t* 

ivonia, Rigka; in that o 
capital of the government of Livonia, 

, . ^ ^ , ^. . , . J .^ . ._ " titnaled in 4^ dV N. fait, and 24* 12* K. Umg., on the 

In tz^ pr«l -g an r^j wt have seated ^hat  known right bank of the Duna about seven miles above ita entivnee 
rt>r«rT: -,r t^ . r*t -.^e J^. barrel* on Jbe Continent : into the Gulf of Riga. The width of the river and the dis- 
ax -1 .i t^ *. • e Ai VI .: hy v«^c »h:rwt, ttat the duty of . tance of the town from the sea make the port very apacious 
n!Jemeti.#.'.-.>r. ;rt' ^•fj-w.r, It onscompicd by the and secure, ^^ the merchantmen coroe\ip to the quavs. 

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(hat ADD DOB ara L3e^:.jier e-; ^1 L> AOR 

1. Tt-e Bere*-4Ty -sf crc^^i^ a r'ann^ar aaae after the 
f*rv»fa! caiae hts been ^ roc«*i. TV -is to bi^cd a giwn an^le 
M t-.e 5en«nl pr:p>*i:^--:i, of wi eh to draw a line perpen- 
4.r*A\r t/> a gi^^n frcm a ^.'ven pc«nt withm it, is the 
p«rt.^-!ar fa»e. The f«:c*fT^*t c of ihe latter if precUely 
!r.%t of tr^ former: bat the t«o resulta aie obliged to h«> 
oH'a:n«:d m two d.ftinct pr:'vj«,t.«jc»: it voald be riiiltt 
eno *jh Vj make them ca^eA of oce proposition. 

4. 7he hab.:uati>a of the stw'l.'.t to ne^leet the angles 
irrea'er t>tan two n;:ht angles by hia never meeting wiih 
one OJ ffreai. Two lines which end at the nroe point make 
two opering9, one greater and the other leaa than two ri^lit 
ar.^len ; except in the intermediate ca^ when both are equu! 
to two right angles. Now Euclid does not positively reject 
the angle greater than two r:ght angles, nor does he sny 
that of two lines which meet, the angle which thoy makv> 
shall be always taken to be that which is less than two right 
anglcv. Had he bad stich intention, one of his propu$>i- 
I tions would have been positively false, to wit, that in any 
segment of a circle, the angle at the centre is double of (he 
angle of the circumference. Had such been hia intention, 
be would have said, * in everr segment ithirh contains an 
angle lei* than a rifrht angle, the angle at the centre is 
double of thut at the circumference.* It is true that lii$ 
proposiiion is, ' In a circle, the angle at the centre is double 
of the angle at the circumference w/ten they have the mm nr 
circumference for a base :' and some may think that \\\'^ 
words in italics exclude (as in one sense they certainly do) 
the segment which has an angle greater than a riglit 
angle ; since this angle, and its central angle, that namely 
which is less than two right angles, do not stand on the 
Karao circumference as a base. Let this he so, then we throw 
the difficulty on another proposition, the 27th. It is there 
shown' that *in equal circles, the angles which stand upon 
equal circumferences are equal whether they stand at the 
centre or at the circun\ference* If no mention of ansries 
greater than two right angles be intended in the previous 
proposition, then the one beford us is not completely prove«l, 
but only when the an^le at the circutnfbrcnce is less than a 
right angle. At the same time there seems to be, in some f 
the subsequent propositions, proof of a desire to avitid the 
angle greater tnan two right angles, and to sub<li\ilc 
proofs into particular cases in order to avoid the difficulty. 

R I O 


R I O 

CiM or glasses (if two lonses are used). The contact should 
made as perfect as possible by pressure. Fringes may 
bo similarly formed by laying a prism on a plane glass. The 
rings enlarse when seen obliquely, the interval for a given 
colour varymff as the cosine of the angle of incidence. The 
constant co-emcient of this cosine (as compared with per- 

1-f 106u 
pendioular incidences) is —rrz , n bcng the index of 


If homogoneous light of any colour boused, the rinn of 
light then produced are all of that colour, intercepted by 
hands absolutely black. The colours, as given in the above 
table, when the light is white, being the result of super- 
posing the different systems of rings, belong to the rarious 
nomogeneous rays of the prismatic spectrum which consti- 
tute white light 

If we place the glasses between the eye and the source of 
light, so that the rings may be viewed by that portion of it 
which is transmitted, we find, as might be expected, that 
the colours are now complementary to those visible by re- 
flectod light Colours are said to be complementary when 
their mixture produces white light. 

The colours of soap or other liquid bubbles are produced 
in the same way, and at the same thick ness as those in the 
case detailed above. In that caie we had the rarer medium 
between the denser ; here the denser is between the rarer. 
The rings commence at the top of the bubble, because there 
it first grows sufficiently thin. 

The undulatory theory, upon admitting the loss or gain of 
half an undulation in the interference producing these rings, 
gives a satisfactory explanation of all the phenomena of 
coloured rings, but which contains analytical investigations 
of an abstruse nature. 

Rings or fringes, such as those denominated Ckimaldi's 
fringes, are also formed by the interferences attendant on 
the inflexion of light by the edges of opaque bodies, for 
which see Diffractiox. 

RINGS, FAIRY, is a name given to certain spots 
which are observed amongst grass in fields, and which are 
characterised by being more luxuriant than the surrounding 
herlMige. They are of two kinds : either an entire knot of 
grass u more luxuriant than the rest, or the luxuriant grass 
gCDWs in a circle or the segment of a circle around a com- 
paratively barren spot The name of fairy rings was origi- 
nally given to these spots because they were supposed to be 
the places where the little fairies held their nightly revels. 
Recently a better cause has been aasij^ned for their origin. 
They are now known to be those portions of the surface on 
which a species of fungus has grown, which by dying has 
aflbrded nutriment for the grass on the spot; and as the 
fungus grows in this particular place on account of some- 
thing favourable to its development, it continues year after 
year to extend itself beyond the small circular space to 
which it was originally confined ; but as the grass in the 
centre loses the stimulating influence of the decayed fungus, 
this part becomes comparatively barren, and thus the ring 
of luxuriant grass keeps on extending for many years, till 
the earth, no longer affording the circumstances necessary 
to the development of the fungus, it dies. There are several 
species of fungus that produce this effect It was first 
noticed by Dr. Withering as occurring with the Agaricus 
oreadcM ; but the common mushroom {A. campestris\ the 
gigantic puff ball iBoin$la gigantea), and many others may 
be seen in the act of forming these circles. It is very pro- 
biible that most of the Isfge fungi would form these rings 
during their growth, provided the entire surface of the earth 
by which they were surrounded afforded the circumstances 
necessary to their growth. 

RIO DE JANEIRO. [Jankibo.] 

RIOBAMBA. [Ecuador, p. 257.] 

RIOH, a town in France, capital of an arrondissement 
in the department of Puy de Ddme, 225 miles south-south- 
east of iSiris, bv the road through Fontainebleau, Montar- 
gi», NeveiB, and Moulins, and 7 miles norUi of Clermont- 

This town was antientW the chief town of the duchy of 
Auvergne, erected by King Jeao 11. in 1360, in favour 
of his eon the duke of Berri: its prosperity dates f\rom this 

Riom stands on a small elevation in the rich plain of the 
Lims^ne of Aovergne, near the little river Ambene, which 
Hows by the Lschau and the Morgee into the Allier. The 
town it tarrottiided by a boulevanf planted with trees, and 
' * towd thm eottotff, with booiet of nwdeni erection. 

which shut oat the heautifol view from the houlevmid. The 
interior of the town consbts of several streets; the two prin- 
cipal cross each other near the centre: these are wide and 
handsome, but not quite straight ; the other streets are in- 
ferior all are very ill paved with lava and basalt, and some 
are adorned with fountains. The houses are almost uoiver- 
sally built of lava from the ouarries of Volvic, a nnall town 
three or four miles west of Riom : tho dark colour of the 
stone gives to the place a sombre appearance. The prin- 
cipal public buildings are the church of Saint Amable, re- 
markable for its elegant dome ; La Sainte Chapelle, a beau- 
tiful Gothic building ; the court-house (palais), another fine 
Gothic building ; the clock-tower, from the summit of which 
there is a charming prospect of the surrounding country ; 
and the central prison or house of correction, laige. lofty, 
secure, and well ventilated. 

The population of the town in 1831 was 11,992 for the 
town, or 12.379 for the whole commune; in 1836 it was 
11,473 for the commune, showing the serious diminution of 
906 persons in five years. The trade of the place is not 
very considerable: the chief articles of manufacture are 
candles, and preserves of apricots, apples, &c (which, toge- 
ther with the fruits of the neighbourhood, are sent to Paris), 
liver of antimony, some linens and cottons, brandy, and 
leather. The chief articles of trade, bevides the above, are 
com, hemp, coarse linens, walnut-oil« and hempaeed-oil. 
There are four fairs in the year. 

The, importance of Riom is chiefly derived from its tri- 
bunals, the business of which is augmented by the pro- 
pensity of the people of Auvergne to litigation. It has 
a Cour Royale, the jurisdiction of which extends over tlie 
departments of AlUer, Cantal, Haute Loire, and Puy de 
Ddme ; a subordinate court of justice, and a tribunal of 
commerce; together with some fiscal government oflke>. 
There are also a high school, with a cabinet of natural phi- 
losophy ; an hospital, two almshouses, a poorhouae, and a 

The arrondissement of Riom has an area of 885 square 
miles, and is divided into thirteen cantons, or districts, each 
under a justice of the poice : it comprehends 130 com- 
munes. The population in 1831 was 146,495; in 1836, 

RIOT. A riot is a misdemeanour at common law. The 
definition of it given by Hawkins, and which appears to 
have been very generally adopted without much alteration 
by subsequent writers, is ' a tumultuous disturbance of the 
peace by three persons or more, assembling together of their 
own authority, with an intent mutually to assist one another 
against any who shall oppose them in the execution of some 
enterprise of a private nature, and afterwards executing the 
same in a violent and turbulent manner, to the terror of the 
people, whether Uie act intended wereof itself lawful or un- 
lawful* The assembling together therefore in a case where 
the law authorises parties to meet and use force in concert, 
as for the purpose of suppressing rebellion or opposing the 
king*s enemies, or as part of the posse oomitatus, will not 
constitute a riot Neither will a sudden quarrel oocurrini; 
among a number of persons who have met together at a 
fair, or on similar occasions, constitute a rioC But if on 
the occasion of a meeting, lawful in itself, some act of vio- 
lence in disturbanre of the peace is afterwards proposed, 
and executed in concert by those who are assembled, they 
will be guilty of a riot. The enterprise must be of a private 
nature, not necessarily relating to an individual, but stiU 
having in view some minor and special, and not a general 
public object. Thus it may concern the interesta or dis- 
putes either of some one person or of the inhabitants of 
some town or district. The object may be, for instance, to 
redress a grievniu-c ^aid to be suffered by such person, or to 
pull down inclosures on lands where the inhabitants claim 
a right of common. But if the enterprise is for the purpi^<« 
of redressing grievances generally throughout the kingdom, 
or to pull down all inclosures, the offence is not a riot, bnt 
amounts to a levying of war against the king, and the part tcs 
engaged in it are guilty of high treason. 

Hawkins asserts that there must be some circumstance of 
violence either to the person of a man or to his possessions ; 
but it has been otherwise decided by Sir James Mans> 
field, G. J. (2 Camp.^ 3G8). Violence however, if not of actual 
force, yet ir gesture or language, and of such a nature as *o 
cause terror, is a necessary ingredient in the offence of not. 
The lawfulness of the enterprise operates no further than as 
justifying a mitigation of the punishment. It does not m 
any way alter the legal character of the offence. All parties 


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iw Ltie cisan^y^ iziiiMr at 2t. muBBsui'ir or z pa.? 
»j-..«t r »i.-ju*r::ii«: tut x^e^jni^uurat of hfe uiLit m.. • 
H .aD*! Its: ixiamu.fn?c z. eecre: uj.i B MMi idencp v . i. 

tw^ lit MseEQtr It ls*l^t titfCL, ▼Tius: lit *t.-iBliT mliEizurC -> - 

li Hat iiH3iT.:aiK- E.»T»nerdt Tine bii:r. it fivmir Vcri t 

••jriLtwfL froiB H«»liaiiL ipffrt mduced ti aettk n: Spa.-. : ' . 
ii «slu'j lutL e^itfObi'VY c^'jiL naxmlactm. fcA ai Ar 
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am».ietl ijr »ame RccnppenK for nis 
e-v^rrt^fl ibal the sinj^ vf. SpsuL couicl lE^er flaurio* \l z 
luf^L or itsTioi.'s.bit ufiiccr s TK?mic a:;arngc Id the Pr»»:e*: 
far.n. Ac^irdiucW, il Marci*, I'.k Rrpperda qumc: i 
Si't:':ibL •a;iii:a' ai-L resumed 1l H.K.Bnd. fiarm^n;: *.* 
z. lu^ a»r^-jui:' of nit iiii«=sij:*, uf vuich ibe Stalef^ Q.Trc»— 

V Lici Jfc iifcld. aiic w out oure more fjr lladnd, ar-- ; : 
ceev^-L iiiCTi'jt '.D Arar/'ufa. Ti^frrt, fe-xin i^iitsr tsarnxa.^ , 
ii;aot lis i.:»;i:n:*i'Jii, rerpmcr a» a t-'^ii.penaiiii'a f . r x 

I *;>j»iye8 ibe i.;*;ij.L*.meLi .if super :.*.eiideM-ircx>eni'. <f :r.- 
t^.w*.^ V'.'Ij Tuaf J rv*sij xiiaa^uL:;jrtts ax Guai:&:iii:*ra, v.ili a eKis*-e:-- e 
t i.*!'- *L,*- v.'Vk' iiS' j fK'L'-ivu aud eiitnsrre rTiM»- I'l xwiid. Tue fal' jf Al>. : :.., 

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K^ ill iVi-., at a ♦;vK of -^'y.K!^ :ii 

ri**.'d fvr !•» Uji-T- ufc-c*. ur€ of tpur*. 

.W, t! dt *ab true bttfi <2b Rij/ju 

«*•!«, «n to»^' li i» i/L I* 



t<,d *i^u'«», ♦?: It ifr^tttibv fyjUAVji jtb \i'.o'>ij ri:L.-jLifa';tL.res, 
*vi K li i*viA«,'vcf Ufi ihtr bi.r.iit of I lit Ure for iL'ibe of the 
Ai»«; uii«J (j.j.'i».'r «*»-"ii« ctrn'urAib 8j^*j. The yt^aenX maiiU- 
|a<(urc u <'liwrtly fcud'lU; tux-t; il aUo produceb litietiK aud 
lu-iU. 'I'liu iii;>i-k«'t-ii.a«:e lb a fcj>-4<.ioUb bquare, surrounded 
*)j.* My by kU*t\tt Ji»ia ^o<j<i b'^feeb ; in the centre stands an 
t>\h\i>k Vu feel higijf Hiiicb i» t^ui mounted by the arms of 
Jdpon, 11 bu'./U'-horn and a fcpur-rowel This o}>elL&k Mas 
4'U*'U;d by Willium Aulaby ofSltidley, wlio represented the 
boiou/b tor bixly year* in pari lament. Tlie fairs of Ripon 
uif h'Mn iiuiiili r. and arecln<'t]yfor leather, cattle.and cloth. 
ih\ lb*' fc-Milb bide of the iiidrk-et-plac© is the Town-hall, 
biiiil ut I HOI, at I lie fobi of Mrs. Allanson of Studley; itcom- 
|iiiM.» u biiile of looiiu for the roa^ibtrates, as($umbly-rooms, 
and other rotuniodious apurtmentV Four beautiful Ionic 
«olijinim in fiont support a handsome pediment. The 
fciMt'i* of Kipon are neither spacious nor regular, but they 
MfM K4 nerully < lean. The Ure iiavit^alion was brought up 
lo <).•• town by nieanii of b bhort canal in 1767. The fine 
doinuin of Ktu'lh-y is bituaied about three miles from Ripon, 
and includes thu venerable monastic remains of Fountain's 

i Allen's YurhHhirti and White's Hittory and Gazetteer 

UMM'KHIM. JOHN WILLIAM, Baron, afterwards 
lUJ KK OF, a detocemlunl from an antient and honourable 
hjjsimh fsiuily, which had bettled at Groningen during the 
i*:titM\ (httt the Low Oiuntnes were attached to Spain, was 
iorn in that (li»t rid in the latter part of the seventeenth cen- 
luiy. His faihtjr being a Roman Catholic, young Ripperda 
wm» eduittled in the Jubuils*colh»gc at Cologne. After greatly 
dmlingiiiibing bimiielf in the courbc of his education, Ripper- 
da rcliiriied to thu United l»rovince«i, and having soon after 
linlered the Dutch army, nerved during the whole of the war 
of iht« Hu«<fji%i.»n, and ro^o to the rank of colonel. He then 
hittiii.'d the luMrwM of very con«iflerahlo property, in order 
lo ohtHii) wlio'h ho llrtl rcnouncrd the faith of his fathers. 
Aspiiiiig to iiohticiil dt^liintion, ho eaj^crly sought a seat in 
lh«i NltiieiiUuiioinl, and wa« roinrned towards the end oC 
the w«r ai tlepuiy fur hit own pio\ince* In 1715 the States 


'whi'.L nas La^l.eIJe.l I'j R.:T;>erili c»]»r3ed ID lli* an:./ «. 
u*uii the vay ic pi'wer, tUL iic was- afrjri:rr''y entr^f-tt-J. m 
J7;;5, w :b 'be f .nraTu-r. cf a secrei iresiiT vHii ibe ei-^r r. 
To reward L.s serrjce* rr. i\nJl mero&rable tTaDS»c::.«'j. he 
was S'j'ju afer creuied duke, aijd raised to the d-^Dit) of 
gia'.de* of Spain. 

Ou L:s reilm to Madrid. R rperca sras appoic'^ *<?"e- 
tarv cf s^ate :a ibe ] '.are of tie latr^^uis of GnioiJd:. H-»v 
su'cee-ied siuri'j af:er in gjiEing ibecEtircoonfideDce vt 
Phi .p. he V as nlif-ed lo the i»j>\ of pnme mmisicr,^ II $ 
adm.ijiitratioa h'j-werer 'v»af« not of lon^ durali^n. Ubable 
lo fulfil the secret ergacemcnis etlere-l into with the hct>e 
of Austria, or lo acc-^mp ith the vast schemes laid down by 
the treaty of Vienna, such as the recoterr of Gibraltar by 
force of arms, and the seating of the Pretender on the 
throne of England, schemes which the exhausted state of 
the Spanish Treasury and the menacing attitude assumed 
by Great Britain compelled him to reUnquish, Ripperda 
fell into di<igrace with the Spanish monarch. 

On the 25th of May. 1 727, he was arrested at the house of 
Colonel Stanhope, where he had Uken refuge, and was scut 
to the fortress of Segovia, where he remained in close confine- 
ment, until, having eluded the vigilance of his keepers, he 
made his escape, and arrived safely in Lisbon, where he 
embarked for Cork. After spending some time in England, 
he set sail for his native country in 1731, and settled at the 
Hague. Whilst there be became acquainted with an envoy 
from the court of Marocco, of the name of Pcrer, who was a 
Spanish renegado, and who, perceiving the violent hatied 
which Ripperda hereto the Spaniards, and his love of ad- 
venture, induced him to try his fortunes upon the shores of 
Africa. Ripperda accordingly set sail for Tangier, and was» 
well received by the emperor of Marocco (Muley Abdallah). 
who gave him the command of an army destined to repel a 
threatened invasion from Spain. Ripperda wss however 
defeated before Oran, which city fell into the hands of the 
Spaniards in 1732. 

About this time Ripperda is said to hare abandonerl 
the Roman Catholic creed, and to have embraced the 
Mohammedan religion, taking the name of Othm&n Pasha, 
He lived for some time at Marocco, surrounded with all the 
gratifications and luxuries that wealth could supply, and 
then removed to Tetouan, where he remained until his 
death In 1737. 

It is said that some time previous to his death he believed 
himself inspired, and endeavoured to propagate a new reli- 
gion— a mixture of Christian, Jewish, and Mohammedan 
doctrines, which however had no followers. Shortly alVr 
the death of this extraordinary man there appeared at Am- 

R I P 


R I S 

sterdam an account of bis life and adventures, under this 
title : 'La Vie du Due de Ripperda, par M. P. M, B.,* 8vo., 
Amst., 1739. The same work was translated into English, 
by John Campbell, and published as * Meraoiw of the 
Hasha Duke of Ripperda/ London, 1739, 8vo. There is 
alsiia wSpanish translation of it, Madrid, 1748 

RIPPLE-MARK, In geology, the undulations on the sur- 
face of many rocks, which resemble the ridges and hollows 
loft on mud and sand by the small waves of water, are thus 

The progress of geological induction has given an unex- 
pected importance to the study of these undulations ; for it 
IS now certain that the right understanding of their origin is 
a Very necessary element in reasoning on the deposition of 
siratiHed rocks and the displacements of the anticnt bed of 
the sea. 

Tlio formation of small ridges and furrows, under the 
inlluence of water which ripples or undulates in small 
waves, may be conveniently witnessed and studied on the 
shores of comparatively quiet seas, on the margins of lakes, 
ur along the sides and shallow beds of rivers. The * ripple- 
mmk ' thus produced is more or less permanent, according 
to the nature of the sediments on which it is impressed, and 
the circumstances which accompany and succeed the with- 
drawal of the water which formed it. 

J^oose coarse sand easily receives impressions from the 
superfluctuating water, which momentarily change under 
tho varying influences of the waves: muddy sediments are 
less easily moulded, but the forms are less fleeting. It ha^)- 
pens often that on the gradual retreat of the tide from broad 
muddy surfaces like those in the bay of Morecambe, or 
ul.>iig the shores of the Thames, the small rippling waves 
of the ebbing tide leave marks sufficiently durable to allow 
of being indefinitely preserved, if by any gradual operation 
some new sediments were gently overlaid. 

A very small ripple leaves its mark on the subjacent sand 
or mud at only very small depths: larger waves are felt to 
a i;reater depth ; and apparently the depth at which ripple- 
niiiiks are formed may be judged of. within moderate limits 
of error, by the breadths of the ripple-marks. Wherever 
then we find among marine stratified rocks or sediments, of 
whatever date, undoubted ripple-inarks such as shallow 
waters leave, those deposits contain clear proof of their 
having been formed at small depths; and when, as fre- 
qutMUly happens, these are seen to be covered by other 
sodimentg hundreds or thousands of feet in thickness, the 
conclusion is just that in those situations the antient sea- 
shore underwent a great subsidence, or the ocean-level 
experienced a great rise, after the formation of those now 
buried ripple-marks. There has been in those situations a 
change of the level of land or sea. Now we find ripple- 
mar kod strata among the rocks of every geological age. As 
examples, we mention, among strata lower than the moun- 
tain limestone, the fossiliferous rocks (* grauwacke') near 
Kirby Lonsdale, and near Linton in North Devon; in the 
sandstones of the mountain limestone group, under Peny- 
ghent in Yorkshire; in the sandstone of the coal-formation 
at Elhmd in Yorkshire; in the sandstones bf the new red- 
sandstone formation at Storeton near Liverpool; in the 
sandstones of the ooh'lic rocks near Scarborough and near 
Stamford; in the Wealden deposits at Horsted. 

In most cases ripple-mark is found on sandstones or indu- 
rated clays of fine grain and frequent lamination, and it is 
inust distinct on surfaces where a change of deposit happens, 
as where sandstones alternate with thin clay partings. 
Rarely, as in the Storeton quarries, impressions of quad- 
rnpcds accompany the ripple-mark; and it is even thought 
that marks of rain are preserved thereon. 

It is unnecessary to lengthen this notice by pointing out 
the obvious importance of the careful study of a phenome- 
n )n which is frequent among the stratified deposits, and on 
which remarkable generalizations partly, if not principally, 
drpond. By careful attention to the evidence which is left 
on liie surfaces of rocks, we may learn the depth and some 
other circumstances of the water which covered them at 
tlio time of their deposition ; and come to understand how, 
by successive steps or gradual depression, the sea-bed was 
lowered, in relation to the ocean-level, hundreds, or even 
thousands of feet, locally or extensively, so as to allow of 
the successive accumulation of new sediments containing the 
remains of new races of marine animals and land-plants, 
without requiring the aggregation of laminated clays, sands* 
and gravels, at depths beyond the reach of littorid agitation. 

or the profuse abundance of mollusca and polypiaria, in 
regions of the sea where enormous pressure and deficient 
light seem to forbid their very existence. . 

See for a general view of the causes of ripple-mark made 
by water and wind, and examples of the ktler circumstance, 
Mr. Babbage's Ninth Biidgeirater Treatise. Further no- 
tices bearing on the subject will be found in Playfaii's//w/- 
tonian Theory; Ly ell's Principles of Geology^ vol. iv.; and 
De la Beche's Theoretical Researches* 

RI'SCULUS. [P<ECiLOPODA, vol. xviii., p. 302.] 

RISK. In the theory of Probabilities the risk of loss 
or gain means such a fraction of the sum to be k)st or gained 
as expresses the chance of losing or gaining it : thus an even 
chance of losing 40/. is considered as a ^ositive^ loss of one- 
half of 40/., or of 20/. ; and 2 to 1 for gaining 60/. is counted 
as two-thirds of 60/., or 40/. If both these risks were en- 
countered at the same time, the whole transaction would be 
considered as a gain of 40/. — 20/., or 20/., since this is the 
sum which would be netted by every such transaction in 
the long run, and one with another. 

The following is the method of ascertaining the effect of 
the division of risks. Let there be an adventure in which 
the chance of success is p, and that of failure ] —p. Let 
failure produce the loss £« and success the gain £m : then 
p;7i — ( 1 — «) n is the result of every such transaction one 
with another. Let this last be called M ; it is required to 
estimate the probability that in « transactions the average 
effect (gain or loss, according as M is positive or negative) 
shall lie between M + / and M — /. Calculate the square 
root of* divided by 2p (1 —p) ; multiply this square root by /, 
and divide the result by m -I- ?i. Take the table in Mean 
(using it as in Probability, p. 27), let the last result be 
A, then the corresponding B is the probability required. 
[Wager ; Weight of Observations] 

Rl'SSOA, M. de Freminville's name for a genus of 
small testaceous trachelipods (gastropods of Cuvier), founded 
on some small shells observed by the well-known M. Risso 
of Nice, and described by M. Desmarcst in J 814 in the 
* Nouveau Bulletin de la Societ6 Philomathique.* 

Lamarck placed the few species known to him among the 
MelanitP, but without distinction. Delle Chiaje made 
known the animal structure of a Mediterranean species in 
his memoirs on the Invertebraia of the Neapolitan Sea; 
and Philippi recorded its generic characters in his * £nu- 
meratio MoUuscorum Sicilico,' from observations made upon 
two other Mediterranean species. 

Genei'ic Character.-^ Animal with a subtriangular foot, 
truncated anteriorly, pointed posteriorly. Head probosoidi- 
form, with a subulate tentacle on each side, at the external 
base of which the eye is placed on a little convexity; mouih 
prolonged into a short and truncated proboscis. 

Shell elongated, turriculate, sometimes short and sub- 
globular; aperture oval, semilunar, subcanaliculate, having 
the right lip thickened, and nearly always projecting for- 
wards, and arched longitudinally ; operculum horny, closing 
the aperture exactly. 

M. Deshayes acknowledges the difficulty of fixing the 
relations of Rissoa; but, upon a comparison of the charac- 
ters observed by Delle Chiaje and Philippi with those of 
Cerithium, he thinks it evident that Hissoa approaches 
the Melanice as closely as the Cerithia^ and that it may be 
considered as intermediate between those two genera. In 
the last edition of Lamarck, he has placed it between Me^ 
lania and Melanopsis. M. de Blainville had previously 
placed the genus in his family Ellipsostomata, between 
Melania and Phasianella, M. Rang arranged it between 
Melania and Littorina, among the Turbines of De F^russac, 
observing that he does not think that RissoacQ.n be admitted 
as a genus, though it may well hold the rank of a sub- 
genus, in which case it may take its place at the side of the 
Melania?, and near the genus Paludina of De Ferussac. 

M. de Blainville divides the genus into the following 


Turriculated and Ribbed. 
Example, Rissoa acuta, 


Subturriculated and Ribbed. 
Example, Rissoa costata. 


Subturriculated ; perfectly smooth.' 
Example, Rissoa hyalina. 


R I T 


n I T 



Example, Rinfoa cancellata. 

The same divisions are adopted by M. Rang. 

Seven «pt.><;ies only appear to have been known up to the 
tirLe ns.^U) when M. Michaud published, in his illustrated 
Tcercvir. »ixteen new species; and to these are to be added 
tr^e thirteen described and figured by Phiiippi. M. Des- 
u«5et, m his Tables, gives the number of recent species as 
tvcr*tT-ihree, and of fossil (tertiary) twenty-two. of which 
]**i t«o. Rtisoie lactea and coMearella, are recorded as both 
l.'.ii:;^ and fo2>&il (tertiary). In the last edition of Lamarck, 
tr.e Dumber of recent and fossil species published by M. 
JDe^nayes amounts to forty-four; but he states that there 
are other materials for this genus, and that his own col- 
lection alone contains more than eighty species, living and 

I£ Deshayes divides the Rhsote into three groups: in the 
lU he places the subglobular species which approach the 
Turbines and Littorintv {.The Turbiniform) ; in the 2nd, 
those which are elongated, and whose aperture approaches 
lb at of the Melanice {The Melanioids) ; and 3rd, those 
wh'rse semilunar aperture is sub truncated at the base, and 
vh ch are approximated to the Cerithia {The Cerithi- 

^y-3/i/f>f.^The Mediterranean Sea, principally; but 
^-^r,t^\T^, recorded from the coasts of Great Britain and 
rn-*>. %''A fr'/m the East Indian Seas and Senegal. 

\C-- T>. M /.ler r>'7/7irr;>m) seems to be of opinion that 
T\€ --^jr wj^i^ Turf to mtnutiM, and Act eon trifidus of 
7 .'T*>n, v.>.;g 'Ji th.A genus. 

'••' V-- 1 -v, -. ••<•: xiX pA.^^ftn of I^marck, observes 

i* . r t 

^r 11,* f'.tf^ ift'ti ff,,iTA f'»*t»il in the ter- 
"• «' W^^ J;'-.*'* SyWJ.fljy. in his ' Mi- 

( • 

^/ 4' '» it'/ 

•» ^*V« 

• .a V' V **»*'"*^ J"'wr»>j^^i4A from the great 
f ^9 I c ii-M ..•/ ..v.» M.jf* fry > ji«-"-jc*i of this genus 
' ' til' i\ i»t t'v U'< '.'''It bt.*w*j<;n the great oolite 
« . • . ..I W.I - ..».4 I u ^v u». v'*'&^ui*;d, h« u^ldii, that 

* ' .i^.. dN,» . 1.14" tj*« tMiltIut{« (;* t<j»:«l /^{4fr/<7>( including 

• • •»" •'^'' i -"ii« M ?in u*'liirv lurmutiorib is given 
.. r» .>•.... •. li ,.. '»^-^ li^ ivriity-two. The two 
.,.v'.- ' M'.si a.- \jt\i iiMiijr uitd i'jshii '^re BissoiP lactea 
•• • '^ .•^..- Ii t.,« iua* i;<uiion ot Lamarck. /?. /oc/ca 

• ' « v>«-« iiu...|i II tt Iu»m1 Hate; nor do we find 

»u. -..i "'>• '•/^•/<./,/r«^//u.excej.t!n;» under the head of 
' . . *.' .!.'<' wi.t'u It »> Milled that ihi-. species, described 
'• .-> V-"iii«< (.aiiuaid n\i\ie Voyase of the Ahtrolafje, 
-I »*i^. . ie»ejn.)iaiice lo living individua!.* of i?. cnrhlra- 
" " o'lt </VM».,e^ cafir*!/(ita, lai/t'jfa, fjbhmirn, cotlala, 
*"'-*.* ;/uw' u. ;a:'A>'.7<x, and ^rMirwi'Tr. are nil re- 

• ' *»- ^. Lr/.t. ii%n.j5 and i-^.\ (t^rJ.a-^". 'I he nmnU'r of 

• •....■• ^jM.^ u- v»i,Mi are f^..l c:/y. ::V -d i.g the species 

•• *» t-4 u^j.iic uiid /?. cif^iuwrj, ji li.e byiae work, is 


ii« I SON. JOSEPH, a poetical cri'ic and antif|uary of 

(.i. ..^..Mf.-r::ii century, wa» born at Stockton in Durham, 

.«.. b >uji ol lll^ piece> were puMi-he<l there before he cnmo 

l« *-ii*..- in London. He was by profes>ion a conveyancer, 

w;ii, rnarnUTs ir Grab's Inn, but being ap|>ointed deputy 

i.i. I. iMjlifl of the duchy of Lancaster, he did little in his 

|'n^te^M.ln, livmij on the income which his office yielded 

li.iu. and speudinff his lime in hterar>' pursuits, burin:^ 

liiv tweiit) >eat> between 17^2 and 1802, he poured the 

l•e^uU- ol li> Btud»e*. and researches on the public in books 

111 <jiuck su- re».ftit>ii ; )el not !io rapidly that it can be said 

tiia- iticy art cartie^sU executed, or that their contents are 

V'.fh.*--". On the c »r/rar}, he apy»ea^^ to us lf> ha^e been 

i. \ut'\ 'u'u;. le ii»tytiier ' f t>>e i u n.rf fri-lcTiiiir, and to 

II. v« <, n>t v^'x-JT* ro^re Xl.xr, ar.* m-.n v> irTr^d-y'-** a ^yir.t 

,.♦ ,u.. /.:'.«» -*■ •-- -.g , ,r ear.j p^'i. aj^'i ^f cr/wc^: txacl- 

!»• "11 r •'■ : if .- i.r.*. 

l,i'!l.»-' tl •> • ' '« u- ».'. •. ^ -.^ - - ^* 1,*-, i ^ '•> I;*: 

»,■, » i» • n • t.f » . 
%t I 1 i** !•• r •* ' • 

|. «■.,*• L • 1 »■ 111! • 

• • «. • ' 

^ • 


j*.^« V 

1 •• T :«% 

undertook it, as Warton had many and powerful frien-I?, 
who could not bear to see him so roughly handled, e\<". 
though they could not deny that almost every one of Rit^ :. a 
strictures was just. However it must be owned that Kr^<': 
addressed himself to the work in a very unamiahle f ] . ', 
and wrote like a man who was not much accustomed tu tl.j 
intercourse of refined society. The work has become, f-r- 
haps justly, a bye-word when men would speak of mi. 
abuse. In the next year he published some * Remark « • r; 
the Commentators on Shakspere,* which is to be d.^: 
guished ftom a larger work published by him in \7*J-2, » ' • 
titled * Cursory Criticisms on the Edition of Shaker- >■ 
published by Edmund Malone.* In 1783 he also pLb-i^l' 1 
'A Select Collection of English Songs, with an Ui^t<>:.<4.i 
Essay on the Origin and Progress of National Soi.g.* c-f 
whicn a second edition was published by Mr. Park in i -^ i >. 
In 1790 appeared his volume of * Ancient Songs, from the 
time of King Henry III. to the Revolution,' repnntf<I .r. 
1829. This is regarded as one of the most valuable ot I. •> 
works. In 1791 he published ' Pieces of Antient Popi.l^r 
Poetry,' from authentic manuscripts and old printed co| a «: 
in 1793, "The English Anthology,' in three volumes; m 
1794, a ' Collection of Scottish Songs;' and in 17^5, the 
very remarkable poems of a forgotten poet, Minot. <.'i 
events in the reign of Edward III., which have also bit !i 
reprinted. In the same year he published his large c I- 
lection of ballads on the exploits of ' Robin Hood,* ^^Ah 
much prefatory matter, in which he cannot be said to appt. r 
to any great advantage. In 1802 he produced (wo wi riv> 
in this department of literature : the one, 'Antient Engl ->li 
Metrical Romances,' in 3 vols. 8vo.; the other. •Bihi..;- 
graphia Poetica,' a catalogue of English poets of the 
twelfth, thirteenth, fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth 
centuries, with a short account of their writings, a work % try 
imperfect, but to which succeeding writers in this dej *u t- 
ment have been greatly indebted. 

To enumerate however all the works produced by Mr. 
Ritson in his twenty years' literary career would carrj- out 
this article to an unreabunable extent. It may be sufficient 
to add that there are several small works of his under the 
denomination of Garlands, as the 'Bishopric Garland/ 
the 'Yorkshire Garland,' the 'Northumberland Garland.' 
and 'Gammer Gurton's Garland;' and also several trucis 
relating to his profession, and especially to the court viih 
which he was more particularly connected. In 1602 ho 
published 'An Essay on Abstinence from Animal Food as 
a Moral Duty.' 

He died in September, 1803. Since his death several 
tracts have appeared attributed to him, and a collection of 
his correspondence has been published. Some account of 
his life was published by Mr. Hazlewood in 1824. He had 
through life the reputation of a surly critic, which bis attnek 
on Warton gained for him. and he was more shunned than 
courted by nis literary contemporaries. 

RITTENHOUSE, DAVID, was born on the 8th of 
April, 1732, near Germantown in Pennsylvania. Hi> 
father, who was a iiirmer in that province, intended that ho 
should follow the practice of husbandrv, and being appa- 
rently in narrow circumstances, he could give him no oth> r 
education than that which usually falls to the lot of persons 
who arc engu(;cd in such occupations. 

But the elasticity of genius is often superior to the pr^^- 
sure of adverse fortune, and young Rittenhouse, before he 
was seventeen years of age. displayed a taste formechanicai 
and mathematical subjects; without books or instructi>r«. 
he is said to have executed a wooden clock, and. similnrty 
to what is related of Pascal, to have covered the plougii.% 
and fences on his father's form with geometrical iiguros. 
This exhibition of uncommon talent,joined to a convictMu 
on the part of the elder Rittenhouse that the delicacy of h.s 
son's constitution would render him unfit for the labour <.f 
culti\ating the ground, induced the fiither to procure f.r 
the youth the tools of a watch and mathematical instruinei.t 
maker, and to dispense with his services in performing tho 
d..:.cs of the farm. Grateful for this favour, the >ouii4 
.T.ii.i worked dilic;ently with his hands during the day« and 
%t r. i;ht devoted a portion of the time whicn should have 
•-- n pA}««ed in taking repose, to the prosecution of hs 
i .-i^*. H IS success appears to have been extraordinanlv 
T'^^U f"»r his biographers assert that, before the ai^o cf 
T * - 'y, tf was able* to road the * Principia,' and that bo ba I 
- *^-- 7'^d the method of fluxions, without being aw^re i> al 
:.a &«4 been already done by Newton and Leibnifx. He 



R I V 

M h*fJ)$ the tnterwT uti latenl parta of lh« bead, and I 
Ibe «pper pvis of the De<l lod liodT brownuh red, the 
fxntf ratber ligt>t«sL Ttw brownuh r«d of Ibe bark 
pukcs in>el'»ibljr lata a light bTovuiib purple i^ vhich is ' 
tue r<^ur of tl>e iidei and limbi i Ibe belly, the iidea of 
ibe lipi, and tbe cye-lidi, liebt wood-bro«n, «ilh a faint 
Dekh-eobHirrd blub ; tbe binoer part* of the body and [he 
b^llf tretlj freckled vitli imall kpoU of tbe tame hue sa the 
p-ouod colour*, only of darker lints ; balr« oflailand ears 
bbj^k ; pencil) of liain on lipi, &c., f ellowiib brown ; ejea 
a clear orange -coloured brown ; lioof* dark born-colour. 

The tualu and female, at fur s» coloun are concerned, are, 
he ubaerref, nearly alike, but in regard lo lize ihey differ 
materially, tbe male being alwafi considerably larger than 
tbe female. 

Dr. Sniilb, vho gives a most elaborate description of the 
futni of ittG animal, lo which we refer the reader, remarks 
ibai pre^'iooklr to ilie establikhrount of the Dutch colony at 
Ihe Capo of Goixt Hope, Hippopotami existed in abundance 
in all llie larfjer river* of Boulh Abies; but no sooner did 
the culonisls direct their oltention lo bunting; them, than 
their numbers began lo diminish, partly from destruction 
by (Ire-arms, and partly by migration from tbe sctne of 
danger 'Al present,' continues Dr. Smith, 'scarcely one 
exibts in any of the rivers of the Cape Colony, and even but 
very few in streams within a moderate distance of it. On 
the axpHdiiion arriving in laliludes loo remote to be readily 
reached by hunters furnished with flrc-aitns, every larfio 
river was found lo abound in specimens, and in those (be 
animaU appeared, as ihey probably did some two hundred 
vears ago, much nearer to the southern extremity of the 
oonlinent, familiar, eom)>aialively fearless of man, and 
KDiiurdlly prepared to survey with curiosity any intrusion 
upon their haunl). Tu convey some idea of the numbeis in 
which tliey were found in several of the rivers lownrd^ (he 
IropiG of Uaprirorn, it may sullice lo slote that in the course 
of an hour and a half a' few merobere of the expedition 

Sarly killed aeven within ){un-ihot of their encampment. 
cTsral olher individuals vera in the same pool, and miflit 
also have been killed, bad it been dceiralile. One of Ihe 
survivor* was obaerved to make hi* escape to an adjoining 
{HJul, and in aceoraplishing l1i»t be walked with consider- 
able rapidity along the bottom of the tiver, and wiih bis 
back covered with about a foot of water.' 

The hippopotami, ooeording lo Dr. Smith, feed chiefly on 
Itra>«, resorting to situations near tite banks uf rivers which 
supply that food. 'In diiitricls fully inhabited by man,' 
says Dr. Smith, ' they generally pass tbe day in tbe water, 
and seek their nourishment during Ihe uigbt; but in locali- 
ties dilfereiilly circumstanced, they oRen pass a portion of 
the day as well as the night upon dry land. In countries in 
which the nighl-timeconHtiluiesthe only safe period for their 
leaving the walcr, Ihey are generally lo be seen effecting 
their escape from it immediately before dark, or are to be 
heard doing bo soon after tbe day has closed, ond acrard- 
Kan to llie slate of tbs surrounding country; they then 
eiiliet directly commence Tueding, or begin a journey lo- 
wards localtliei where foud may exi^i. When, previous 
to iiigiitfall, Ihey may have been in pools or rivers, ihey 
are gcnerully at onre enabled lo commence feeding on 
reaching the dry land; but when they may have pait-icd ihc 
day in Ihe oea, Ibey require commonly to proceed some dis- 
tance after leaving it, before ibey Snd llie grass wbidi ap- 
pears congenial to their palate. It is not every dotenpiion 
of grass that bippopotaMi seem lo rcli>h; they often P'i'<<t 
over, in search of food, luxuriant green twardi, a I.trh would 
strongly aliiael many oilier animals ulncli feed upon u'ra-.*. 
Betides having a pecol.or rett«b lor Inu gra^^c <'f nruun 
oiiuationa, tbuy appear lo lia\e a pr^'Iilccti^n Uit <.u\i\ri* 
Hipputting lirukhiiuL-l ; (rid owine l.> ILv iaiur 
ihey are ofien lo bii f, .r.d ■aii'Ufin;.' in k«ili'jt m »t,ii?li 
but lillle grask vxi<.',. wl.*Ti t(.»y rn .''.• 1 .:'■. i" a, i'.^. r.'. .4i- 
bourhiHi'l 111 i-real aiiiii'l'i^c. If it ii.:.',,t l..« v.'i.ji.i-i]i:- 
ment uf w Hid. J .'H- «i,>i« i,t '!<■ I. ( .t It j.f.-ji- ,y u.'. 
more ilian i< iii'c«i>«iy l-j ^t. ■, ■/! i-^. t. ■•^,\:'au. .* *■■- 
quiring sullk.-M t,,; i^ .■, »i..-., v^ f  i-. <.* •, -.t- 
wiso^ it ceria.N,. p.. '«, u, (am •-.i- j.y-.,i, -.f •■* , / ,- 
may be neccxarv l;t fiv .•  t ,,:., ,■ ■^■•. -.•.■".■■- -j 
land, ratlKr IhaT, m -i^ it''-. ■,.  / f^,, j -r. j bu-. w 
retire to llic U'.ler ■)■_..: ,-.■ t^ ., ' f, 

Ur.Kinitb ih.'.ii* It ■: li.-. t -,— - ..' ...■ -.^ . .„ ,.. , 
maUpi'.'fer I1j<: yr,.t •/[ i .t-» ■> j, ■. .., ^ ... v-^,.., 
for theitil/'jrf ■,.!.:. g i;^ '.J... i. -„* to. v -y  .. ; (.- 

choice existed, be foand Ibat some iadividBaU wlect«d iV-- 
one, and some the other. Doringa juuraey wbicb be tni-li 
some yeari ago lo Port Natal and the eounlr; beyund >'. !,■• 
hod many opportunities of observing ihe ibotsleps madt.' t > 
them while entering and leaving ibe lea; and on oiiouifj- 
is party opposed unsuccessfully a iMiule with bit 
}oung one on Iheir v^ to the sea. 

The excrement, like that of ibe elephant and rfainorcris, 
is voided, according lo tlie same accurate oburrer, in im- 
mense cylindrical masses; and those which came from tin' 
hippopotamus seemed principally lo consist of comrainui>.-'l 
grasa, apparently but little altered by the process whiih il 
musi have undergone, but in a drier condition iban Ib^i .1. 
which it could have entered the stomacb- 

The disponilioa of ibis huge creature is described by Dr. 
Smith to be peaceable and inoffensive: not that nben li.-; 
animal is wounded, or happens in its excursions on dry lan^! 
to be accompanied by Us young, it does not manifesi m'^^ ii 
ferocity, initanily giving chase, if in any way inlerrupti:;! .:, 
itd course. Tiie mother which bis parly endeavoured lo .:- 
terccpt immedialely became the ai^sailant on discovering ii,<_- 
objecl of ihc party, and she rushed opcn-mouihed on lit 
man nearest to her. ' The displaycf tier enormous moui:.. 
armed wiili formidable tectli, caused the most advancii! i.r 
the humeri lo retreat, aud those in tbe rear to pause. Ti •.• 
tli^lit of the hunters seemed to encourage the animal 11. 
pursuil. and though the direction Ihey took led her, in pur- 
suing ihem, to retire from the sea which she bad Intendi d 
ihe persevered in giving chase, until one of liic 

Immediately after tbewuciri'i 
was inllicled she for an instant stood slill, and then retrea^Li 
wiih precipitation to tbe sea, in which she was afterward- 
shot, having, contrary to the usual custom of ber kiii.L 
maniTested a disinclination lo retire into deep water, a di<^ 
inclination no doubt arising from sensations experience il 
from the wound she had received.' 

Dr. Smith is of opinion that the sapcity of tbe hippuf.^ 
tamus. though doubtless inferior to that of the elejihanl. a 
nevertheless very considerable, and that its memory may 
be considered tenacious, certainly superior lo Ibat of il..' 
rhinoceros, and possibly equal (o that of the clephan'. 
ATler nolicing; its adroitness in guarding against asGailnni'i, 
and in avoiding pils dug to entrap it, the Doctor rerantk'. 
llinl when once ahippopolnmus has been assailed in itsw^iri'n 
dwelling, and has been injured from incaulioutly expiitii.^' 
itself, it will rarely be guilty of the same indiscteiiuu 1 
second time ; and though its haunls may not again be 111'- 
pioached by hunters till aft.rr a long period has elap^. ii 
will survey such approaches, and perform llie mavvnini'- 
necessary for its respiration with a degree of caution, « bi< ii 
clearly showa that il has not forgotten the misfortune W 
which an opposite course has exposed iu 


Knaald lii[>popoUiDui uid Vounf- (i^mu^} 
KJVKRS. (Geology.) [VaU-ey.] 

IKVKKS are Ihe llowing waters, wbicb bring to ihe *«*. 
.n: v.:i.*i.ini.ii Id a lake, the waters which are rollevitd 
<- - ■.) ■•rUm portion of the earth's surface. Tbe coucirT 
F . '.-. .1 i.,;» drained by a river is called its 6 m ■, os ib« 
 '-' r-.w in iliB lowest part of it, and tbe eoonirj raes .11 
. e. rit ■.<ti greaier or tew Weepness, in Ibt ft Awn trf tba 

R I T 



l*r**r**^ adled tbe Flsufiec Ai Faido tbe Ticxno enters ' 
tlie middle Tallflv* d Lerenuiuu in viijcii i* flpwi> tul cTuit 
npjdUT to Gaomicxi, m distiLiioe of atioui Lhaeii nuiefb. tun 
viiliuut forming n.v\ UJak, Ttie 'rblii'3 » ic3» itiat iiti.r z. 
mile ride, Mnd oi^n iLterrujiied in- n»ck& Anuve Gior- , 
nico the riTer eDlea m touuri uamtw, ai ilje uutit?: imn. 
'vliich il fjnns catar&rtfi. and liieD reachfs iLe wiutr valie^ 
colled the Lover Vnue^ of Lexfmima, iii viiiuL 1; liL»i^» 
«*ih a ctimparalivth {:fL.:ie courw iv Lari. Muirri.trt. Tut , 
piealeT Dumber of Uitr rr^ert ^iniu onii.iuiit :i. tut A-:+ ' 
arid Pyrrnet* are nf li'ifr iii:-er diw-rAj'-uiii. Tut i>itt»ai«- 
"•liich occur m tiiest mtJ-vi.iif^'B mav ai hjzut Tvuutit t«^- 
riud Lave been £Jed wi'.h wuiar, and tii» tu«} iis^e bt'^L 
draned o3" b) liie rherfc fartQJif aL oLiie: Jur uit ■wl.U':^ 
bf the nuTjwfe Trhicb u-jVf coi^ufni lue^ lia&iiit v lu. imt 

Id sjxoe ylaoes ihe eifVLted min'iitL^ii-rtTiJii* U'.^'-Lifr 
ixnmt'i^tel} oii joa p.L.ufc lu hurL aist^h Hit- r.' trt ci^Liiji 
be s-jd 10 hare s c^i-dir r.iLrj»t : f .t as^ shjil Bf tiii^ reki^ l 
xhc plain tbeir cLanraffr it fiiUii^^ed ltil liit rt.;ii£ i'ittcl it 
cjn\en©d 111 I 'J « g^t'ti-ie tirt'i-'^. Ti*-t" liit jCL.:i»rjJL^ tj-tr 
I5^u*ii2 from iL»e P;»r.r:> cie MuriMTirut:, i-uc eT..fcr.Tjr lut 
g7c:a p^ajri, flows s-jja^} :iir:'-«L:ijc u. l' u-. ift. . tui Mii 
Gan:%*% afier itu»*;-2 liitr K-:i:-w«.yL. M.iL:.a..ii* ti E^JCi- 
war, HowsaitL grcLi Utiidh ur.turL lue m-iiitTii* luiiOit if 
HllJdu^!an. A . iLe r.vers. VLiiL a**>:'e:iL l-.-n. lut fc.«LL 
ern dtxL^ity of iLc A-'* !:• liir ; .i--:. v :>iiX lut r;t*r ?t 
Iraxer^es are of iLe sLiue ile>a-.; liiii^ ii. m *: c*.j«et 11. v- 
ever the mounts.a-rez*. r:*^ L^e n:*: :i. -iinitfl-Lt di. .si"C 
ujih I he ]<*.a^3S, l-S ire st-pLn-ii'i ir.-Ti. liitu. i} i^l} .ti.i*. 
aiid thai j-oiIjI'L »^f li-e r: -ii*e :if a r «r2- »i.ji^ *i£* ::ir.iiii. 
such a hilly rc:^^ ^ i> r;»Lf J Hit m 31 » c.'.r««t. T:it- r\y cj 
ma<>es rarclv ar:>raa:h :Le bt*- .' :jt rvi-i ip"i*ii. i.iii l 
middle course, bul tk\sc \o ^^ilc i:s;i^::t i:.a: Uj:.ii., »: a* 

fo fojm belweeu ibe h-.^er zr.uiiis » aj ir \i. .". t : ..1 it 

inunda:ijiis of tlie n'v . r b..\e '•.vcrel a. t. a LLna -i.; tr .'5 
alluvial >oiL It is re^a:kai/le i^ai iLe L^-e*; rr.'-iii .f 
the»e valleys occurs, vi:b.)Ui e\c£p: jon, ol iite very ut' t^ C'f 
the rivers, and thai ihe lar.d fej..;.e* 1-:-.*^^ ii,t:L '..aLrai* iiic 
base of tbe higher grouii' la. Ac*coi-i.i,j:.i iLie ^L.i-di.u. u* 
j^coeially cover the luaer iracis^ aLiCL ujtr at stuijtr di^.L^jit 
from the fiver, to the doph of §e\era* Ivei ^i.^x: lut Ui-i tt^ 
are still above the surfactr of the vater. Tue t- .;»» A u-t 
hif^her gruund*i,ahichma3 bt Cv»Lfc.dcxtjd a^ Uit .- e: U.^^^ 
of the nver, liecau^e ibej &x a i.ui 1 to ils> iLi*i.-t •. n*i. l t 
generally gradual, a:jd c^neied a:iii ^♦•jtiLii »l. Tiit Ce- 
rent of the i.Aer ii^tlf i* teLtle. Ti^a ti-i.L^fc, vi*ti. 
Compared a.ih that <.f iLt iii.»u: tL-L-frtrtLiiL ifc Y*-^ -} 

due 10 the id ore gei.tie des»cfiil of xht J } reri.«n, tui 

partly to the form of itb cuurbe. Tu- bcj of ;iie r.t*r 
rarely lie» lU ablrai^bt Kue, bul Ct.iLiULUL..* i.^rms iifi...A, 
wLjrh are n^l acute angles, a*> 1:1 :Le ca-* \>i iLe iiim;l.».l.:i- • 
fctreain-s bul J a\e oiiI\ a;:ii curvji:L.;e, bO 11 lI t-jc r \fr , 
r»iIl^ tliToujh ibe \ajlt.n iii kbei ;»e--.i.:je c.•ur^e- Ti.i> c^*TLi:i- i 
*tan'*e reuacrb ihe C'.»urt»e oi tiie mer much Ic-'zjer LLel 3: | 
a'»'-jd bf, i( It 11 .^t-d III a strt. iihl i^i:, a^d c.»uaeqje-:li • 
d.i .:i.,Hhfh t.*t f*..* ui.d iLc r. ji-. ) of t^fc » ^.r'ti^l. ' J 

Ife J*.:- 

Ladss rf xbft d c BLi iul im. oocnr is 
r:*fs» iif me ITutesd Sialeti. »• tbe 
il*xt7. UDC ivUH3:f-: and Uiei mHrkarra* 
fctogt uf *jjt rr* ert l^um ibe uuuuiaUns or ii^i n^i. =. l 
unr 'j);uii» aiuiir itie cuasi. 'Ktast met ii fiocriif rL 
aiit-^ ".tieie k*cu.*efc ODcur. 

Tut ixnrt^ cuurse uf rrvcr* BBiUi.rt lies ^raD^ » t* - ' 
Ix reuei.. uuert are Bi iiiA2i> aiuuti ertMgnfctf- £iMr . . ' 
mkrx:.L cif i'^ cuurse. aiic cDniienueuiJi ibflre s s& ^ :* ~ - 
^ulie]i *iir;iu£:Laiu'i i: runa Tiit biii* art v«r» lir^r - • 
ui».»vt UH: iiL'-lact uf Uie TPa-ara. aiicl the ie^ ^^-' - ' - 
leiiQt. It' a rreuiesr Cisum'.t. Ttoe rurreux if an-w. ":t 
bt»::ir "^e-i nmLl- TLia n *•»* td«er*ed H LaC^'-ii 
Uii.: ;iie Amuzuiiu IriiiL iijf iuiTi»v ut Oty dot 1& ju i_ 
a Ll^:l.Tl"e uf ri»4i inae&. d^»t* nui ii**. ciLiie ta^v£ it'^\. • 
*i *it HI. re 1!;l.i. [''i: uf ti iiii:b ;»er niii*:- ll caiii hi.: . 
cjii'/e'.eL '.La: arre: a ill. *.. i»mLl. a iuL coL^d jr • 
vi^itTt.. aiiL Ztt iiii curreLi of :ue ATr«^r^^»* JS cjsx&. -:.-' 
j: ru!. . I..' bt asEoti-ied i:)*- ly that tiic c 
nijuf ' u i.TTif- uf iTLier aLuI ibe rrtir l-r-ugi dt-a-z, I 
[L ij G* p-*?H.Lre Ilia: aii»:L it iifi.iPE :; i:ii- *! xt i . . . 
tut sii-t. ^ :ie Ruriai't of lut Eiue a: Ham:>..iig, a:» -: * 
E- At* f-iOL *.iif N jriL Sft, nk wx. mare ihaL fc feet *b.-.c *.. • 
sea. ti'd 'ue ii..l ;»er tl.j* ver» l.Lut euaefsdi* an iI.::^. I. 
t^u^iurt tif :rie tj^u^ iiA-oi-xri- i^-oinL l rr«'«c rcn* j*aijei a. -j r^ • - 
fc.t..* :c i-i. al.LT un;, ai^itx uu r.^tr bat depo&ied d-r.. j :. 
^1 Lii'^ii u.'U*. Tite niLHii [if aiui-L lu* lL^iiljh c. l.''.*:^ :s 
8'f. ihjl j.»o^"j biiiTiC i:i£t:uer, and CLiiiaecueatly lire <-.:- 
-I'l-*. i»i-¥ i.r .: »^ i.E*> 7»^»tr ci»:ii4i. 1: rem^ae a por ,3 
lilt t):.: L^ fr:at :»ijir iuiif. t»iii; u ati^jsk:: uit aetarbel iuj* t.- 
ui 'lit L» .be?. Ti»i» rrfa: cllLTl^e^ tre imc uced il ti-c r .  .; »• 
ijf r-^t^Ti: -I :iit ^£.T)se :if iime Ki . c R.tu*iifc- ^i-netei a ii « .• 
T«i'-ii iL i^ ::* li-at-r ciilj-** uf mt Guiujef *:• »-l £/"> }•. -.s 
ar:. ii!ii 1 .i^ mi :.•» Tt;e rv^ crLani ai liie Trrar He ^.^ 
i-^-iT'fi tut ciifci:r.tsaL)t'i. tuf rrver bad t r.'doeeu 1:1 . ? 
iis*i_ A fcW vtt.'^K. L£t Hit c:>urirf. :«f iijt Gai^res ai» 3l. ..\ 
siT^tTed. Jir^ til* pun»:»ae tif es*.L.:».isi..tig a steam Li'. ....- 
tj:«i^ i:id -: Titt f.»LL- .Ui: ibe p;«i.r« of ibe n^er Li: 1.) ... 
i.ii\ ;>.a!:e Lrr&isd a.^i. ine iza^tt ;^ R.f^:.Ttfr.. Tbe m ?»i r.- 
ii.Lrkt!»ifc f-^T:m«.-i-Tiw». biTFties' 2Ss ii*ax a r.^trr t.t- 

c -.11 

1.1 c ' j:,efc IL' 

oar LiLber ('f £ra&. each of a;:.c2i r» 


* w' 

Hit iitJk. iu:ii4:ii aaii>e brtiiriet re-i..:;eaDd a^ain «1<.- 
a:x iiiiTXi-^e.^fs fricn t«De aa:*i:ier. Tms tbe D^i.u. 
reiiCiitH' lue sea V? ae^^en a'Tns. as tbe Niie ftrmer.v <i :. 
n'^.'j' J..ri£ 1:. ibe i^tiei.: nv^-^^z.'^ tij.»u£:b there are i.- . 
ii. ,» le uiafc 2£ me N.-e. O-^ b«s: m&9s represent il 
r.L.n.ber : f ^ife iDrr-tn* c<f tbe Gkure* as amrasiiDg to Um •: 
lfi.*.t- T* ^ d.T2s.i:ir. ^-f a r.'ff i:-ii sciesrai ann» i> cu.> . 
ij^tTF'xti nbea *be fcof; of the alljvium i» t ..- 
M-tsrei : aud if ve siTT»o?e iLai tbe nier, in its operai: n v. 
cu'.. iir.tiT r.*' bed. li i* is :*s vay a p.ene of rsx'k or f';. r 
iiii." er bi.'jfx UiLi ibe aluv;*! s..^ by selling ajj i.>i 
frij'.r. l:: v»u>ticle ire r-rreit i> 'ivjit-d. and lioa^ o.. l * 
«» les of :t : ibe ft- .:».r^ :ri.r.diLi.n reiDJfVcs st .i la rt 

'.'.« vfULUfr a t^'iji 

t» t .i U'Jt l/f J 

:j>-» tue }*.u»-t aiie't l!i*n 
!»»►.♦*, !• 'U *b» ni.i^'*.! :^'»v.jr T•^^:*■ ut HL-Ufc. i»t;:as3rl 

•.ft»--x'"u* iM^ 1*. • *;a»i": 

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v- v/ ; 

i.'jt 2^»r.«.ja, aLd ti.^ ^ cw^..r>e of Uiae» a nev arm o 

iLe rc»B3trT ^birl: is e:>rj:r?ed by ibe utbs of a ri\«T 
is clI rd its aV.;a. f:^m lie f.ra vf the Greek ici'tr ^, 
pt-ii- ibe ctrlta erf ibe N. 1ft. iba: wb.cb was best kr.j.\:i 
1. 'ue ai. /tiitak. cT^'atlv neaetrre*: bat ibe tcnn is gt::v.- 
nJ I iTtr. r«.--i*e. as n*;*: r.xer uelLas haxe that foiai. It 
1* a '^ C'T lecinre ibai tbe snine vb<cb is now ot'cu- 
t- t-c : 1 :-»e d<:l:a of a r vtt was cr.oe a part of the sea, w 1: h 
vj* I.*c^ 17 b\ tbe di>ns aiii ciniy mailer brought d. \\\\ 
:y ti.i^ i:\tT irjm the m:;::::i..r. us and hilly couutr) 
tir- iHti mxb lis or|«er and ir^ii4e e.-^urse lie. Tliis si;"- 
7'»?'j.- IS t^r.-^rirly >Lrp.-r:e«d ly ibe caiure of the > ..1. 
« •:- e^i£ri.L« Cf..i:si* v.f broi:zhl down by n\crN 
i.:.i a < o: i-wcb as ibe sea ieaxe* beh:Dd when, from ai-y 
« --*, .1 r»-*.res. It ir.ay be a-tJed, that this operation of 
"-*.'* r»e* '3 d-rir;g the inurji::ti:^:i&. for after the valeiA 
i-i'c t.iT. Itrd ihe surface of a ueiia is fjund to be co\ert»tl 
w 1. a T*^ ihm la>cr of mud. which foon becomes dty 
*^^: 1^ T .e dtla> of nxcrs al.uh are annually swollen b\ 
'i * •. w'-.-b fc» the case betwiecn the tropicus are general 1\ 
u J' •. II :e c\•r^.^;ve than ih.>>o wl :ch are formed by rivCi> 
* ' "-t j:,^^ are oci} pivduced by the melting of 

7' I'e B a river of £r$t-rate magnitude which has no 
*' t. f -:h it seems to possess ail those qualilics whuh 
«•*- • *:• *ri to be requ>:te to the formation of such an 
' - *• -*• * rihrt : li* Sl Lawrence in Korth America reacho^ 
^i Ma if a iLJid of bay, which extends upward of Juo 

R I V 


R I V 

art scocfuQy most extensive, is mocb greater, and the inun- 
dations are mucU more extensiTe and attended with more 
nisehicC But i!iU tbey cannot be compar<^ wiih the 
iBundj^ons of those rivers which run from east to west or 
fhuB west to easL In countriee which are drained by such 
liverSh the whole mass of anew is dissolved in a few days, 
especially when a thaw is accompanied by rain, and all tbe 
waters thos produced pass through the principal channel in 
tbe eourse of a wec^ or two. In such rivers the volume of 
water during tbe inundations is three or four times larger 
than it is in tbe mkidle of the summer or the beginning of 
eutoinn, and tbe inundations spread to a great distance, and 
Dreqnentiy cause great loss of property, and sometimes also 
of life, espeeially when tbe winter has been unusually long 
and the falls of snow very heavy. [Niembn.] But the river 
St. Lawrence forma an exoeption here also. As its general 
course is from west to east, one would suppose that a large 
extent of country within ita basin would be annually subject 
lo inundation, but this does not appear to be the caj>e in 
any part of ita course. If any portion of it is swollen by the 
melting of the snow within the basin, the river soon enters 
one of the lakes through which its course lies, and thus 
tbe addition of a comparatively small volume is not suffi- 
cient to raise tbe surface of the lake to any large amount. 
Thus the sanM cause which prevents its filling up the wide 
awiuary, preyents the river from overtlowing the adjacent 

Rivers whose inundations are produced by regular rains 
have tbe greater part of their course either wiihin the tropics 
or al least between 30*" N. lat. and 30° S. lat It is a known 
fiict, that in those regions heavy rain falls daily from three 
to SIX months in . tho year. These heavy rains commence 
when the sun in its progress from one tropic to the other 
approaches tbe senith of a country, and they continue till 
ii has passed a certain distance from it. In the beginning 
of the wet season, as this part of the year is called in those 
eountriei^ the rains are sometitnes so heavy that in the 
eourse of a day the level country is covered with water a foot 
deep. The rivers of coursio StX)n begin to increase in their 
volume of water, and afur some time tliey rise to tlie level 
of tlie banks, and begin ^o run over. These inundations 
generally last from two to four months. They are more re« 
gular thsn those which are produced by tbe melting of the 
snow, ind in general do not exceud a certain height. The 
rural economy of those countries in which they take place, 
is founded on the knowledge of this periodical event, and 
on the certainty that the inundations will fertilise the 
fleldaby depositing on them a fine mud, which enriches the 
soil more than the best manure. Whenever the inundations 
do not rife to the .usual height, which is sometimes the case, 
a great part of tbe country which is not covered with water 
yields little or nothing, and the consequence is dearth and 
iamine. When, on the other hand, the inundations rise 
higher than usual* they are also injurious to rural economy, 
by reaching those tracts which are set apart for the cultiva- 
tion of plants, which cannot boar so much moisture as 
the districts that are regularly- Uouded. Thus, in 1831, 
the river Menam in Siam rose to an extraordinary height : 
tlie inundations reached the large orchards which for 
manv miles in extent cover the more elevated tracts along 
the banks, and afford subsistence to a numerous popula- 
tion. Several kinds of fruit- trees were almost destroyed, 
and for some years the mangustans and duriana were 

All tlie rivers between the tropics which are swollen by 
periodical rains* lie only in one hemisphere, the northern or 
the southern. In the countries through which they flow 
the waters are low and the ground dry during part of the 
year, so as to admit of easy cultivation, and at another season 
tbe fields are fertilised by the inundations. The Amazonas 
alone is an exception. Though the course of this river is 
in the southern hemisphere, its affluents extend far to the 
north and south, into both hemispheres, and probably three- 
Iburths of tbe tropical rains which descend upon South Ame- 
rica find their way to that large river. To this circumstance 
are owing ita immense volume of water and its great depth. 
The Amasonas, properly speaking, is never at its lowest 
level, in the sense in which that term is applied to other 
riven. When the northern rivers cease to bring down the 
supply which is owing to the periodical rains, the southern 
begin to bring their contributions. This fact sdems suffi. 
ciently to explain the immense tracts of alluvial soil which 
•Jttoad along tbe river to a great distance^ but the same 

circumstance also keeps the soil in a state of continual moie- 
ture, and makes it a perpetual swamp. Accordingly we 
find that the banks of that river, which admits of a nic»r«f 
extensive na%*igation than any other river in the world, i e- 
main nearly destitute of agricultural settlements, and axe 
still in possession of savage trihea. 

The riven which drain the countries between 30^ N. lati- 
tude and those in which the mean temperature of the winter 
season does not rise above 30^ are subject to occasional in- 
undations. But these overflowings occur only in tho>e 
rivers whose upper course lies within mountain-ranges 
which are covered with snow for a considerable part of 
the year. In such cases, while tbe snow covers the mo.e 
elevated portion of them oun tain -ranges, a sudden change in 
the weather, which produces a warm wind, brings ^reat 
volumes of vapours, which, falling in abundant ram, soon 
dissolve the snow, and the mountain-streams pour down 
their waters with increased volume and velocity. As soon 
as tbe waters reach a level tract, it is inundated. As these 
inundations often take place unexpectedly, they cause greai 
damage. Thus we find that some valleys in the Ozark 
Mountains, in the United States of America, are almost un- 
inhabitable, owing to the sudden inundations to which tlic 
rivers of that mountain-region are subject. Many nver.4 
however never inundate the adjacent country, unless a heavy 
gale of wind should blow directly up the river, and drive the 
sea into it with great force. Such inundations are \ery 
sudden, and sometimes also extensive, but they are of short 

In adverting to the advantages which a countiy derivos 
from its rivers, we must first observe that the water is ex- 
tensively used for the purposes of domestic economy. It 15 
much purer than that of wells; for, with the exception ot a 
few which are salt or brackish, river water contains only 
earthy particles in suspension, which may easily be si>[>a- 
rated by filtration, and which are deposited as a sediment 
when the water is left to stand for a short time. The ^atcr 
of wells generally contains a small quantity of some miniial 
in chemical combination. The water of rivers is nearly equal 
to rain water for all domestic purposes. Rivers accord in«j^1y 
supply water for tlie consumption of large cities, as in the ra-e 
of the New River [MiDDLETON, Hugh], which supplies a hin^,> 
part of London, and the Schuylkill, which supplies Pbrm- 
delphia. Many rivers also supply abundance of food. TUf* 
upper courses of rivers are generally inhabited by a snuill 
number of species of fish, and tlie whole amount is nur 
greaL But towards their mouths the number both of sptHtcs 
and individuals increases. The importance of a river fishoiy 
may be estimated when we consider the quantity of saltu n 
which is taken in tbe rivers of Britain, or of the beluga nn<l 
sturgeon which are caught in the neighbourhood of Astra- 
khan. Many rivers, which are not adapted to the purpo>fs of 
navigation, are converted into powerful instruments for a^. 
sisling the industry of a country by the moving-power whit ii 
they supply for mills and other heavy machinery. The ad- 
vantage of auc^ a natural moving-power primarily del er- 
mines the seat of manufactures, as was the case in South 
Lancashire, where this a<l vantage is combined with abun- 
dance of coal. The Atlantic Slates of North America arc 
generally provided with, abundance of streams, a circum- 
stance which favours the establishment of manufactures. 

The greatest advantages however which a country derives 
from its rivers are the facilities which they supply fbr c<tii- 
veying the produce of agriculture and of manufacturing in- 
dustry to aistaut parts at a moderate expense. In thii 
respect the rivers maybe compared to the arteries and veli)<^ 
of the human body, which difi'use life and strength throui:h 
all parts. Navigable rivers vivify, maintain, and excite tlie 
efforts of human industry. In many countries, where rua<i< 
are neglected, it is estimated that the transport of goods 1»> 
land is four times as expensive as that by means of na\ i- 
gable rivers, and thus many heavy and bulky commodlt:e^ 
could not be brought to market but for tbe cheap convo - 
ance of rivers. In considering the capacity of a river (o: 
navigation, two circumstances mainlv require notice — how 
far seafaring vessels may ascend, and how far the river is 
navigable for river boats. 

7. Seafaring vessels can ascend many rivers as far as the 
tides extend. Indeed some rivers, as the Amaxonas, may be 
narigated by large vessels to a much greater distance than tlie 
tide ascends, but in others the waters become shallow Ions; bo- 
fore the limit of tide-water is reached. Still high tidt^ 
focilitate the navigation of rivers by large vesseU^not only by 

R I V 


R 1 V 

producing a current .contrary to that of the river, hut also 
by temporarily increasing the depth of water ao that vessels 
can pass over shallows and sandbanks, which at low tides 
are nearly or quite dry. This is frequently the case in 
rivers where the tides rise more thap 12 j6eet. The tides 
in rivers are not of equal duration, as is the case in most 
parts of the sea; hut the ebh tides frequently last twice as 
long as the flowing tides. At Rotterdam th« tides flow for 
about 4 hours and 5 minutes, hut the ebb lasts 7 hours and 
5 J minutes. The Meerwede at Dordrecht flows against the 
current of the river for 3 hou^s and 51 minutesiand with it 
8 liours and 9 minutes. This difference is easily explained, 
>\ben the force of the river current is taken into account. 
The same circumstance explains the difference in the ve- 
locity of the ebbing and flowing tide. Between the North 
Sea and Hamburg, (he flowing tide takes five minutes to run 
w]) a mile, but toe ebb tide performs the same distance 
in less than four minutes. But it is difiicult to explain 
tile well-established fact that the tides advance much far- 
ther into a river than might he expected. When the tide 
at the mouth of a river rises four feet, we might suppose 
t hat it would advance only to such a point in the river, where 
the surface is four feet above the sea, hut it has been ascer- 
tained that it advances farther. It seems that the volume 
of water which is carried up by the tide is pushed onwards 
by the mass behind it, and carried to a greater distance than 
the inclination of the river bed would seem to allow. It 
h:Ls also been observed, that during the flowing of the tide the 
fcurtace of the water in the river presents a somewhat convex 
furm, the water along the banks being a little lower than 
in the middle of the river, and that daring the ebb the con- 
trary takes place. The flowing tide raises the water flom 
below, and thus sooner affects the main body of the river, 
where it has more room to operate, than the water near the 
mari^in. In accordance with this explanation, it is observed 
thai the flowing tide is perceptible in the middle, while it is 
ir,\\\\ ebbing along the banks, and that vessels which are at 
anchor near the banks are turned round before the water 
on the surface of the river near the banks begins to flow 

In a few rivers the tide ascends to a great distance from 
the sea. In the Amazonas it is perceptible in the Narrow 
of Pauxis near Obydos, a distance of nearly 600 miles from 
the mouth of the river, measured along its course. If we 
suppose that the tide in this river advances at the rate at 
wliich it runs in the Elbe between the North Sea and 
Hamburg, namely, nearly a mile in five minutes, the tide 
can only reach the Narrow of Pauxis in 42 hours, or in a 
space of time during which the direction of the tides has 
changed seven times at its mouth. It is therefore evident 
that the current of the Amazonas between the sea and the 
Narrow of Pauxis must, at the same time, in three or four 
diirerent parts of its course, follow the impulse given to it 
by the tide, and run against the stream. We are of opinion 
however that the tide in the Amazonas advances more 
slowly than in the Elbe, owing to the stronger current of 
the Amazonas, and that the number of high tides in the 
Amazonas, between the two above-mentioned points, will 
probably be found to be five or six. Tlie tide rushes into 
boiue rivers with great impetuosity, and produces what is 
called a bore. [Bore.] 

Human ingenuity, even in the lowest state of civilization, 
has perceived the use of rivers as means of conveyance. 
Pel haps all rivers which have water enough to carry the 
smallest boats uf any shape or form are navigated, except 
^vhere the nature of the current opposes insuperable ob- 
stacles. These obstacles consist of cataracts or of rapids. 
W hen the river descends from a rock which rises several 
feet perpendicularly, it rushes down in a broken sheet of 
water, and is said to form a cataract. When the water de- 
scends with great velocity over an inclined plane of rock, 
it is said to form a rapid. A cataract may oe descended 
when it is only a few feet high. Rapids may be ascended 
and descended in most cases with great labour and some 
clanger, when they are not very long, and the bed of the river 
i& free from projecting rocks, which however is rarely the 
case. The ascent of rapids is effected either by poling or by 
dragging the boats over tfie dangerous place by means of 
lon« ropes. Sometimes ropes are also used in the descent, 
as in the Rhine at Laufenburg iu Switzerland. But gene- 
rally either the whole cargo or a part of it must be takers 
out of the boat, and carried a certaio distance by land« 
Such a tract, over which goodi must be carried, is called a 

portage. At long and dangerous rapids the boatii them- 
selves must be carried or dragged over the portages. 

River boats oiffer greatly in shape and construction, being 
always adapted to the nature of each river. Most rivers 
contain numerous shoals, on which the water is very shallow* 
and accordingly flat-bottomed boats are used, like the coal- 
barges in London. Keel-boats can only he used where the 
river has a depth of a few feet, and is free &otu shoals and 
sand-banks. When a river is shallow and rapid, but of con^ 
siderable width, rafts are substituted for boats. Rafts geue* 
rally consist of trees fastened together with ropes or tht 
flexible branches oftrees^or, in watm countries, py creeping 
plants ; goods are placed upon the raft. When these rafts 
with their cargoes have arrived at their place of destinatioUy 
the raft itself is sold» either as timber or iis fire -wood« ac- 
cording to its dimensions and quality ; and the crews return 
by land. When a river is too full of cataracts and rapids tp 
allow either boats or raits to descend, it may still he used 
for floating down timber or fire-wood, The trunks of trees, 
after being deprived of their branches,, arc thrown singly 
into the cui-rent, and towards the xnouth chains are laid 
across the river, above which the trunks collect, and whence 
they are carried to their destination. This is frequently 
done in the rivers of the southern districts of Norway. 

Rivers which traverse a mountala-region in some parts 
of their course, are either not navigable in this. part or only 
in some places. Thus the Amazonas and Ganges, where 
they respectively flow within the ranges of the Andes and 
Himalaya Mountains, are not navigable, but the Rhine and 
the Danube are navigable even within the mountains, ia 
some parts for a considerable distance, llje most extensive 
system of internal navigation is nresented by those rivera 
which have a long course, and woose sources are situated 
at a comparatively small elevation above the sea. The 
Volga is navigable in the whole length of its course, and 
the Mississippi up to the Falls of St. Anthony, a distance 
of about 1800 miles, measured alone the river. Both these 
rivers, as already observed, have the greater part of their 
course between hills of ^imall elevation, and they do not 
traverse a mountain-region. 

The rivers of England supply the means of an extensive 
system of inland navigation, a circumstance C^'^^y ^^^ ^^ 
their small fall, their sources being only^ a few hundred 
feet higher than their mouth, and partly to the abundant 
supply of water from rain, mists, and springs. Accordingly^ 
if two rivulets unite, they generally form asmaU navigable 
river; and such as are not navigable, become useful as 
feeders to canals. The navigation of most of the rivers of 
England has been much improved by artificial means. 

The Thames is navigable for large sea-vessels to Londoi^ 
Bridge, a distance of 45 miles from the Nore, though th^ 
whole course of the river, measured along its windiogSy 
hardlv exceeds 200 miles. No river in the world, perhaps 
the Amazonas excepted, is navigable for vessels of such 
dimensions for one-fourth' of its course* This circumstance 
is not due solely to the height of the tides, which is about 
19 feet at London Bridge, but mainly to the fact that there 
are no sand-banks at its mouth which prevent the access o^ 
large vessels. The river probably bring^s aown sufficient earthy 
matter to form a bar, but owing to the direction of the tide, 
which is kept off from the mouth of the river by the pro- 
jecting coast of Kent between the two Forelands, and there 
being consequently nothing to oppose the current of the 
river at its mouth, the earthv matter is carried farther frooir 
the coast,, and deposited in deep water. 

The advantages hitlierto eniimerated are common tp rivers 
in all parts of the globe, hut there are some countries in 
which the value of rivers i» much increased by the use which 
is made of the water for irrigation. This occurs in those 
countries in which it either does not rain at all, or, in which 
rain occurs only at a certain period of the year, and even thenr 
only for two or three months. The first class oif such coun^* 
tries, for instance the western coast of South Amerioa he<i 
tween d*' and 2S° S. lat., would be uninhabitable butibr the 
rivers which descend from the western decUvity of thq 
Andes, and in their course to the sea have furrowed the 
surface with deep depressions or valleys^ in which agricul* 
ture is carried on with success as far as the water of the 
river can be dispersed over the level part of the valleys by 
small canals. In those warm climates where ihe rains oc- 
cur periodically, though on}.y in two or three months of the 
year, the fields would certamly produce a crop, even without 
irrigation ; but for more than naif the year the soil would 



^^^« ir*- o-iX. -rT . jt^ i^» '*»»/t n Itant ta-»-a Iir^rft 
i^,0^^ tit. • '«>r: 4*:kr ;> t\ .i./;vm#^ iitfl l/.f «<ullr:**nx a 

.« ,rS|#f.«Mt e»./t *^, T ■,« / .'i^". J^n Vtf*I aT** Ilia* slli. 

J5» ir n« . •' 4 « »• .'-*r \ ^ 'e <^. ...■-• r !.*• •• •■•-" : .r. c; 


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JC "'•♦r^ i« »i;»«vr:4 uul L»iM**g 

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Of Mti% 

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^i.*" . ♦",,/ I M.» ..I .•i"^#'rt .r. »r u^u- ,i»» •.r V:"l. "l.l o .fl»» 
Vr • It;.! y0^,»f \*» W \ ril i ir.f^.i.rt \/ .!»? V-i r*** if 1. T^-iT. 

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v\ ,n «« ?'.'»i '.♦.*% «#»%, \"u> -iJif'Si**!!- 


^ "^i.wn f » » #«i% M. (i ivfiv nx^. ''>» AT* in tA i«r»c if vus 

^ntm/^j' \ri t* .M 4i..".'i.'ti»m if ftuiiV*-, t it-v n .«3i »a«c ^ 
^#< #vr-i if ''^m;4t»'' M-x »irr* tft* r-»»r HxtMt Ut £U»» jb.*a 
*»> v»'#ivn<« if vni^tv in»t rin.-im^ -w-tHC 6i O»03-"irli'.i, 
^w*»^-.4 lyt lamA trtii tf «»r * -v iwn*» if 3iac7 ai um /-.^zl* 
'nm /,.,ia :.*t v'.w^ fi-i.;.../ ^*if lA.utr Vu* lanii* if Ex. 
5« rf •t*^»^ n fv**^ ^w^rm n a '-v* '3ft'>r-'st in ttfl ur".t if 'rut 

• 4yv«,^M %/ «.^.«»* •»•'•♦ ir 1 '.X*-, M '^4 'i ..4 -.'* '.-*^ T.r-'ia 
^' ' . 4 •' rt .4 '•;». *vt Ti- ►?,,:* fc .' I.- t.'.i:^«5 cL.4e« : -*t 
#•••»* •/, v.* » .. i v/ » .1:1. ..'i» »%.vr '•j.rr..':a ..'. ra:.-.-\ JL.w 
•* .1^ AH' .* ^.-./^.f-.n !•» •*-,'•> «r,, B,»* - S.'.rr* A.-aitr.ta 

.n •, ^ »»^» ., « ^.,<* -Y ..**-.' ^4 **.«vie 'v,«ir*fi, Tir.-r<t tfu* 
//• . /-./-/v • ». 4 ▼•:»» »'.4 • .^ A -.v)<&>naA "SUA 7 *.* ^r^r.^tt of 

%> M % *, ,i\ '/ •«'Ho' <r»«| r..^ '.vu :r>^ w.^.ia ft-*5in« 
^f • ^ •*r «i»#^.4 '.^r T.* «»n(U». r^m^, %tA %\JA 'hyi r-ime . 
#*.^.». 4 ^4 «A«',' •. ,«»/l V, wi' %r»r.rr, w;ir/i« »6'>fr<« a/e 
f»<- ^ • .'".".i ^,*» H^,^^'.,. Ha 5,r»**../iie u ff ^f^ *ently At 
t4t^i^0i » m «f.,4 /*» 4. ju.'t »t rift*f «a4.l9 b* ^.t^^^^nteti 
$r^ t.^ f,.v «., ur,'4 '/ « */,-.r»Vy pr^vrr^*; ff.#i r.aroe of that 
/ f^p V „<»t, ^,^4 /w,# -K-./Vf^-. a.f 'l*:fVAtrf,ft of lU coune. ' 
4f 'J A */,-»'1 .'^''.^'^ of fr,*j M 4««><» and th« M^v^uri, • 
u^ tffAf ,4 ?»,<» .Af/if fi $rf, Mf,A fM* n.«/I » e/itin#^ of aFKiTe ' 

|l-»'» 4^ A4 ^-."4 fKiO ".A f ."rrt^^ f, jf it 'l/'.*^ fnA, <if.f\(:f:l the I 

«/.^.#«A / f,A III 44 « ;,^. %y ,'* ; *r»/^or.. ar.4 fh.* name of ihc 
tr»tf« ,%4..f /K,^/t f,7*r »4 p*'»4^r»4'<. Iiip, %3krnti oerun in 
•l'. , ., A'^>#>'.^« 44 f/. t»,#r Am4/..f.«« »r,/t Ma/i^ir^, where we 
i/,-1 •!...# M,^ )44« fA. n' or.^'.'l r. /^tr '^h^rye* the rlir':«:tion of 
H4 *^>*f^ u, fA^** 'fr^t ArA«///rM«, w»»/i4*» Darae i« pre^^rred. 
1/1 K tr /.^ •».-* W«,.ri*i .4 )/,tr»//| hv t>i^ Aaf in Hwitzertand, 
•i^»»4 |^..f*»,f, i/j( 7r»4 A^f f4 fh« !»r{(er river ind br»n^i 
4',»o • /'/••f** # . 'i^A^i^f wi'^r. h.|f ft,#., where it u '. 
J', OA-I ,/ t^ *y,*.» r,,,/4 .f^ ^*^KUt\y roiirtr.^ an'l ifi name is 

ft^ 4«f/>f»f f4 a few r.T^f (»4«tri« it h<*Te ariven in rotind 
^ut„f^f^^ hnf ih^y rnutc only b« f^niikUrad at rough ap- 
^fo<tr««*4Kfri4 — or 


A.iia2nna> . 

VAr^.Tu-r. T^iA Til aa : 

-•"^ i!^" •*n. ▼ . ••-u iTi'er Li *- m lie nr* if 
l-.*! ii' la "*»:f=i.a. ui i i" tin u ? mtriM. •■ 

i,'*en ± '.lit "Hi »"? ferr.ii? lti iinmiuus. aar n lae Ei^?;- 
*n. ^"ticv, •▼i:.a -St ifs-itinuly surs mc^wt laii feL.-r . 
uer» L'l tiiaui iiii.xi ::^ «ui% -anerjulT iauu£ Narri. R^- 
ia*li. mil -lliia-T*-:. tamrerw. ir -.le ^uinTiiaiiu 5-:^ • ?• 
3iir*^ T nita. uui '▼na^ ^>ie irangg, '*mnia> sui jcber s<: ^ i- 
■an jia.i'jft '-in"'* n 'Je ro«n iir. '>«JJt3T%T Statk ' 

CrL."isL Tj.p'a it SiZ-ed i'^iaa h. Soul, imii uik Hvn :f ::a: 
lanitf. 'j-fcJLi*. I-«.X3 IF ^ 

flU "V , £X Ji ^ti't.TTunc. X ii'n ^raased ixMot tec c \-s 
w«»c :f Tltiu la ^le nad ii M .ac C<iii&. A w je x- i 
ffr^ iric I'-iiiii. THif w'lj. i:tf «i3i-%raB^ 'oiia fc--« R:- w jie raairC '..incjri a ri3L :3Laui xr^ganed b« ca::i >. 
ft.'Tou 33!f 2*iiJ<; x.ian!7anS3^ lod a ny^ fataea Siiuau^j 
x^cTi a itttes". 

Tijsr« j» latr'iia' sax.ill li^a «" ▼•ITa^ CBiZBd Rit?'.: .n 
tiie ir-.vTnce if V^rina. isiaaani K iius «iacaen catrai:i.e :f 
a 'ie'lje tarvi^ri wi.ea tie Aiicw eom mc fr''^ the T} tm 
majuis xs vav Ji^i t2i» ylaLU if LmifrariT ~ ^.tgli ts on the 
r^'zz bi:ik :f '::ie A'i 2%. aT tixie dbuC af a left; rvi^ calltrd 
ll:n-* Bkuiia. wijTa «i2*C'i» •»cw«eii zbe rrrer ibA the I. ike 
■if GaHa. A hari-'nti^'it batije &:ok piace tf Ri^jli be- 
:w<ea ine Freued 11:1 ieir Buca^orte azd ihie Anstnans under 

lie 1-U-i :f Jiariarf. inr. The 



G-c*»rai Al^r.x:, :a 

WM ie-r^nl '.Tie* riien md ic-Cik«a sv tiae two ann.e<. 

A: la.K G^-«nl >f uijezix cumrrg ar with hr* dirisioQ, car- 

ref£ th** 'ii?. ac-i A^tjlh wa* cc^-ed to Wxe wiih grtut 

M-L-^ca c :'a.-e*i afLer-nriiv ci^ier the eap J«« the 
:..:.> cf I>-ke of R*t :!:- 

RI'ZZIO. ;UAiYSTr%.2T. T:Lx:T^p.4rr.] 

ROACH. Xrrci^crs.T 

ROAD. Ulder tha !r«d it is prrpowd to eiiibr«<^ 
r.aii mx'iL^r.r^ w .ih. a, bnef skeCrh of the iis?ofy of road>, 
rer'-imcg tjc zz. :re de'L^ed 4ta:ii*.ral itiformatioQ to the gct>- 
irn..b;::il artic e§ :n :riL« workman! to Wit and Tc^xpikk 
Tar^Ti for aa e\f lanitxc of the laws respecun^ the for- 
ma.:., a and ma^n'ecacoe of the L^bwajs in this country. 

Tbe .rc^or^nce ai:ajL<^ to roads by tbe great nation^ of 
an*.-) iity is ab^clantly te?t;£ed by h;s:o'ians» though, ex- 
cep: .n :he rase of the Roman rca'ts^ there are few remains 
ex^t.r^. The Carthagir. ans are said to hare beeo the in- 
Ten'.on of paved reads, which were much used by the Romans, 
who were d.^tin^uiihed bT the vast extent ai:d solid con- 
srruc'.ion of their h:ghways, of which several thousand miles 
were made in Italy alone, while erery country which was 
brought under their sway was more or less intersected by 
thefte channels of oommanication. Though formed mainly 
to facilitate military moTements^ the Roman roads were pro- 
ductive of the greatest civil benefits. Beine made by a 
power whose resources were almost unlimited, these militai y 
ro<ad.i were usually laid out in straight lines from one station 
to another, with little regard to natural obstacles, which 
were frequently passed by means of very extensive works, 
as excavations, bridges, and, in some instances, tunnels of 
considerable length. The solidity of their construction was 
fully equal to the boldness of their design ; a fact proved by 
the existence of many that have borne the traffic of near two 
thousand years without material injury. The Roman cii 
gincers were very particular in securing a firm bottom, 
which was done when necessary by ramming the ground 
with small stones, fragments or brick, &c. On this care- 

R O A 


R O A 

fully prepared foundation a pavement of large stones was 
firmly set in cement, the stones bein^ occasionally squared, 
hut more commonly of irregular shapes, though always accu- 
rately fitted to each other. For this purpose many varieties 
of stone were userl* but the preference seems to have been 
given to basalt, where it could be had, it being used in 
niuny situations in which other suitable materials might 
have been procured with less labour and expense. Where 
lar^e blocks could not be conveniently obtained, small stones 
of hard quality were sometimes cemented together with 
lime, forming a kind of concrete, of which masses extending 
to a depth of several feet are still in existence. The strength 
of their pavements is illustrated by a fact, related by a mo- 
dor ii traveller, who states that the substratum of one still in 
use has been so completely washed away by a current of 
>vatcr without the surface being at all disturbed, that a man 
may creep under the road from side to side, and carriages 
])a>s over the pavement as over a bridge. The Roman 
1 oails were generally raised above the ordinary surface of the 
1^ round, and frequently had two carriage tracks separated 
by a raised footpath in the centre. 

In some parts of the continent of Europe, especially in 
Italy, the Roman system of road-making has been imi- 
tated, particularly in city pavements;, but in Britain the 
attempts to follow the Roman model appear to have been 
very limited, and road-making has been very imperfectly 
practised till within a few years. Many of the existing 
hi>;h\vays were originally mere paths or tracks from place to 
place, their course having been determined more by acci- 
dental circumstances than by a due attention to the pro- 
perties of a good road. Thus deviations were made from 
the direct course in order to cross rivers at fordable points, 
and the road was conducted over a hill in preference to a 
more level course round its base, to take advantage of 
natural drainage. As improvements have been introduced 
in the systems of construction and repair, the direction and 
levels haye been frequently left unaltered, to avoid the tem- 
porary inconvenience and expense attending a deviation 
from the established course. The scanty information we 
possess as to the state of the roads in early times indicates 
that it was very bad ; and after the introduction of turnpikes, 
and even down to the commencement of the present cen- 
tury, the greater part of the roads were, owing to injudicious 
modes of construction and repair, in a state very unfit for 

The inefficiency of the system of maintenance by parish 
and statute labour was proved before the passing of the first 
Turnpike Act in 1653; yet the necessity of improvement, 
and the obvious justice of maintaining roads by tne produce 
of tolls, did not lead to the extensive adoption of the turn- 
pike system for about a century after that time. In the 
latter half of the last century turnpike-roads multiplied 
rapidly, and superior principles of construction also made 
some progress. 

During the last forty years the attention of government 
has been repeatedly directed to the importance of this class 
of public works, and the Highland and Holyhead roads, 
formed by Telford and others, have done much in improving 
and extending the science of road-making. The Highland 
roads alluded to were made under the commission of 1803, 
and originated in the military roads formed in consequence 
of the rebellions of 1715 and 1745, which had been found 
vury beneficial to the districts to which they afforded the 
means of access. The roads made and improved under the 
manageroentof theHighland-Road Commissioners extend to 
more than 900 miles, the whole being in a mountainous 
district, but so well laid out that their inclinations are 
always moderate. The works executed in the formation of 
these roads are very extensive, and comprise upwards of 
lluo bridges. The Holyhead road improvements were 
commenced in 1815, and in these Telford and his able as- 
sistants had the opportunity of carrying into effect, under a 
government commission, a plan of road-making suitable to 
a great traffic, on principles generally considered to bo 
nearly perfect The principles on which these important 
works have been executed are verv fully detailed by Sir 
Henry Parnell, in his valuable 'Treatise on Roads,* to 
which work the writer of this article is indebted for much 
of the following information. The name of M^ Adam must 
not be passed over without notice in this place, as his exer- 
tions have done much towards attracting public attention 
to the improvement of roads, even where his peculiar prin- 
ciples bare not been acted upon. 

Though much remains to be accomplished, and the phi- 
losophy of road-making is yet very imperfectly understood 
by a large proportion of those to whom the care of the high- 
ways is committed, it is impossible to compare the past and 
present state of roads without feeliug grateful for their im- 
provement, and observing in how great a degree that im- 
provement has benefited the agricultural, commercial, and 
moral interests of the community. 

Designing a Line qfRoad; Earth-works, ^c, — ^Though 
formerly little attended to, the design of a line of road is 
a subject which requires extensive knowledge and mature 
deliberation. It is often advisable to sun'ey several difierent 
lines, in order to -the selection of that which, on careful 
comparison, appears to have the preponderance of de&iruble 
qualities. To be theoretically perfect, a road should com- 
bine the qualities of straightness and level, and its surface 
should be smooth and hard ; and the best road, practically, 
will be that which makes the best compromise between 
unavoidable deviations from this theoretical perfection. It 
may be observed however that although some writers speak 
of the absolute perfection of each of these qualities as 
essential to the idea of a good road, it may be questioned 
whether it is desirable of any, excepting the first. Of these 
qualifications the two first belong to the design or laying 
out of the line, and the last two to the execution of the road 
and the materials made use of. 

The qualities of straightness and level, or the line qf di- 
rection and line of draught, should be very carefully ad- 
justed to each other. Some remarks on this subject will 
be found in the article Railway, p. 250, which apply 
equally to the laving out of common roads, though the pro- 
portionate retaraation due to a given ascent is very difier- 
ent, owing to the great comparative resistance of a common 
road. Among the circumstances that may authorise a 
deviation from the straight line, are the power of obtaining 
suitable materials for the road, avoiding valuable property 
or difficult ground, and including towns or villages in the 

It seems to be a prevailing opinion with modem engineers, 
that the line of direction has not generally been made as 
subordinate as it should be to the line of draught; and it 
will be well to remember, in laying out a new road, that 
while the effect of gravity must ever remain the same, the 
resistance occasioned by imperfections in the road and car- 
riages will be reduced by every prospective improvement 
in ttieir construction ; thereby increasing the proportionate 
effect of gravity, and making the line of direction still more 
subordinate to that of draught, or, in other words, increasing 
the length of level road that may be traversed with the 
same expenditure of power as would raise the load up n 
given elevation. Curves increase the resistance to the 
motion of carriages, and add to the risk of accident; 
but if slight, they increase the length of the road much 
less than might be supposed. Edge worth, in his ' Essay 
on the Construction of Roads and Carriages,' says, 'A 
road ten miles long, and perfectly straight, can scarcely 
be found anywhere; but if such a road could be fount!, 
and if it were curved, so as to prevent the eye from 
seeing farther than a quarter of a mile of it, in any one 
place, the whole road would not be lengthened more than 
one hundred and fifty yards.' 

The principle explained in p. 250 of the article Railway, 
of so arranging the inclinations on each side of the summit, 
or highest point unavoidably passed over, that there may 
be no unnecessary rise and /all, is equally deserving of at- 
tention in the design of a common road, although it has 
been much neglected. The following statement respecting 
an old road in the Isle of Anglesey, which was altered by 
Telford, shows how very much a road may be improved by 
judicious alterations; not only by shortening the line and 
lowering the summits, but also by diminishing the minor 

Old road 
New road 

Summit aboTe 
high water. 

339 feet 


Total rise 
auit fall. 

3,540 feet 
2,257 „ 

Miles. Yards. 


Difference • 146 feet 1,283 feet 



However desirable a perfect level may be in theory, a 
road with moderate inclinations, as of 1 in 100, is found to 
be preferable in practice, because without such a slope it is 
difficult to get rid of water fiist enough, unless tho road b# 

i ' » 





a -• 

aan ^zrrjt mimstx I'v'ww « n:;f.i»»»rt. ivfvuinr. 
1 »« ' •? rfH/ nnr if* *ri*r*' iirt l#^rr:r •: ai* rt«— T?t hs^ifir- 

1/ w: w**. tri.t..rT- v^; -'.ft -ij* . ::i: iVl. i»r.»*sC « "lit 
•fife** \, <'^« ^••T «;£ f-^ . f;**?! *Sk.\.»0s* a Vj« 

**nii iLiJ'l. ta^aaiTi ixrnij l^uaCi^. 
11. ••£1. iiTT-^jai'iiet. 

1-= :ij1 iiii'st .-lirjirr 
'i**":" rya'jt •'.«!£ lii* ri?i :/ iiuf.rur:i «i 

1 rL i-w «r» tLi t 


>-_t> f 

ft -I . m ^ ^ 

i.'iA, lie rsiiii !*-« l^rr: 

It "»:•**••- Of *.i^ «i"«^: 1; vi.:':i lla j*- 
v??run.'T-t."T t.'^5*r«fi *.:• ^ :••, 1.1 jfm iiaj I* 
•-lie'afSCjC :^ El_t*^:*ri^ tbtt'tirf su^ ll« ^ 
i.'ii Tilt fcirwrs.?^ iir* iKjcc tii*^ :: >t; •icr a. 

vfei l> • 

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Id* 4«»i>o«« 








• • 

e n. ft 

1ft ». p >«« 

2f»0 .. 
172 •. 
I2!> .. 

It sfiouM always be borne in vor.nA ibal the occurrence of 
one Hteup lull on a line of road affects the working of the 
whole Ime, as the number of hor>e» rerjuired for adcen«ling 
it must be ui»ed, although a portion of tbetr power may be 
unemptoyed on the greater part of the road. Tlie inconve- 
nience of a itecp inclination may be diminii>hed by ia)in^ a 
fttono tramway for the use of ascending Tehicles ; a mea- 
sure which has been adopted with success on the Holyhead 
road, where, on a slope of about 1 in 20, the power re<|ui red 
to draw a ton haa been reduced by (his means from 2'J4lbs. 
to 1 32 lbs. 

In arranging the works necessary for obtaining the re- 
quired level, the preference should be given to embank- 
ments ; and, wherever it is practicable, the bed of the road 
should be elevated two feet above the natural level, for the 
sake of efficient drainage. Tunnels are very rarely intro- 
duced on common roads, being very costly, and, when of con- 
siderable length, inconvenient from their darkues^. WheQ 
the ruad is in an excavation, the side- slopes should never 
bo steeper than two horizontal to one vertical, and it is de- 
sirable to have those on the south side three to one ; because;, 
though many materials will stand at steeper inclinations, it 
is essential to the preservation of the ioaa« and the comfort 
of horses travelling upon it, that the sun and air should 
have free access to its surface. Where stone can be rea- 
dily procure<l, the erection of walla at the bottom of the 
slopes gives a neat and finished appearance to the road, and 
pruvents earth, which maybe loosened from the sides, from 
falhnp; into the side channels or drains. The Uigbgata 
Archway road affords an example of the great difficulties 
that occasionally attend a deep excavation, owing to the ac* 
cumulation of water; the remedy for which is described 
horeaficr. Where embankments are required, strong fenc- 
ing \% ci*|MH*ially necessary, to guard agamst the occurrence 
of urrtdonts. Some of the roads formed by Telford are 
conducted serous deep valle>s by bridges or viaducts of great 
intignitudu. in order to maintain the desired level without 
the inconvenience and exi)ense of large darth embank- 

In old road% the bridi»c« erected for the passage of rivers 
•ro fii'<|ucMitly tnaxlc much smaller than is advisable, so that 

• T».M««»C»«I (i»*>rii»«.ui. %li.t)i ita iUif<*iiiutuiQ%»i.t4,rfimoraiii»l«*«aiiM<f 
/«-/» ,h.,, M iiM'MMi'l ,11  ligi.i j.»..ri.,fi, 1,0,1 brMilci nmrUiiiK thr draught at 
•»»»j !•« m itorfiiy ymtA*. fMtiiit* M'lt rti«» (tl»(«nrn run. himI iTif raUt of accll- 
tMr m4»*h*\\j OM •*miy |Mft M Um rvM. k f«U SvKilMlos vf U toflirM la 

roa.1 aj-.::^ 
qu&i.zlT ZA^'jciSkrr. Sizzit vsrki of u^ .siur c 
riiTc ex«c-Uji 3'-^L ac 3 jx:l:3- II tbe *!>;* U a j rt-: : t 
be O'-^T Si.x isri*r« t^r^jclal to a fuL< v*rLi«u ^t- *j a -. ; 
ciaf be f^rLLtd ij b^Ili^ng a wall iLlnj ieet k-^L, U- : 
,uh-y::t c.*t ir,'o ihe r^k. ai.i cjil^^g mio tbe ruck, iv :..<: 
depb cf ten feet on a level w:;s ibe i^p of liie w^i , ; ^ 
iy-iot be:we«i wLl?b ar.d xLe faac uf the pftec.p.ce is £..-..1 
ID w.;h eaxiL or stJLc. Bj tius mos:^ a pi^iktm t«c:<:w 
Cve feet w.-ie is obtsJr.eL Mxiit work» of iL^ c:.4* 
rarter hii-e been executed bj Telf j d a-d otLtr erg i^t^r^^ 
in van./U5 (arts of Sc-.ila:;!, in the Bi^hl^ci ruA^s. jo. i 
tb>«e form.:.g ihe c--Cinscii:caL;n beimex^a EuLcbur^L u: ii 
London: a;.d others, the bclir.e»s cf vhx:hc<4nmai.ds l.>.- 
versal ^dru.rati.n, crcur in the great mooala^n-; a>>c^ if 
the SicDpjn and Muiit Ce:i.s, form iffip«rrk»lijlie 
monuments of the talent az;d er.ere> «>f the engineers ul 
Nap le^n, by whosi they were execuU^d. 

When the works are ccmjleied to ihe proper le^el fc-r 
receiving the hard maleriaU thai form the surface uf ti.e 
road, the earth should be farmed icto the intended wui h 
and a nearly level surface, the f<x>ipath or paths bc.:.^ 
elevated a few iuches above the bed of lite camage-wav. 
Thirty feet is the ordinar}* width vf the carriage- w a>. e\- 
elusive of footpaths, of the Holyhead road ; but owing to tLo 
diminution of traffic Stuce the opeumg of the London and 
Birmingham railway, a recent Report suggested the pruprie;? 
of reducing the width, in most places, to twenty-four or 
twenty- five feet. This width may be more or leas exoteiit^ 
in the vicinity of large towns, according to the amount of 
traffic, but should be exactly adhered to in other situations, 
as uniformity in this particular greatly improves the ap- 
pearance of a road, and also contributes to economy, both 
as to the land and materials, and the cost of maintenance. 
Some engineers recommend that the bed should be ma>ie 
convex, in the same degree as the finished surface of iho 
road ; but it is quite flat in the Holyhead road, by winch 
means a greater depth of materials is allowed in the centre 
than at the sides of the road. Much has been said on tito 
subiect of the best form for the transverse section uf a 
road. Formerly it was common to make it ^i^ry convex, 
often to a degree that was highly dangerous, with the idea 
of throwing off water ; but this notion is very &lUcious, 
because if a road be allowed to wear into ruts, no decree 
of convexity that can be given is sufficient to keep 
it dry ; while, if the surface be good, a very moderate slope 
is sufficient to carry off water, and a steep inclination «U1 
cause it to run with such velocity as to wear away the 
road materials. Another disadvantage oC too great an in- 
clination is, that, by throwing the weight ef a earriage on 
one side, the vehicle itself is injured, and the overloaded 
wheels cut up the road more than necessary. Some have 
gone BO far in opposition to this practice as to advocate per- 
fectly flat or even concave roads, in favour of both of 
which much may be said ; but the general practice of mo- 
dern road makers is to make the surface alightly convex. 
In Telford's roads the convexity it elUplieal» the iaU being 
half an inch at four feet from the centre, two inches at nine 




HAoJ tibnated wit^ iron, viih nmneroiis nh>niwik or gr&ofve^ ] unong tbe best of tbe siooes no' 

ftl4>mnf* ahout three mobos from tbe centre to Uie sides ; 
th<«M> chunnfiifr «an'ing Itir the siimes to lie uid iasteji in, 
atul r4^nduciin|; ui\ w&uir that mi|;ht peirooUt« throQ|:b them 
ihUi tht> «idr dmin». Tbti« ineaiuiro, cainbined wah cs eitr*- 
ordiium nxuint uf drainage anjountini; in the vho)e to a 
Icn^^th of t^.9ii.> yanisk. proved «o rompiote a rerordy, that 
11. the fir»i winter uUcr tiie coiocnt was laid, coaches were 
ahli> lo po up H ith four horses at a trot with tl»e heaviest 
liuuU. thnitf*h hcKire the improvement sot homes had \ 
xniMinitul wah diflirulr^ at a waikmir pare. The effect of 
thr u]t4>ruU«in on the wcur of ihc roud was equally «ati&fiir> 
tiirv, ttmr inches of qimnz licini; worn away on the old 
hrttiom wluli>oiit\ halt an inch uf the ssame stone was worn 
wtioic laul on thf ocmriit foundation. The cx]>en8e of la}"- 
nu. ilu rx^mriit rnmnosmum, incUiding the fornuiLuin of the 
\uH, ot Uu- roail, wa^ aOout ten shilimL'^ per lineal yard, part 
o! thr j;r.ivcl u»ei\ licinj; old. Macncill estimated the cost 
at trom iwitivr u> Afieon ^illingii per yard if new gravel 
Wi'pj purrhai«»d. 

Till- cfiis**! of a paved or concrete foundation in dimi- 
Dtiklimi: titr dmiurht appears, from the suhjianed state- 
mi lu, founded on expcnnients with Mr. Maciieill's road 
iti«iiruiioi. u* tw vcr\ {^rcai : but a more extensive 8erie$ of 
t^a)^ »^ desirabu- Uu a ct)nipanson of difftrreni $:y;;teiiis under 
Tanou> orcumiitanccs Tiu- drautrht of a wags^uii wei^huig 
«. r\%L. wa> louuu tt) bt at. (oUoW'sv.-— 

vh a wrli-maxlt pnvcmcm , « , , 

ill. 1. ra'iil Willi &i\ mches of bard hcukexi stone 
oi u roiu:ii p«ivemimi , , . • 

I ti.i4 suuiUi' roau, wiu.a foundation of Roman 
ppnion; an*. ijTjive, iii iu»L of nnvcment 

C)i L liiAL. ^iU> a tiiuik rumtUi^ ol brakon sti»ne 
^\^: ourU. ..,.,, 

vh i< uiad Will, a Uuuk c^uitin^ of ^avol on 

53 lbs. 



schistBS stones will nake smooih roads^ bcinjr of a » ^ 

and ai^illaoeous structure, but are rapid jj riatrcwrni . 
wet, bj the pressure of vbeelss and oecasioB fireal ci.t-: - 
in scraping and constantly laying on new eeaun^s. L. 
stone is defective in the sane respecL It vcais r^. 

away when wet, and thereibre, when tbe U^fic is wery ^ 
it is an expensive material. Sandstone is BBcb t.^. r 
for the surface of a road ; it will never makeahani <;•: :. _ . 
It is vesy well adapted to tbe porpase of a fosBdaixuc r . 
ment. Flints vary very mnch in quality as a road c 2 -. 
The hardest of them are nearly as good as the i>es>t . 
stfioe, but tbe softer kinds are quickly cni^ied t>> 
wlieels of carriages, and laake heavy azMi dirty ! • • 
Gravel, when it consists of the pebbles of tbe hard Si^r > 
stones, IS a good malenal, particularly when tbe pr 
aie so large a& to admit of their bemg broken ; bi^: & r • 
it consii»ts of limeiktoDe, sandstone, or flmt, k is a tc . 
bad one; for it woan so rapidly that tbe crust 0/ a r 
made with it always consists of a large portioD of 1. - 
eartiiy matter to which it as rediioed. This pcvrents 1. 
gra\'^ from becoming consolidated* and mi Am a r - 
made wiih it extremely defective wnlh respect to xlh 
perfect hardness which it onght to ba%«.* Mr. Ste«er.« n 
in tbe article 'Road' xa tbe * Edinburgh Eocyck-pcIV 
states the distribution of road materials in tlfee Br.:.) 1 
h»lands to be partial and irre^uhir. * Througbout S<x«.nr a. 
and even as far 8c>uih as the approaching aotirnes v( \ .t. 
nvers Tees and Ribble, good road-metal is fjenerai.) l> 
be met With, containing the numerous varieues of ^ritnic, 
in^eenstone. basalt, porphyry, and limestane. South of t!..> 
b^iundan, as far as the Trent and tbe Dee in Cbe»bire^ : . i 
fitrmatKiQ is chiefly coal, sandstone, and the softer varK;.»-$ 
of limestone. In the Situibem couXiUes rhalk and i:ra\t] 
still*, chiffly occur, affording Ihnt and grav^ both of u ;;;. * , 
uriuHT proper man Element, make excehent roads. ]:• 

Tlv Uu fiirnuiiioi. nf liic p;:vcmt'n; of a nieluilfd rnjid. | North aiid SolUi Waies we have all the varieties of ro«- 

luf^ai wiiich are common to Scotland. In irelaiid ti 

tia(*e excellent road maicnals, as gzanite and 
prciti gt'nt'ri.ii\ di>iributed.' 


i«e a*c 

ainvt^: am tiurc skuic uui; nin^ tie (>a>i^« d^ntst^i wiih Uu- 

lwmnii?T ma\ he uyani. Tin iiiiinc* shoi.iil he toieriih \ 

rei'uU" II »uc. and i.»iu 11. ro^> wiLfc ti»t»n broudt^t fare 

u»*inuAT4iv Uu- iiai*rs*;»r«s tUMiip careru.iv fi.ird up *.Ui I An iti:rrc>ung cxtteriment has h<«n iritidon a part of '.lie 

*:.inf«riuniv.n^ «c^ ««. u nin iiw wa.iit pl:^vmell^ tnxrcihor, ] Hit.vtioad rnad ivtw«!n London and Birmingham, as i.» 

SLt.K t•ft:•.'*l*iu»I^ proMMT 'Ut cur.l. f^on) workiiiC up iiirrmch | tbe<'fit»rz of iron amonp.; the road meuu in CtmoiisLing ihf 

ijji 1, iOLs. li. oiu o: Tt»iii:u> ji}M»4'iiicuiioiis tt>r ihe Hoi*- j wear of th<* ntad. Thfc ir^m i» cjtsi m ;!«■ form of cur*fN 

mui Ttwui tilt uimt«ii!iian»o: iiif >iones tor a pavcmciit U\ir:\ about an inch square., and ahen the road was Ok.'ii>Oi.«ij:t*l. 

it*f>\ w;.it aiY r'veu as«**voi inrtic* lin^y in the roidiiic of } boics large enoiu:h to iw«.ve ihem weie jur^fd m lU sui- 

iit: T.»<iu fi*t in 'lift- a: nmt it'4»: from the wniirr^ loui«> , face, A i^.niu cube was int'n piaccd in each huue, *o as \i 

a< iwi ivt ten;, aiu. Uirec mctio> a; liJuvi, l«»pi. Uic siitncs lo ; be hn'cl *iih the roa^ and inc*. sUi:ie-<-nips wer* b. ..: 

t». lau. ieni7t!iwi<rf arr«M^ tiu road. nn<l the unncT eturt in no dt'Wn about ;bc iron Wiih a maiieu One of tneae iron ci.\4 

ciHj ii' c\pirt»i. loUT mriifs tvuic Ali irn'4.i.uirii»ei arc t«' is placi'd in cx'eri four lnfile^uf surfar'c. Tbe\ \trw sl- 11 

Ik bi-i>«k.ct of! h\ Uu li.ininioT. and ;lu siniic-ciii)i> u-s<*d in Wc'oioe firniN imtK^ancd. so as n«k; u* lie di^uiiwii bv tiic 

T»a^'iki:u: ifti loini!' an^ iii^^rie< to lie Wiwi^oo in t«) bund w . ro' of caiTiages or the fe<«t of me boi^aes; aod to u^.^t 

w.u J;.n: iianimt^rs. No ruminiii^ fcv in»m'?isi»r* , and it is their consoiKlMutn, it i> rcvMUiini'ndiui u waier iLe loa'l 

ti:*^:raon u ntt'viMi; ca'i* V liuti an uswtd in lUc convex unc<» 

;itt roai. inau*ruit> troti. tuniur Urowr. upon tiic paveuicnt 

li. • Tt I te- co^t»rrl. Wilt, huikci stoni:. 

s. un TCkjiLi m.«kGtv usu i. p.i\rnuu»; cvon or a subsstraTuro 
<i«k.. iMten 1. t> u)u^vri«. itii* in tuam cjtAo it is unnc- 
a.iit ui^rtk r tm >u7ture tv smoiut*. 1: >)uuiid iu' 

m.\^ u i .itxjrts a: Tv»ujhMcsto' smniu: tr that of a ptve- 
. u « *ii.-: Lt^: tin i<»Ai. mau«-tui> m;«\ i>4a iiii4lc unon 
1. V itcrt nnT.:K ::*» v»i\ *u wm;t. o; a t«ui. m^rht he toe 
•LT'f :>»'v^ ijr 'v'MTneii t -^^unt* limes' linntcr: }( awij'»h a! 
t >sei- J- 1-r-uz.u i-e., 11 »itt oeijiti. li. ?»t:uaJi*»ns wb*»rc 
t.i^'^ 4- :r .J si-;"»*.u nua*;*^ r«ii tu raHi'v n**, it i> 
: _ ; •* • — itu'^• t. n^.ki i ^rttaa. ai.t s.v tnrhr> *»: tv'-oki^ri 

* T •. ^ . iw«>.2tr;*« .;.^ W';t U'l. iiu'tu^ »KM»J. /i'~ b**.»krn 

& r « I-^ .-* '•- .Tit ^' ^ .11**0 "vC SU-^^*^0: l*'. .Ill R*i.ll 

* ^ fe S-  :2- tiL is«» n t')rs^t.»rtf t»'t>».tf c}tt4.k U'^X 

. . i. i-i : .«...>^:. 4 'Ik T. nv»i»' a* n*viu u^ * 

T J- -^.*— a. .*. r^o fc.n'i.w*..:v.»i a *l%( r»^«. mc'a^ o: 

r ••. -. <fc: Ti ^i.*zi t .•TS* i:w "<4. :-i"» a: iht r*ta«'«. iv Ai^'ru^a* 

:: -:.»• •^. iv. * .:• t\ 'U ''i tf tbe bu%«o< 'uNvtr ^^ tc Iv 

.. ' • » 'i^ w J* *». M i. :.• s o' s<»iiv 4 ».:.. !♦»•> »«vn. 5Anv 

- " :*--  :* ». -^ T »*.n«» ti' v»'u* n'*',"!. n>o"r "T*nN, ^ 

k>-^■•« »i."x 

{i\*v'\ . if 'Jif cui»fas arc ins<-.; leL u. ary nt-aUitr, liie iron >» a> 
k)»ii:icJ in March. *s.%:\,Mnoe whu^ti time Uie fton.on uf fvaJ 
in Which \Uc\ are used has c*»rj*.*Lued in exccljent rv|af. 
and the a-ca: W' so mkieria*i*^ni<ii, tiiat m in><r^' tv- 
hJidrd tria* of the pian ai.oears iiur».% dt^iralj^e, Mr. 
M acne ill, liic naK-nteit of this mcib«.ia kd road-makiDg, t. n- 
sirtoT* It pi4r:jcuJar:t aT»p'.irk:>j< i£« streets, on aeouuLil iif iia 
durab.'t.rx.and thu.ks u^at Uic expense aoi^>d be tiiti.i.i;. a«> 
iron 0: the woi'st qua;;r% ma^ kie U3*fd. It may be observed 
that :hc draught or. :tic piece of rose on which ibe exptn- 
mcnt is niM.te is vor% oasv, una uiai biirses ^ But siiow 
U1A icnd*»i'c\ Uy sUv unon it. 

11. the cb*"»uv A* maK*:-iuhv. the cvpcnsc ;»f conveying tht-ni 

Tc ".hi\ rr.«5.l be takoh ii.ui C4»n>io<»ri-li»>i*, but it is oUOii 

K'ttor oc4»non.x to KicJ> pA**^ «^ione man a gr^mt dt&s^r.oe 

^ .h^r. 1^ u!«4> ij>a; wh»cti is Jcs* duralut;. ir>i*ui:h read.l) prv»- 

I Oh "^v^ . ax »r. ad^Vhor. ic- Jlvc cvocnst of frequent re{kairs to 

, a r«»aa fi.;*n><v^ %.A, weak mvteruit^ c^eat aoc«ti«>&ai iaL»our 

IX urivwtv. i<iv%n ;hf b*cseN. ahvl. hav< ic voard.?mii ref«eakd 

,\»j«rx 4ki t;«o>.h >hin<x« Thi* is uth <*i ;)»c p.>jits in whiili 

jJu »n*\!v»:MMhVHj;4. i^n.i i^hAi *»: r,»a*l su.-^&'^vtr^ La\e * f.trt 

Kvr. <j >nii,x.»«a. casov tn;\ n.i ac*-***: •<»<; ih ai.»tii an ii.fcr.vr 

n>j.'«»;ift, h«.> Kv^fi p-ivn.^Ai t-.»ir a <4:>LLnc^ at great c^-st, 

^ ).«V >toiK a; iVAi'.kM.^ ^.^tuiii.s Okistti**! ill at»A«n4^aiice on U.c 

\\ h ?^l^v*^.V. fc :hf K^: «i.« of tb# br.tkea Mone f.«r 
%K *.. imv «• K r,vjin, b,^ \. I0 r.»-i. unt K^" Adam d reel that 
f». n^^vN vKmiU. 4'V.vvN. >.\ A 4^i^h« 4m:2iccs •;< «>eu:ht. lu 
. >t»iiH <i»v, ^'t^ ihe |54|-Vl^4\J?. ha* 4 i«M*n msun^AcM to test 

R O A 


R O A 

.- u. M., <:.^.>^-l.llMm. m the * Eainbu^^'U Eacyclopadia,' I htmiontal wdU. In some insUneei tbe Wocka of * 
- u.:u... L. .1.C i.e ii ^uiiUiur Clones, a* being cneaper and used are of considerable depth; but they are oft^n ' 

.:» .1. .t: J ..fiuTv Hum viLmtioQ LUan laone of the usual " ' 

— -V 7 .If i^ retummended bv him are fourteen 

and, being of large dimensions, have more the charuL i . : 
Hag-stones than of ordinary paving-blocks AtNapW-s . 

- .:s -et:, i^r.terru luciiea v^ide at the baae, twelve inches I Florence, stones two feet square and six inches il.irfe. 
i . .e !.: »-ii .. n, u.iijiix ui nine int-bes U)ng. The increased , diagonally across tbe road, and neatly set in Pozzolario 

a "^iii?v ^f: .u-e*i .a thii numerous joinu miirht probably 
.i»i-.-"->aiu^.cu any aavancage gained by the adoption of 

— • jr'--tit -wiv'njj ,if power effected by tbe use of tram- 
s^'iv- ,i rai.-iarv irarraces m shown by numerous experi- 
-.t-t*'-*. *ctm» .>t -wnicn, 'n<»d on the gmnke tracks of the 

* ««iM.»n'.^i /l...i«i .11 L«»iidun. pn^vcfliljat a well-made wag- 
"•• • .1 Txii'vun nrrea*ini^ v«iority, by the force of gravity 
•' .!•» ^^•«■^ I n«>nn Hlorw of I m lo5. On this road a 
.»u ,,»,! »'»^^.:n VMikjtim^ t«n tons has l>een drawn uith ap- 
-»*-"t' ••:;••» »r > <.iii,:« wir-**^, up ?wi aj«cent of I in 274, for 

• - *\,*'9' I' .«.r.i»x "CO miu»^. ()n an iron tramway laid in 
.»• ',.► «* fit \ut\ '^Ade '^anal ci>mparw at Fort Dun- 

• •<• x-tr < *>-t«tfr,w % nnr4«i na4 t^ ken a toad of three tons 
n . -ir* .'«.• r: .r f »iin«» rwt., 115 an arcuvity of 1 in 15, 

' • 'r. . » Mu.' "'^ ho 'uwx'A nof. prorf'cd with it on a 

•.r«<(.««.ii ■'4f.ii«''3»')iv • 111 \\\ er^iM^f \\\\e of drau^chf ; and the 
^r' -^ », i» t..*x J.*» inr4«»4 'a.«« nn thrfte tons on the iron 

. -**»i -■ -»« -iit^v -i./t •%»*»n?y <l>ur cwt. on the com- 

»fi '\\0K '•iimnartfire durabditv of dif- 

r* » .r#. '. r r»m'»\y4 und for paring generally, 

t^n^m ^i J*— fn«nr4 An bior.k* laid m a toll 

*•  >.«iM»rr/» nj fC^nd tnmwFayr^ the results of 

. */.v.. fftt %t\.^*9-^ - '|*'%«^ h'«»*»k« wf»rft (:ip;hteen inches 

r •^^ ••*• «*•*•> II. fi W'tit. iai/^t rtown iri Marrh, 1830; 

1.^ /.wt« ^.'-^i* n • .m f^tot**. w»4 ajvertainfvj after they 

^9^, f% .«#- •►••«T.»?«*^n mon«h<, m Ao^u^t, IH31'— 

'f - • 

» «• M •! 

* / •^**r'»#»*H 




.< ^ 



F<o«« of d«»p<h. 

'Of,ii in. J 000 m. 

'OH J 
•I. '/I 



' >• 

, ,.-.» • ,. . •♦ «4 V^/t vf'.p*'"'! >f» many sfrect pavc- 
'-• • /,••! V4 "a »4 f \tf\f'A on, imrticularly in 

f Lori'lon, with 

«i/-"*4 M» fr,ft Mfy ol 

^ / '4 ■^>.j*U'M to ar:rhviiie» on or- 

/ * 


. •♦♦•«, 


« .A^'., V'-.i thora \ifn\i*:f\ than tlieir 

^/ • .A ' J.,/; /:-//»* M»fr ''Iiictjon on a few 
^, M* / f .■/ /'/4/J« rni;/ht, at H small ex- 
.' , ,/ ^/( ►-«» u, iiT>«'I h/H;»; and it is proba- 
,.'\ *' . , /J U'iA. in an important degree, 
/A "^.:« »/# r/^iit^if. lli« forini'lable rivalry of 
.,• *'. • .-«? M'«.yb"rid-ro?i/l Commission- 
/. «/'»// /♦'.'//fofo'tii'l* the applica- 
>.. i4, •/, 4-- Tf-*! h,li». and states lliat 
 /, )r fi.4r wh'/le I<fn7tli of the 
A */ ^ ,/. ',f r.'/f*'; l^iliour fully one 
f.,.4v«/ «^r'' f///i«tructe^l of iron 
^ (/f*- *'"''• ^'' /' ftftttt^U'Atn, a coach 
. / / J '^. / . '^ ft,'>t;rri at tbe rate of 
*..,/, f tvff u*t '•«, <*nd one hiirfcc 
«,♦»  ^,.* rf, • «i» ro'/r#» e.i«jly tlian two I 
. ^, . .«. /,f •/,•/» n»f<i< rin^:ht be re- 


« # ., 4^ f*'* •' M'/ri fm^bt b<j in;idc in 
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tar, are used; tbe surface being chipped where due .^ 
or turnings occur, to prevent the slipping of horses, u : 
become very sure-footed from habit. Oocasionally, a- 
Milan, different kinds of paving are laid for ilic w. « • 
tracks and hor»e-path, so as to produce the effect of a ?! 
tramway. These pavements have been recommerKit.: 
models for imitation in paving tbe streets of tsond'jn . 
the durability with which they are constructed woui-1 :• 
a disadvantage in a place where the pavement Ln** 1m 
frequently disturbed for the purpose of laying il'^p 
repairing water and gas-pipes, or cleansing the aewers : ^- 
it is probable that pavements which answer Mrell !'• r 
lii^ht vehicles and limited traffic of many of the contn 
cities, would be found quite inadequate to bear ibe nii*. 
of heavy carriages traversing the principal thoroughtar^^ 
the metropolis ; uf which some idea may be formed ix^iu • 
fact that upwards of 1 1,000 vehicles were observed to p - 
along King William Street, near London Bridge* on t.. 
12th of August, 1840, between the hours of eight aju i . 
eight P.M., being at the rate of more than fifteen per nm j* 
for twelve hours. 

Another description of paved road, the origin of wb:( h • 
commonly referred to the Romans, is the cActu>f<'^. • 
roughly-paved causeway used in the principal highua)^ , 
France and some other parts of the Continent, i his k  • 
of road has been much recommended for itsdunibilit\ wi 
wcTl made, but, unless laid with a degree of care that ui>. 
render it too expensive for general adoption, it causes a m . - 
unpleasant and fatiguing jolting. In such roads the \u • 
ment usually covers only a part of the breadth of the lo . 
leaving the sides available for the use of light cama^^i > :- 
dry weather; and it has been suggested, that whuto i 
width of the roadway would allow, it might prove ad\j.- 
tageous to form, in all great roads, a track of pavemert i 
hard broken stone for winter use, and another of in<Vt > 
materials for the sununer, both to save tbe wear of the h % , 
road and increase the comfort of passengers. Such an ^^^^ 
rangement is convenient in the principal apptoachca * 
great towns, where it is considered best to have tbe \'^\* 
ment at tbe sides, tbat carters may walk either on or n. . 
the footpaths, and that foot-passengers may not be ino •li 
moded by the dirt of the metalled road. 

In Holland, pavements of brick, which are also prob^' . 
derived from the practice of Roman engineers, are exU'i 
sively used, not only for footpaths, but albo for the pas^a-t• • 
light vehicles, which run on them with great facility. 1 : . 
bricks used for this purpose are thin, and well bedded i. 

Common stone pavements are. by most writers, div.*'..-; 
into two classes: rubble causeway, in which the stones arc 
of irregular shape, and very im))erfectly dressed with tt.r 
hammer ; and atsier causeway, which is formed of stontj> . .* 
larger »ize accurately squared and dressed. In both k.i.> 
the excellence of the pavement depends greatly on i- 
firinncgs and evenness of the bed, and the careful fittn.j ' 
the stones to each other, which may be accomplished vi" 
very irregular stones by judicious selection. If one »toiK» i «• 
left a little higher or lower than those adjoining it, or if u I i 
CT>me so in consequence of defective bedding, the joUm^ ••. 
carriages in passing over the defective place will quick \ 
damai^e the pavement; the wheels acting like a rammer ir. 
driving the depressed stones deeper into the earth, wlm- 
iho derangement of the lateral support that each sioi.i- 
should receive from those adjoining it, occasions ilu* t\ ^ 
location of the pavement to a considerable distance, and j. 
consequent working up of the earth through the (li>ttiri< . 
joint**. Defective joints form another fruitful source oi .i.- 
jury and inconvenience both to the pavement itself and \» 
(he vehicles jolted over it. If, as is often the cas»e in ti.- 
ferior pavements, the edges of two adjoining stones do n.: 
meet with accuracy, narrow wheels will have a tenden<*\ • » 
blip into the joint, and by doing so, to wear the edges o: li - 
utones, till, as may be frequently seen, the surface of c.i* ". 
Htone IS worn into a convex form that renders the footii.t; .«f 
horses insecure, and causes the motion of vehicle^ dj.iv* • 
rapidly over them to consist of a series of bounds or Ic.i. - 
from one stone to another, accompanied by a degue c. 

RO A ; 

lateral ilipinng highly ii^uriou* to the canioge, wliile Ihe 
inegiiUr percussioa produced lends greatly U) the deHlruc* 
liuDof the pavement. 

In order to procure a Gnu foundation, ami to prevent 
earth from working up between the stones, it ii advUable in 
tlie flr»t instance to form a good carriage-way of gravel or 
broken atone, and to allow it to be uud by cairinges till 
consolidated, before laying the pavement. This ]den is 
staled by Gdgeworth, in his ' Essay on llio Construction of 
Roads and CarTiagai,' IS 1 7, to have been practiced 8 uocess- 
fully by Major Taylor, of the Paving- Boa id, in some pave- 
ments in Dublin, and it is strongly advocaled by more 
recent road-makers. Where broken stone is laid to a 
considerable depth, it should, as in the i-ase of metalled 
ruuda, be applied in tbinlayers,eBch being separately worked 
into a compact stale. Tlie new pavement laid a few jfeoim 
since in fleet Street affords an illustration of the necessity 
of this precaution, as the stones were well shaped. Laid, and 
gri)ulod, and the earth was removed to the depth of from 
tnelvit to eighteen inches, its place being supplied by broken 
stone ; but the broken stone, being thrown in by cart-loads, 
and merely levelled, was not united into a compact mass, and 
ihetefure very soon gave way, causing the pavement ' ' ' 

n broken stone, as a foundation for the surface pavement, 
a measure which has been practised with advantage in Paris. 
The bed of the pavement should be farmed into a slight 
convexity, the slopes being about two inches in ten feet. A 
thin coatofEnivel or aaiid kid immediately under the paving 
blocks is of use in filling up alight irregularities in theii 
bliniM), and enabling them to form a compact bed. 

Fur the paving atones bard rectangular blocks of granite 

e preferred, though wbinslune, limestone, and even fre»- 
ct^>^e, may be used. Guernsey granite, a* shown by the 
table in a previous column, appears to bethe most durable, 
but it is more liable to become inconveniently smooth than 
Home slofiei of inferioT hardness. The stone* may vary, 
ai^cording to the traffic, from six to ten inches deep, six to 
eighteen inches long, and four to eighteen inches wide ; but 
it is very essential that the depth of all the blocks in one 
piece of pavement should be alike, and^tbat where the width 
is unequal, the stones be so sorted Ihi^ll useilin one course 
arc unifuim in this particular. The accurate dresaingof the 
stoned is a point often too Uttle attended to; and an inju- 
dicious mode of forroinj; contracts fur paving, in which the 
payment has been by tbe square yard of paving laid, has, in 
i-oiineclion with the effect of competition in brmKiug prices 
bulow the remunerating point, led to the use of stones in 
which the base is smaller than the upper aurface, and 
which, when laid, scarcely come in contact wilb eacb other 
except at their upper edges. In some pavements the stones 
are made smaller at the top than the bottom, the joints 
buing filled up with stone-chips, ooncrate, or an aspbaltic 
composition ; and in those of the more common cons 
liun the aides of the stones are occasionally hollowed, 

wooden rammer is a practice that has been much 
mended, and it is considered that a more ef&cient appli- 
cation of the process, hy means of a raraming-raachme, 
or portablt monkey, would remove some of the defects 
arising from imperfect bedding; but when the stones are 
well laid, and bedded in strong mortar, as tbe best recent 
pavements are, a few blows with a wooden maul of abaut 
li>urteen pounds weight are sufficient to fix tbem firmly 
in their place. Grouting with lime-water poured all over 
Ibt) pavement facilitates the binding of the whole together, 
aitil fills up tbe joints, go as to effectually prevent tbe 
working up of the substratum. Tbe blocks are commonly 
J4ii(l in rows urosa the road, the joints in each row being 
(lilTerent from those of the adjoining ones; but pavements 
of superior srooolhneks have been hid Id courses stretch- 
ing diagonally across the street, by which means all the 
joints are passed over by carriages with greater ease. This 
arrangement is particularly desirable at the intersection 
of streeli. as it diminishes the risk of horses slipping. lon- 
gitudinal courses are ol^ectionable on account of the ten- 
don cy of narrow wheels to enter the joints. In paving steep 
iiic-linaliuns, it ia well to use narrow stones, on account of 
llie number of cross joints ; or, if laige stones he used, to 
cut deep furrowsacross their surface, to afford secure footing. 
A plan of paving fbr such situationi, which has been fbuud ] 

very eSeetual, is repi«seDled in the annexed diagram, in 

which the stones are so inclined as to present n series oF 
steps. The chief objection to tbis plan seems to be the 
jolting caused to carriages, wbich producci to deafening a 
noise that, in a recent inglance, such a pavement was taken 
up at tbe requeeC of the inhabitanis of the street. Many 
patents have been procured for plans of forming stone pave- 
ments in which the pressure of carriages might be simul- 
taneously distributed over several stones, by various con- 
trivances for dovetailing and otberwise fitting the slonn 
together; but such pluns are generally loo complicated, 
requiring an accuracy of formation that would be very ex- 
pensive, owing to tbe hardness of (he atone. Tbin blocks 
of stone, bedded in aaphalte, have been tried, and appear to 
make a good pavement. 

When completed, a thin coat of gravel spread over the 
surface ia useful in diminishing the effect of tbe jolting of 
carriages on the new pavement. In cau of taking up any 
part of a pavement to attend to water-pipes, &c., great cars 
IS necessary in relaying tbe pari, in doinc which it is well 
to apply some fresh broken stone lo the bed, and to lay the 
paving atones without mortar, until the foundation ia 

Tbe serious defects of the common stone pavements 
have led to a variety of experiments on other methods of 
forming carriage-ways suitable for streets, of which the 
adoption of broken stone, or macadamised roads, has bean 
the most general. Opinions differ widely aa lo the propriety 
of this measure, but an idea aeems to be gaining ground 
that the comparative quietness of such a road, and its su- 
perior ease to pasiengers, are insufficient lo counierbslancv 
the increased draught of carriages, the dust of summer, the 
mud rapidly formed in wet weather, end the great expense 
of keeping in repair a metalled road when subjected lo the 
constant wear of a busy town. The first cost of forming tha 
broken-stone roads of Regent Street, Wbiteball, and Palare 
Yard, extending to a total length of SOIU yatds, and em- 
bracing 43. 251 superficial square yards, was dttyjl. iu. Zd., 

ofl2,842f. 15*. 3d.i ondtliocoslofkeepinglbeii , .. 

for the year ending January S, 1827, was 40u3i. Ihi. id.. 
besides G28/. 11«. for watering, making the total expense 
fur the year 4032/. 9*. id., or rather more than two sbil- 
lings per superficial yard. 

The enormous expense of maintaining some of Iho 
metalled luads in London has recently led lo much atiunliaiv 
being given lo the cozistructiou of superior pavements, and 
various plans of paving with wood have been Uieil, with 
great promise of success. A very coarse kind of wooden 
road, consisting of rough logs laid close together across tbu 
track, is much used in North America, under the name of 
enrduToy roadi, but tbe wooden pavement, properly so 
called, aeema to have been first used in Russia, and tried 
on a limited scale at Vienna, New York, and some other 
places within a few yeaif. One of the earliest kinds used 
consiala of blocks of fir or other wood cut into hexagonal 
cylinders, of six or eight inches diameter, and from eiglit lu 
twelve or fifteen incliea di'ep, and placed close together, with 
the grain vertically. Tbe blacks ere sometimes tarred, or 
may be kyanised ; but even where no such precaution ia 
usen, tbe wear is very trilling, as the swelling of the wood 
from moisture makes the joints very tight and impervious 
to water. Such a pavement ia very smooth when first laid, 
but, unless tbe foundation be very carefully prepared. It ia 
liable lo sink into hollows like the common stone pavement, 
owing lo tbe want of cohesion between the individual 
blocks, a deficiency which it has been proposed to remedy 
by pegging or doweHiiig the pieces tugetber, though their 
form is not very suitable for the purpose. Some specimena 
have been laid on a flooring of planks, to avoid this incon- 
venience. Of the numerous other plans propuEc<], but one 
has yet been tried on an extensive scale, and it appears 
likely, in point of amoothncss, quietness, cleanliness, null 

R O A 


R O A 

eaie of draught, to prove the best of metropolitan 
pavements. In it the olocks are sawn into a rhomboidal 
shape, the upper surface forming an angle of about 63* with 
the direction of the grain, by which the durability of an end 
section is in a great degree preserved, while the inclination 
of the sides causes each block to receive support from those 
adjoining it, and affords facilities for pinning the whole 
pavement together by pegs. The following diagram may 
serve to illustrate this ingenious arrangement, which is the 
invention of the Gomte & Lisla 

The solid lines represent part of one course or transverse 
TOW of blocks, which all incline in one direction, each block 
having on one side two projecting pegs, and on the other 
two holes. The adjoining course is laid in like manner, 
but sloping in the opposite direction, as indicated by the 
dotted lines, by which disposition the two pegs on one side 
of a block enter two distinct blocks in the adjoining row, 
while the holes on the other side receive in like manner the 
pegs of two other blocks ; so that each block is pinned to 
four others, besides receiving support from the adjoining 
blocks of its own course. Where this principle of construc- 
tion is fully carried out, the whole pavement of a street be- 
comes, as it were, one mass, being so pinned together that 
no block could be raised without breaking the dowels ; but 
as it is necessary sometimes to disturb the pavement in 
order to get at the gas and water pipes, some specimens 
have been laid down in masses of twenty-four or thirty-six 
blocks, so united by iron clamps that the blocks thus con- 
nected together may be laid down and taken up, when neces- 
sary, at once. The pavement laid down on this plan in 
Oxford Street is all pinned together in the manner first 
described, and consists of blocks six inches deep laid on a 
well-formed concrete foundation. 

As far as a judgment can be formed at present, wood 
pavements appear likely to prove exceedingly durable ; and 
It is stated by Mr. Finlayson, who in 1825 suggested the 
adoption of wood for paving the streets of London, that a 
few blocks of wood placed vertically in a granite pavement 
were less reduced by twenty-five years* wear than the stone 
itself. The principal disadvantage of wood appears to be its 
becoming slippery in wet weather, to obviate which, in some 
instances, the upper edges of the hexagonal blocks have 
been bevelled, so as to form zigzag grooves when laid down ; 
but the most effectual plan seems to be to cut straight 
grooves along the centre of each block, by which the stabi- 
lity of the joints is not at all affected. 

Another description of road that has lately attracted much 
attention is that consisting of an asphaltic composition. 
Many attempts have been msde to form roads of gravel and 
other materials united by animal oleaginous or gelatinous 
substances, or coal-tar, into a kind of concrete ; but such 
attempts have seldom proved successful on a large scale. 
Mineral substances of similar character have been found 
more advantageous, and the native isphalte procured near 
Seyssel, in the department of TAin, and 'some other places, 
has been found to produce, when mixed with a small por- 
tion of native bitumen, a substance admirably adopted for 
the formation of smooth roads, and a variety of other im- 
portant purposes. Its application to carriage-ways has been 
in this country chiefly confined to court-yards, for which, as 
well as for terraces and footpaths, it is very suitable. The as- 
phaltio mastic of Seyssel, as prepared for use, consists of 
ninety-three parts of native asphalte reduced to powder, and 
seven parts of bitumen ; the two bein^ melted together, and 
a little fine gravel or sand stirred in with the mixture. The 
composition is readv for use when it simmers with a con- 
sistency similar to that of treacle, and it is spread while hot 
so as to form a coating about an inch thick upon a levelled 
ibundation of concrete. The thickness of the asphalte is 
regulated bv slips of wood or iron, which are often so dis- 
posed as to divide the pavement into ornamental compart- 
ments, the asphalte being made of various colours by the 
admixture of different kinds of sand or other substances. 
Where the omameutal character of the pavement forms a 
distinguishing feature^ beautiful imitations of mosaic work 

may be executed with asphalte. The genuine asphalte p- 
sesses a degree of elasticity that renders it exceed ii . 
durable ; but artificial compounds in imitation of it e^ ' 
rally require too much bitumen, and are injuriously afieci 
by great changes of temperature. Some experimenls h:.. 
been made, but, as far as the writer is aware, with very i > 
different success, on the formation of carriage- wa)s v . 
large blocks of asphaltic composition containing a con^i^ 
able quantity of gravel or broken stone. 

Foot-pavements of flagstones reouire very little reici-. 
The curb-stones should be venr hard, and firtnly set . 
cement on a bed of gravel. They usually rise about ».. 
inches above the surface of the carriage-way, which ma> 
made to abut immediately upon them, without the intent: 
tion of a gutter. Where gutters are introduced, th(»tr 
cast-iron are to be preferred. The flagstones, which sh.t! 
never be less than two inches and a half thick, arc c .^ 
monly bedded in mortar on a layer of gravel ; bat somehD- 
when there are no cellara underneath, are laid dry. I: 
appearance of many of the new streets of London is grcj • 
improved by the use of flagstones of extraordinary ilir.'' 
sions, extending the whole width of the pavement ; a: •: 
similar appearance at much less cost may be obtained \ 
the use of asphalte. A slight degree of slope ahuuld i- 
given to the pavement, to conduct water to the gutter^ : - 
which purpose a fall of one inch in ten feet is suttic:^:  
while a steep inclination is objectionable from its danger 
slippery weather. 

Among the substitutes for common flagstones that }:j^ 
been recommended, may be mentioned slate, which ap] i a 
to be very durable. Some pavements or floora of thi«> i- 
terial have been laid at the London Docks, where, am i . 
other advantages, it is found preferable to wood in poiu: 
cleanliness. Trackways of slate two inches thick are t\ i * 
strong enough to bear waggons or carts with four or i 
tons of goods ; and some are laid of only half that thick i.. 
on an old wooden floor. 

(A ' Treatise on Roads,* &c., bv Sir Henry Parnell . 
which a second edition was published in 1838, may be (. 
suited with advantage by those desirous of obtaining furt: 
information on the theory and practice of road-making. T 
works of Mc. Adam, JUge worth, and several others ; aud ' 
various Parliamenta^Keports relating to roads frum * 
commencement of the present century, as well as th 
of the Holyhead-road Commissioners, also contain in^, 
valuable matter on this subject) 

It may be interesting to add a concise statement of ' 
extent of turnpike and other roads in each of the couk' 
of England and Wales, condensed from the Appeuuii 
the 'Report of the Commissionera for inquiring in: < '. 
State of the Roads in England and Wales,' 1840. 0* 
to the difficulty of obtaining complete returns from » 
districts, the statement can only be received as an appr.v. 
mation to accuracy ; and this circumstance, combined « 
some difference in the kinds of road embraced in the reli- 
ef different yean, must account for some discrepant*  
The returns being given for two periods, with an intcn:' 
about twenty-five years, afford data for calculating tbo c 
tension of the roads in each county ; and the additio:; • 
column, stating the area of the countf in square t. 
tends to show the proportion borne by the extent ii 
highways to that of^ the district The columns gi\ n.. . 
mileage for 1812-13-14 show the average of the retun.> 
those years, a circumstance which must account for a « 
of agreement between the items and the totals. It i. • 
be observed also that paved streets are embraced with tu: 
pikes in this statement, and not in that for 1839. 

From the same document it appean that the av<r . 
cost of maintaining the turnpike-roads, amounting to <it 
22,000 miles, has been, for the last five years, 989,54:'. ' 
annum, or 46/. per mile per annum, including the esti ^ ? 
value of the statute duty performed on them. Of tht> < 
about 36/. per mile has been expended on mere repair^ - 
9/. per mile on improvements. The money expended on 
nagement is about 129,124/. annually, being nearly «• 
mile, and raising the total annual expense to nearly 5 1-' 
mde. The number of trusts is about 1116, averaging 1 9 n. 
5 furlongs, 28 poles, and 1 yard each ; the number of 
gates and side-bars about 7796, and of surveyors 130(>. i 
the parish highways, extending rather more than 10* ' 
miles, the average annual cost of maintenance, by h . 
I way rates, is about 1 1/. 3s, per mile ; and the numbv: • 
I parochial surveyors or waywardens about 20«000« 

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Ht^T^. » aLiiiT-jtiesL i^ avxri «t:::s ei rofrtatioo for i.f 

U*c IrJkUL I«T ifcjIilSi ««£^ LllIX^Z. '^ II llMr«<f^ Cif the pATt^ IL. . ' 

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T'^i'itT 'Ji \z.% jienua miif kj:^ lav^e vr^csed the gi- :« 
>' .o«^ lr.*a Hit ruLtiK-. "l !.,•*=» ia^ bas o^ce ail an his p. *• . 

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ULiier T-1 jr lans-ii, s ih»t nsUenal, ar.<l, ir 
a S*ijijiT, iiAX i<e wa» iroe tnTc-Ling al the iin-r. 
» pasafea IE i»* y*'^^ ^ l^^ar. ML for the WtU: 
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c £4. Liie rai^dred is ikiC iis 'r« i^Li> betc=.d 2\*i/., u- .ex*. 
*be iits-T<Jt Off- i^-rsons rx s*s»3 «^ali ai tbe s^nieof the rui: ?c: v 
tie lii^c-L^icr 12 cciLp&r j^aci be ^ b^cbe? tvo « the iea^t. 
U* aiit^si u>e ir«.iii sA L b ^<' . .>c«ery, 

LLOiT 7 Wra. IV. ar»d I V.,ru,c. ?r, a. >-10, rt-'bety U 
TiLLJ^.LL^rf bj irar^.-"-Laij;a l.c Lie or for any term s.{ 
>ear» lui ie» i^n s^tcO. cr 'i« i=;;f'i£«CLCkc«:l for any tt-riu 
liM exr^ed-T-e t:a«e letrs. ai.i i\r ar.r fer^ of s^juia^v 
c.«Lf 1 tiae-t -d jvLi *i-cii arjr^-CZJc-iii d^4 exceed. i g une 
ia>i.:i< &i a t zic tc ;:*re« ii>. i.ll> ;it \Lt space cf or.e \tar. 
u t-e »L*cre-ij.«i uf the a.trt jr r-ij«, bj ur be^'ure wi. ra 
iije .feTi.^.tr imy be tr,ed ; b-t ry sect, i, where iLt? r .- 

V i "r r -f viJi 


the party of uu 
-i.^&jLCF.;s cr.aie, the ytixA %A inc.>por:a:«oQ is fcr I te rr 
f.r a leim C;.-! iea» ir^^n ii years. B« tbe fAii>e ^^ttuV, 
a*«i. 6, assA«^:.i^ a*^ ir^iti^i lu r..b, aid, bi sen, 7, ti,-- 
:..«^-d i^ am fCo;Mcr:y of a^y i<fv.a b> ibtriM<v» or t»v 
;v».'Y!e, & tLiie fe.oi^y puL-^ij^je by is^jnss:«UDent liji cx- 
cerCn^: u.rt« }tArs. 

Bt U.C >ai:^e sui^te, secL f. The p;:r.:sb.iaeat of de.iTh i« 
4ra,KJ9ed ijrx:*zi iDe ocecce of rv<^b:a£r any persca, atni at iLc of or usseil.auiy ahersuch zv-Lucnr slahbtug, Cw.;- 
tiD:;, or vouLu.n^ acv r^x^ui. 

L ion an id i^cmeni f . r iViibberT, as veil as lor ar.v oli.c'^r 
feioi.y «h.-ch :i>cl»de> an assau.t uion tbe pers-on, the jury 
are au:bor:>ed by 7 Wan. IV. and a VkU c. SvS. sec 1 1, ti» 
acquit of ;be fe.o£>d to Lsd a v>enLrt of ^uuty o/as<A«.lt. 
Si^aiRst the \*^tv\ iiKix;ed, if i:>e e^denceviL aanant sL;vh 
£;*;; fi^r anicb assA^i the party may be seaieaord lo 
\xa\ ri>oame^;t tor any term oo( enoeed^f three years. 

RoKKERY, in the R^iznan lav, aas cai^ed Rapjia, and iho 
nen3t>d> of tbe injured person aa$ the actio ti Iiod* r; :u 
rai torum against tiie Tv>i.ber, «hirh was pvenby the csix-:. 
Robbi-ry was, in i^tX, a ^^pfoes of Furtun: for tbe Uct.oi- 
t.v^u of furtum aas« *a fraudu'.cnt carrymg-off (rontre-.-M* 
tK>) of a moY-eah^e tturf a|?a.n5i the o«i»er*s consenL* Tuc 
aord *• fraudulent* compmLendei the noDon of a per»t n c;* r- 
rxing od" t})e th ng f«>r \\a piifpgse of maktns it his our*. 
K.<t}'.iia only d^fifcivd from Fun iioi in beaig effected b,« 

Fui t urn was eonimit tt^ ia tarious ways, besidas by tak i r g 

a Toother jH*r»c»n's pr»p«iy, A debtor committed Amu 112. it* 
he frauduleut*} cartied cff a ttuug whKJt he had piec^i^d 




and died in 1309 at the age of sixty-six ; and he, hy his son 
WaUer, the father of Robert II. This Walter was one of 
the commanders of the Scottish army at the battle of Ban- 
nockburn; and early in the following year, 1315, Bruce 
gave him in marriage his daughter and then only child 
Maijory, upon whom, provided she should marry with the 
consent of her father, or, after his death, with the consent 
of the majority of the community (or states) of the king- 
dom, the crown had been settled, failing the heirs male of 
her father and of his brother Edward, in a parliament 
held at Ayr on the 26th of April in that same year. 
Robert was the only issue of this marriage. Lord Hailes 
(Annali of Soetland, \o\, ii.. Appendix i.) has sufficiently 
refuted the tradition that Maijory was killed by being thrown 
from her horse when big with child, and that Robert was 
brought into the world by theCsBsarean'operation ; but it ap- 
pears that she died either in giving birth to the infant or soon 
after her delivery. Her husband died 9th April, 1326, after 
having had another son, Sir John Stewart of Railstone, by 
a second marriage with a sister of Graham of Abercorn. 

Bruce was succeeded by his son David H., born of a 
second marriage, 5th March, 1324; and his unfortunate 
reign — marked by a long minority and a succession of re- 
gencies, during which the kingdom was overrun by 
Edward Balliol and his ally Edward III., and David was 
obliged to make his escape to France, and after that by the 
defeat of Neville's Cross, when David was taken prisoner 
by the English — fills up the interval from 1329 to 1371. 
Robert, the Stewart, acted a principal part throughout this 
reign, and was as much distinguished by bis personal met its 
and conduct as by his high rank. While yet only a youth of 
sixteen, he commanded the second division of the Scottish 
army at the decisive battle of Halidon, fought, and lost by 
the Scots, 19th July, 1333; and after that fatal day he was 
one of the first to uplift again the standard of the national 
independence. In 1334. he and the earl of Moray assumed 
the regency of the kingdom, and, although not formally in- 
vested with the government by any assembly of the states, 
were recognised by the people as entitled, in the infancy 
and exile of the king, to wield all the authority of the crown. 
Fordun's description of the Stewart at this time, as Lord 
Hailes translates the passage, is as follows : — * He was a 
comely youth, tall and robust, modest, liberal, gay, and cour- 
teous ; and, for the innate sweetness of his disposition, ge- 
nerally beloved by true-hearted Scotsmen.' In a subsequent 
passage however he hints that his conduct as yet was not 
always regulated by absolute wisdom, — 'qui tunc non magna 
regebatur sapientia.' On the earl of Moray being taken 
prisoner by the English the following year, the Stewart, in 
concert with the earl of Athol, concluded with Edward 
III., on the 18th of August, 1335, the treaty of Perth, which 
was in fact a submitsion, though upon honourable condi- 
tions, to the English king. After this we hear no more of 
the Stewart till 1338, when, upon the death of the regent. 
Sir Andrew Moray, we find him again appointed to that 
supreme office. His resumption of the government was 
soon followed by the expulsion of the English from all their 
strongholds to Uie north of the Forth, and his regency was 
terminated by the return of the king, on the 4tli of May, 
1341. In 1346, aiter the capture of the king at the battle 
of Neville's Cross, where he commanded the left wing of 
the Scottish army, in conjunction with the earl of March, 
the Stewart was again elected regent, or 'locum tenens 
serenissimi principis David,' &c., and he held this post till 
the release of David, in 1357, governing the country, it is 
affirmed, with remarkable prudence and ability in the diffi- 
cult circumstances in which he was placed. In 1359 the 
earldom of Strathearn was conferred upon him by the king. 
When David, in 1363, astonished the nation by proposing 
to a parliament, held at Scone, (hat in the event of his dying 
without issue, Lionel, duke of Clarence, son of Edward ill., 
should be chosen king, the Stewart, whose interests, as well 
as his patriotic prejudices, this project so nearly touched, 
was one of the foremost of those who adopted instant mea- 
sures to defeat it. He entered into an a^tsociation with the 
euris of March and Douglas, and with his own sons, and he 
even appears to have taken up arms with the avowed deter- 
mination of driving the king from the throne, if he persisted 
in his purpose. David however found means, without 
making any formal concession, to put down this threatened 
resistance; and, upon a general amnesty being granted, 
the Stewart, on the 14th of May, 1 363, renewed hia oath of 
fealty, and entered into a bond to abstain from all such con- 

federacies in time coming, on pain of forfeiting for ever a 
right and title to the crown, as well as to his private :r 
heritances. Soon after this David, who had lost Lis ti- 
wife, Joanna, a daughter of Edward IL, in the precc } 
year, contracted a second marriage with Margaret L<»^' . 
but she also bore him no children ; indeed he had sepan. • 
from her some time before his death, which took place • - 
the 22nd of February, 1371. 

Upon this event the states of the kingdom imtnedis't.t 
assembled at Linlithgow ; and after a slight opposi(i< n r 
the part of the earl of Douglas, who conceived that be h , 
himself a claim to the vacant dignity, as representing :■. • 
families both of Comyn and Balliol, the Stewart was i.i.i .^ 
mously declared king, by the title of Robert II. ii- 
was crowned at Scone, on the 26th of March, and next A^^, 
according to custom, received the homage of the bi^L. | ^ 
and barons, seated on the moot-hill there. 

Robert IL, when he thus succeeded to the throne, v:* 
somewhat peculiarly situated in regard to his domestic re „> 
tions; and the point demands particular notice, ina^nw' 
as a controversy has thence arisen on the question uf \\a 
legitimacy of the Stuarts, which continued to be agitat^i, 
both among antiquaries and political writers, down to U-» 
middle of the last century. His first wife was Elizabt- h. 
daughter of Sir Adam Mure, of Rowallan ; but the fatL. y 
he had by her, consisting of four sons and six daughttr:, 
had all been bom before their marriage. In ordinary cir 
cumstances a subsequent marriage might probably, in Sc *- 
land, even at this early date, have legitimatized Uiese ch I- 
dren, at least in the eve of the church, although their rtjti' 
of civil succession, and especially of succession to the cruM : . 
might not have been in that way so certainly established . 
but there was a very awkward speciality in the present ca^e 
Robert and Elizabeth Mure had been living not onl} w. 
concubinage, but in what the church considered incest, f *: 
they were related, it seems, in the fourth degree. Kay, : > 
make matters worse, the Stewart, before his aoqnaiiiUir^ 
with Elizabeth Mure, had been connected in the same vr.\ 
with Isabella Boutelier, who was related to her in the ih.*(! 
degree ; and this, according to the canonical doctrine, plai ^ I 
him in a relationship by affinity of the same, that is, of (ix- 
third degree, to Elizabeth Mure. His marriage in a'.) 
circumstances there fotS* with that lady, would have de- 
manded a papal dispensation ; but it was far from being u::.- 
versally admitted that even the authority of the pope ^'CKi\x\ '. 
establish the legitimacy of children born in a connect h" 
which thus openly violated and set at defiance what wa^ It 
lieved to be the divine law. It is obvious thatadispensai 
to persons within the prohibited degrees to marry is an ex 
cise of prerogative on the part of the head of the cliu. 
much inferior to the legitimization of the children alaa :\ 
produced from an incestuous connection. So strongly in \\x 
present case does this appear to have been felt, that iK 
pope's dispensation actually proceeds upon the monstr .> 
supposition that Robert and his wife Elizabeth Mure, ivii^* 
as they had lived together, had been all the whUe ignu: • 
of their relationship, and on that manifestly fictitious c^rv l.. . 
alone does his holiness profess to sanction their mnnu.x. 
and to pronounce the legitimacy of their children. Bu: *:>•. 
dispensation by no means satisfied the popular feeling' .! 
the time ; and there is reason to believe that the sup(v<< 
defect in the right of the reigning family materially CLntn- 
butcd in exciting and sustaining some of the most f>;- 
midable of the insurrectionary attempts which convubed ti:- 
Scottish kingdom in the course of the succeeding eentui^ 
Robert, after the death of Elizabeth Mure, had roarned K - 

Ehemia Ross, a daughter of the eai'l of Ross, by xvhorn . 
ad two more sons and four daughters, also all born v) . 
he came to the crown. Thus circumstanced, in 137]. :.: 
mediately after his accession, he got the states to pa^-^ . .; 
act recognising John, earl of Carrick, his eldest son by El .. <• 
beth Mure, as his successor; and, still better to Becu<% i: « 
rights of his first family, he procured, in 1373, anoth.r j '- 
expressly entailing the crown upon his heirs male ot i^ 
families, and after them upon hi% heirs tchaUoever. \ ^ 
obvious that, whatever might be the force of this pail 
mentary settlement in securing the crown to Robert's lu i 
male by the sons of Elizabeth Mure, who were named in ' 
as soon as such heirs (ailed, the question would leu-,/' 
arise, who were his heirs whatsoever, or general ? and \\\ \ 
papal legitimization of the first family should be st>t avi,} 
then his heir whatsoever would have to be looked for ai^^,' 

the descendants of one of bis sons or dftughtecs by Buill i 




he night have had in this affair was granted by the king 
to AllMDy ; and has been published by Lord Hailes in chap- 
ter vi. of his ' Remarks on the History of Scotland,* Edin- 
burgh, 1772. In this remarkable paper it is stated that 
Albany admitted the capture and arreiit of the prince, but 
justified what he had done by reasons which the king 
did not then hold it expedient to publish to the world. 
No express denial of the fiict of the murder is ventured 
upon ; it is merely recited that the prince departed this life 
in his prison at Falkland, through divine providence, and 
not otherwise — ' ubi ab hao luce, divina providentia, et 
non aliter, migrasse dignoscitur.* * The reader,' observes 
Hailes, ' will determine as to the import of this phrase. If 
by it a natural death was intended, the circumlocution seems 
strange and affected.' It ought to be added that Archibald, 
the young earl of Douglas, the brother-in-law of Rothsay, 
who' had acted throughout the affair along with Albany, 
was equally charged by the voice of common fame with the 
murder, and was included in the same acquittal or in- 
demnity. It is conjectured that Rothsay had made the 
proud baron his enemy by his infldelity to or neglect of his 

This same year, on the 22nd of June, the Scots, com- 
manded by Patrick Hepburn of Hales, were defeated with 
great loss, at West Nisbet in the Merse, by the English under 
the conduct of the Earl of Northumberland and the renegade 
Earl of March ; and on the 1 4th of September following the 
Earl of Douglas received a still more disastrous discomfiture 
ftom the Lord Heniy Percy at Homilton Hill in Northum- 
berland. When immediately after this the Peroies rose in 
rebellion, the Duke of Albany put himself at the head of a 
numerous force and set out for the south with the design 
of taking advantage of the embarrassing circumstances of 
the English king; but the news of Henry's victory at 
Shrewsbury turned him back before he had got across 
the border. In the course of the two following years 
several attempts were made to arrange a peace, or long 
truce, between the two countries, but without success. 
Hostilities however had been for a considerable time sus- 
pended by these negociations, when King Robert, now 
awakened to a strong suspicion of the designs of his brother 
Albany, resolved to send his only surviving son James, 
styled earl of Carrick, to France for safety ; and the prince, 
then in his eleventh year, was on the 30th of March, 1405, 
captured at sea by an English vessel on his way to that 
country. [Jakes I.] His detention by King Henry is 
believed to have broken the heart of his father, who expired 
at the castle of Rothsay in Bute, on the 4th of April, 140S. 
He was succeeded by his son, James I. 

ROBERT, King of Naples. [Sicilies. Two.] 


ROBERT OF GLOUCESTER is supposed to have 
been a monk in the abbey there, but of his personal history 
nothing whatever is certainly known. It may however be 
collected, from a passage in his work, that he was living at 
the time of the battle of Evesham, and he seems to have 
lived not very long after that event, as the history of Eng- 
lish affairs which he has left us ends before the beginning 
of the reign of Edward I. 

This history is the only writing that is attributed to him, 
and is, in more points of view than one, among the most 
curious and valuable writings of the middle period that 
have come down to us. It is a history of English affuirs 
from the beginning, including the pictures of Geoffrey of 
Monmouth, and ending with the death of Sir Henrv of 
Almaine, valuable in the latter portions for the facts wnioh 
it contains, whether peculiar to itself or correlative with the 
statements of other cnronielers ; and abounding throughout 
with anecdotes or minor historical oireumstances peculiar 
to itself, and sometimes of an interesting if not useftil 

It is in the vernacular language of the time ; that is, 
in the language in which we find the Anglo-Saxon passing 
into the language of Chaucer and Wickliffe. this work 
and the similar work of Robert of Bonne bein^ the best 
specimens which remain of the language. It is in verse, 
and may stand therefore as a specimen of the poetry of the 
time. It consists of more than ten thousand lines. 

The work was popular in the middle ages, as appears by 
the number of manuscripts that still exist of it. Tlie prin- 
oinal are the Bodleian, the Cotton ian, and the Harleian. 
There is one in the library of the Herald's College. There are 
•light variations in the text of each, and that at the Herald's 

College appears to have had the language modernised bv seiae 
early copyist. little r^^d was paid to Robert by the per- 
sons who, in the reign of Elizabeth, collected and pnm'>i 
the manuaeripts of the best English chroniderBy thou^b 
Camden, in his * Britannia,' and stiU more ftequently m h^ 
* Remains^' has citations from him. Weever, io his * M- 
tient Funeral Monuments,' has many qnotationa from him : 
and Selden quotes him on several oecasions. The work wsi 
given at large to the public in 1 724^ by Heame. in two oc- 
tavo volumes, of which there was a reprint in ISIO. 

ROBERT (GR08SETESTE). bishop of Lincoln, a vt n 
eminent scholar and prelate in the early years of the rei^tk 
of Henry IIL The exact time and the place of his binh. 
and the family from which he sprung, are alike loac in ti/e 
obscurity of those remote times; but it may be calculated 
from the dates ascertained of other events in bis \if€, that ht 
was bom about the year U7S. He studied at Ox&rd, and. 
like most of the very eminent of the English theologiau« J 
that period, he went from thence to Paris. He there applied 
himself to the study of the Hebrew and Greek languages, ^.i 
both of which he attained the mastery, anddistinguiahed him- 
self by his attainments in the whole course of study pseftentej 
to the students in that learned university. He returned t» 
England skilled not only in the five langaagea, EngluiL 
French, Latm, Greek, and Hebrew, but skilled also in lo«e 
and philosophy, divinity and the Scriptures, and possess;:!.^ 
also a knowledge of medicine and eoclesiastieal law. There ts 
no exaraeration in this« lor many of his writings ba^e <le 
scendea to our time, which prove the statement, to a €oaa>- 
derable e&tent at least We may refer particularly to hu 
numerous treatises in natural philosophy, whidEi it will not 
be expected of us to describe individually, as the titles, with 
little more respecting thero. fill four quarto pages of Dr. 
Pegge's Life of him (4to., 1793, p. 278-283i. 

When he returned to England, he settled at OxfimL 
where he delivered lectures. There is extant a letter of 
Giraldus Cambrensis to the bishop of Herelbrd, recom- 
mending Grosseteste to his notice, but the bidiop died m 
soon after, that little advantage can have arisen from it 
He found however a very efficient patron in another prelafc 
namely, Hugh do Wells, bishop of Lincoln, who, aa a fint 
mark of bis favour, gave him the prebend of Clifton ia ibe 
chu rch of Li nooln. H e^d also several archdeaconries, as of 
Chester, Northampton, and Leicester, and in 1 235 he sue- 
ceeded his patron in the bishoprioof Liitcoln, then a dioccM 
of immense extent. This dignity he held for eighteen yesfi, 
dying in 1253. 

Bishop Grosseteste made the power which his aeknov- 
ledgedaud extraordinary attainments gave him, subservieot 
to the accomplishment of important public objects. He «u 
a great reformer of his diocese, a vigilant superintendaat uf 
his clergy, a maintatner of oider among them and in ail 
ecclesiastical affairs. If one of the great earls or baroni 
offended, he did not scruple to assert at once the right ht 
possessed to correct the abuse, of which au instance is relatrd 
in his calling the earl of Warren to acoount for irregular rt- 
ligious solemnications. He stood up against the kini^ wh«a 
he would interfer'e with the rights of the eler^, who foimcd 
in those times the strongest part of the opposition to the « .11 
of kiuKs, who, if there had been no elergy, would havt 
been almost absolute ; and he opposed with equal flmior» 
and sucoeas the pope, when he would support an tient abu9«9 
or introduce new to the injury of the English clergy ur 
people. In short he can hardly be regard^ in any other 
light than one of the great benefactors to CheEngliah church 
and nation in thediscnarge of his political duties as a btsbop, 
and he was one of the lights of his age by the lectures whirh 
be delivered end the books which he wrote. 

His attainments in natural science gained for him the 
reputation of being a magician and a sorcerer, and many 
fisbles gathered about his name. 

Many of his writings have been printed, and many re- 
main in manuscript, and are found in most of the great 
libraries of Europe. An ample list of these is given in Dr. 
Pegge's work before referred to ; in which work may be 
found critical inquiries into all the particidars of bis lifr, 
and a great mass of curious information respeeting the state 
of ecdesiastioal affairs in England in the first half of the 
thirteenth century. 

ROBERT. LEOPOLD, a modem Franeh artist of gieac 
and deserved celebrity, was bom at Chaux-le-Fonds» in the 
canton of NeuchStel, in 1797. His father intended w 
bring him up to his own trader which was that of a wmlch- 




processes to himself, in order that he might have a superi- 
ority over his rivals in solving such prohlems as were pro- 
Cd to them. The statement may he correct, but if so, it 
, jwned that the French mathematician, by his reserve, 
like many others in similar circumstances, lost the honour 
which he might have obtained ; a just punishment, observes 
Montucla, for thene who, from such unworthy motives, make 
a mystery of their discoveries. At the end of the treatise 
of Roberval on this subject, there is explained a method of 
finding the areas of spaces comprehended between curve- 
lines of indefinite length, and it may be that the credit of 
the discovery is doe to him, though it is right to observe 
that the investigation of such areas had been made in Eng- 
land by James Gregory and Dr. Barrow before the publica- 
tion of Roberval*s work. Curves with infinite branches, 
and which admit of an exnresaion for the area between them, 
were called Robervallian lines by Torricelli. 

Roberval discovered an ingenious method of determining 
the direction of a tangent at any point of a curve- line by 
• the rule for the composition of forces or motions ; but he 
applied it only to the conic sections in which the component 
forces are supposed to act in the directions of lines drawn 
from the point in the curve to the foci. It appears that 
TorrioelU laid claim to the first discovery of the method, 
which he asserts that he had made in 1644, but Roberval 
states, in a letter to the Italian philosopher, that he was 
acquainted with it in 1636, and that in 1640 he had com- 
municated it to Format. 

As early as the year 1616, P. Mersenne suggested the 
idea of the cycloid, and having made some fruitless attempts 
to find its area, he proposed the subject to Roberval in 1628 ; 
the latter, not succeeaing immediately, abandoned the re- 
search, and apparently thought nothing of it during about 
ten years. At the end of that time, the question bem«; re- 
vived, he resumed the inquiry with the advantage of greater 
experience, and fortunately discovered a method by which 
the area might be determined. Descartes afterwards pro- 
posed to Roberval and Format to determme the position of 
a tangent to the cycloid, and the latter soon resolved the 
problem, but the former appears to have failed, or to have 
suoceeded with difficulty, and only after many trials. He 
subsequently however discovered the rules for finding the 
▼olumes of the solids formed by the revolution of a cycloid 
about its base and about its axis. 

In 1646, Descartes, Roberval, and Huyghens attempted 
at the same time to investigate the duration of the oscilla- 
tions made by planes and solids moving about an axis ; and 
here Roberval appears to have been more successful than 
his competitors, though the state of science was not then 
sufficiently advanced to allow any of them to attain a solu- 
tion which should be applicable to every kind of vibrating 

None of Robervars works were printed during his life, 
except a treatise on Statics, which was inserted by Mersenne 
in his * Harmonic XJniverselle.* The others were published 
by his friend the Abb6 Galois, in 1693, among the mathe- 
matical and physical works in the old ' Memoires ' of the 
Academy of Sciences. These relate chiefly to the subjects 
above mentioned, and include a treatise on the ' Recognition 
and Construction of Equations,' a work of little utility, 
since it is fbrmed agreeably to the ideas of Descartes and 
Format, and is expressed in the language and notation of 
Vieta. Among them also i» an account of a new kind of 
balance (a sort of steelyard) which Rober\'al had invented, 
and which was thought to be useful in finding the weight 
or pressure of the air. 

Roberval, unfortunately for his fame, appears among the 
opponents of Descartes in matters relating to algebra : he 
is said to have made some objections to the theorems of his 
countryman in the construction of equations and concerning 
the nature of the roots; but the objections are without 
foundation, and serve only to expose his own jealousy and 

To Roberval is ascribed the reply, ' Qu*est ce que cela 
prouve ?* when, having been present at the representation of 
a trageily, some one asked wnat impression it had made on 
him. The story is perhaps untrue, but such a circum- 
stance is not improbable, since, in those days, science was 
profoundly studied, and the "mathematicians were so com- 
pletely absorbed in their pursuits, that they had little time 
to spare for other subjects. It is said that Robervd could 
never expreu his ideas with clearness and precision, and 
certainly readers well acquainted with tl^e aptiont methods 

of investigation can with diffieulty fi)llowhtiii to bis tedioo 

He was elected a member of the Academy of ScieD» 
when the latter was formed (1665), and he died in the }ei: 

ROBES, MASTER OF THE, an officer of the houM^ 
hold who has the ordering of the king's robes. By statu* 
51 Henry UL, the 'Gardein de la Garderobe de Roi,* ti- 
warden of the king's wardrobe, was to make acoompt year < 
in the Exchequer, on the feast of St Margaret. Under i 
queen, the designation of the office is changed to that of i 
mistress of the robes. The office has always been ooe ' : 
great dignity. High privileges were conferred upon it bi 
King Henry VI., and others by King James I.^ who ereciei 
the office of roaster of the robes into a corporation. 

SEPH ISIDORE, was bom at Arras in 1759. His fatbe, 
a provincial advocate of no reputation, quitted Frsi>;s 
during the infancy of his children, who were not long after- 
wards left in a desolate condition by the death of th«tr 
mother. Fran9ois Maximilien was the eldest, and Au- 
gustin Bon Joseph the second son: the third child wa»» 
daughter. Augustin imitated his brother, and perislted 
with him ; the daughter lived in quiet respectability, ird 
became a pensioner of the state. 

Through the kindness of the bishop of .4(ras, Robes- 
pierre was well educated at Paris. He studied juri^prj- 
dence; and having returned to his native town, foUovcf! 
his father's profession, in which he gained some reputa- 
tion. By his legal talents* and his situation aa president 
of the academy at Arras, he obtained an influence, through 
which, on the summoning of the States-General in 1 7bv, 
he was elected a deputy of the tiers-^tat. No sooner 
was he elected, than he went to Versaillea to enter 
on his duties. Within the Assembly, for several months 
after its meeting, he was of little importance ; without it* 
doors he gradually gained authority by gatherine idlers snd 
adventurers round him in the coffee-houses, and haranguing 
them on liberty and equality. It was by dexterity of td- 
dress, and the coincidence or adaptation of the opinion» 
which he expressed, to those of his low, discontented, and 
excited hearers, that this authority was raised. He had uo 
physical advantages tp assist him : he was a short insig- 
nificant-looking man ; his features small, his complexion 
pale, his face deeply marked with the small-pox, and b • 
voice harsh, shrill, and disagreeable. Notwithstandicc 
these disadvantages, he increased in popular estimation. Ii 
was on the 1 7th of June, 1789, that he delivered his fir»t 
speech in the Assembly. From that time he daily threw 
aside more and more of the backwardness and reserve that 
he had hiiherto maintained: he clearly saw that the weak- 
ness and want of energy in the government were so great, 
that he might with safety assert in the National AssembU 
the most violent democratic opinions, and throw the popu- 
lace into excitement. His importance in the Assembly \ias 
in a great measure attributable to the prominent part which 
he played in the Jacobin Club. [Jacobins.] This club 
already contained so many members, that the large church 
in which its meetings were held was continually filled, and 
it had corresponding affiliated societies throughout the pro- 
vinces, which disseminated its revolutionary views and pn>> 
jects, and rendered its power most formidable. Here wa» 
Robespierre's principal scene of action; here he decric<l 
every attribute of monarchy, and denounced those who wouM 
control the people as conspirators against their country, 
knowing that the pikemen of the suburbs, bloodthirsty aivd 
ungovernable, took th^ speeches of the Jacobins for their 
word of command. Robespierre laid down this principle. 
' that France must be revolutionised ;' and for this object 
he laboured with a determination which his opponents couU 
find no means of diminishing. It was certain that lie 
could not be tampered with ; and the Jacobin newspapers 
daily overflowing with his praises, sumamed him * The 
Incorruptible.' His exclusion from the Legislative As- 
sembly, to which he was rendered ineligible by a vote in 
which he himself had joined, enabled him to devote ht> 
whole time and energies to the direction of the Jacob. u 
Club. Its violence had somewhat diminished, but its pov<.r 
was increased by the enrolment of many of the mumcip^ 
officers, who could carry out its projects by their authont} . 
(Thiers.) At this time he was named Publie Accuser. 

When the attack was made upon the Tuileries (Aug, U\ 
179i2)i Robespi?rr9 w^B not present; apd for three dajt 




-iftcrwards be forsook the Club and remained in seclusion. 

It was liis custom neither to take an active part in the great 

nvcrt acts of massacre or rebellion, nor to appear imme- 

1 uitcly after their commis:}ion ; but rather to pause awhtle« 

t hat he might see by what means they might best be turned 

t'j the promotion of his political objects, and the increase of 

hiH own popularity. It war with joy that he saw the Na- 

f loiial Assembly suspend the royal authority and call upon 

' he nation to elect a convention which should determine 

on a new form of government. He became a member of 

t ho Convention; and on its opening (Sep. 21, 1792), seated 

t ) irnself on the ' montagne,' or higher part of the room, oc- 

(Ml pied by the most violent, which was also rapidly becoming 

t he most powerful party. It was now that Robespierre first 

ajipcarcd in the foremost rank, which comprised the most 

powerful men: until now, notwithstanding all his effort^ 

tie h ad liad superiors even in his own party ; — in the days of 

I he Constituent Assembly, the well-known leaders of the 

t i rne ; d urine the continuance of the Legislative Assembly, 

: hissot and P^thion; and^on the 10th of August, Dantou. 

1 u the fint assembly he could attract notice only by the 

iMofession of extravagant opinions; during the second he 

becaroe more moderate, because his rivals were innovators; 

:ind he roaintained peace before the Jacobins, because his 

rivals called for war. Now, as we have said, he was in the 

iirbt rank, and bis chief aim was to annihilate the Girondins, 

\v lio hoped, on the other hand, that the eminence he had at- 

tamed was insecure as well as high, and that he might be 

overihrown himself. Barbarous, Rebecqui, and Louvet 

'hired to accuse him of seeking to be dictator. But the time 

harl not come for accusations to be successful; the tide of his 

popularity had not turned. He demanded time to prepare 

ills defence, and absented himself for eight days both from 

i he Convention and the Jacobin Club. During this absence 

the Jacobins protested his innocence and intimidated his 

uccui^ers, the excitement in the Convention subsided, and 

on his re-appearance he was triumphantly exculpated. 

At this time the king was in prison, but his days were 
fl rawing to a close. Robespierre vehemently combated those 
who either asserted the necessity of a trial or declared the 
king inviolable: he demanded that he should be beheaded 
at once, and promoted unscrupulously the execution of his 
whole family. The death of the king augmented both party 
strife and private bitterness; each faction and each leader 
had some rival to destroy. The Montagnards struggled with 
the Girondins for supremac)', gained their end, and mas- 
sacred their opponents. The kingdom was chiefly go- 
verned by the Committee of Public Safety [Committee of 
Public Safety], of which Robespierre, Couthon, and St. 
Just became the triumvirate. Tneir schemes for a moral 
regeneration will be found in all the histories of the time, 
and also an account of Robespierre's presidency at the great 
public acknowledgment of the existence of a Deity. This 
t(»ok place when his career was nearly run, when there were 
divisions in the Montagne, where he had lost the support of 
many who, though they had been rivals, had been likewise 
powerful allies, when Marat had been assassinated, when 
lie hud sanctioned the execution of P6lhion and Danton 
and Desmoulins, when he had put a countless host of vic- 
tims to death, and raised a proportionate number of enemies. 
lu July, 1794, his adversaries became too strong for him: 
Billaud-Varennes, one of his own party, jointly with the 
remnant of the Dantonists, who still were furious because of 
the execution of their leader, accused Robespierre of seek- 
i ng his own aggrandizement by the sacrifice of his colleagues. 
In vain Robespierre retired, in vain he took forty.days to 
prepare his defence, in vain he strained every nerve to 
refute tlieir charges. After a scene of frightful excite- 
ment, ho was condemned to death, his brother, Coutbon, St. 
J ust, and Lebas being included in the same condemnation. 
Robespierre was separated from the other prisoners, and led 
to the gaol at the Luxembourg. Here accident gave him a 
chance of escape. The gaoler, who was his friend, released 
him ; he inarched against the Convention with a number of 
soldiers and partisans, and it is not impossible that he might 
have re-established his power, if he had possessed courage, 
Qtid his allies dexterity. As it was, he was again seized, 
and having blown his jaw to pieces, in an unsuccessful 
oiiempt to destroy himself, was dragged groaning to the 
guillotine, amidst tlie taunts and ticclamations of the 

The characters of few men have been more deservedly 
(leofied ttian that ^f Robespierre. H9 was tQ^ally without 

any great quality; he was cowardly, cruel, and vain; 
' one of the most intimate compounds of self-esteem ana 
circumspection that ever met in the same character.' His 
success, which was partly due to his egotism, ' his excessive 
caution not to commit himself, made him the safest guide 
and model Ibr all that multitude of cautious egotists which 
form so large a portion of human society.' {Edin. Rev^ 
vol. Ixxii., p. 428.) ' He had another great source of 
strength in being the very apostle and prolocutor of the 
populace, of that vague and indefinite religion which Ro&- 
seau had created, and which then enjoyed so immense a 
popularity ->a religion of sentiment without belief.' He was 
honest in his efforts for the democratic cause, he never 
sought money, and he well deserved the name of 'Incor- 
ruptible.' He long depended on his sister for support, and 
died worth fifty francs. The powers of his mind, his judg- 
ment, and his oratory have been frequently underrated ; he 
must have been at least plausibly eloquent: he chose with 
adroitness the topics upon which he spoke; he was acute, 
and had considerable foresight. But on the whole, his low 
and vile qualities so greatly predominated, that he was not 
only the terror of the monarchical and aristocratic party, but 
he likewise injured the democratic cause, for he was guilty 
of no small portion of that violence and cruelty which ren* 
dered a reaction inevitable. 

(Thiers, HisL French Rev. ; Mignet; Walter Scott, HisU 
of Nap., vol. i. ; Carlyle, Hist. French Rev. ; Mad. de Stael, 
Thoughts on the French Rev. ; Ed. Rev., vol. Ixxii. ; Biog» 

ROBIN HOOD. [Hood, Robin.] 

ROBI'NIA, a name given to a genus of plants in com- 
memoration of John Robin, a botanist in the time of Henry 
IV. of France. This genus is known by having an inferior 
perianth ; teeth of calyx 5, lanceolate, two upper ones shorter 
and approximate; corolla papilionaceous ; ovary with from 16 
to 20 ovules ; st} le bearded in front, and legume subsessile 
and many-seeded. They are North American trees, bearing 
nodding racemes of white or rose-coloured flowers. The 
genus Kobinia formerly comprehended the plants now in- 
cluded under Caragana, from which it is distinguished by 
its long gibbous legume and unequally pinnate leaves. 

The best known species of Robinia is the R, pseud- 
acacia, the Bastard or False Acacia, or Locust-tree. It has 
stipular prickles, with loose pendulous racemes of white 
sweet-smelling flowers, which, as well as the legumes, are 
smooth. This tree, which is now so well known, was first 
grown in Europe by Vespasien Robin, the son of the bota- 
nist, after whom the genus was named, in the Jardin des 
Plantes at Paris. It was named locust-tree by the mission- 
aries, who supposed it to be the same tree as that which 
grows in Asia, and is supposed to have produced the locusts 
spoken of in the New Testament It was one of the first 
trees received in Europe from North America, where it 
grows in great abundance. It grows m the Atlantic States 
of North America, but it is very abundant in (he south-west, 
in the valleys of the Alleghany Mountains. It is also found 
in the Western states and in Upper and Lower Canada. 

Since its first introduction into Europe, this tree has met 
with very different treatment, at one time being extolled as 
the most valuable of trees, at another time condemned as 
worthless. This has arisen in a great measure fVom the 
soils and situations in which it has been accidentally culti- 
vated. It has always been known in America as affording 
an exceedingly hard and durable wood; hence it has been 
recommended to be cultivated on this account, but the 
^reat tendency which this tree possesses to branching and 
Its seldom attaining a great size render it impossible to ob- 
tain from it timber of a useful kind. In America it is used 
for making posts, and occasionally trees are found large 
enough to be employed in ship-building ; but its greatest 
consumption is for making trenails, by which the timbers of 
ships are fastened together, and for this purpose large quan- 
tities are used in the royal dock-yard at Plymouth, which 
are imported from America. 

Cattle are fond of the young shoots, and on this account 
it has been recommended to be cultivated as forage. At 
one time it was thought to be an excellent tree for planting 
on the banks of rivers and canals, as the roots, being very 
large and spreading, would bind the soil together. In 1823, 
Cobbett wrote on this tree, recommending it strongly in his 
various publications. He imported immense quantities of 
the seeds from America for the purpose of growing the 
plants for s^Ie. He stated that in thjs way he had distri- 





buted in Great ftrifiUo nlofe tlisln si tnlllioTi of plants. His 
praUea of the tree were extrflvagarit in ihti eil^tfnld atld it 
084 Tailed to at^Bwet ttiost ot the promises that he held out. 
The tree \h of rapid growth when young, and forms heart- 
^odd at a very early age. In America it attains a height 
of 70 or 80 feet, hut in this countrv it is seldom seen so 
high. Its tendency to form branches, even when voting, 
prevents its being used for hop-poles as recommenaed by 

The roots ahd oihIJr i)aHl of the plattt« lihtt ttatiy of its 
di*der (LeguminoB®), contain a saccharine principle, which 
kccounts for the nutritive propcrties^f the leaves. In St 
Domingo the flowers are used for making a distilled liquor, 
which is said to be very delicious. It folds up its leaves at 
the approach of night. 

The tree grows best on a soil of sandy loam, rich rather 
than poor ; a good garden soil is the )i)e8t. It should not be 
planted in exposed situations, as, from the great brittleness 
of iti branches, it is likely to be destroyed by winds. It 
may be propagated by cuttings from the roots or by plant- 
ing large truncheons or suckers, but producing it from 
seeds is the best mode« The seeds should be sown in the 
spring, and in the summer of the following year they may 
be transplanted. The seeds will not retain their vitality more 
than two years. American seed should be always used, as 
it does not come to perfection in this country. 

There are two other species frequently cultivated in this 
country, i?. viicosa. Clammy Robinia, and /?. At^/^'da. Hairy 
Robinia, or Rose Acaoia. The former is charaeteriied by the 
sticky seeretiotl With which it is covered, and which has 
been discovered to possess a peculiar vegetable principle ; 
the latter, which is the smallest of the three species here 
mentioned, has very large flowers, and forms a very orna- 
mental shrub when grown on an espalier rail or against a 

ROBINS, or R06YNS, JOHN, an English astronomer 
and mathematician, who was born in Staffordshire, about 
the close of the fifteenth century or the beginning of the 
sixteenth, as It appears he was entered a student at Ox- 
ford in 151 G, and eoAicated for the church. In MS. Digby, 
l«t3, are preserved several inedited tracts by Robins, and 
from a note at the end it appears that he was of Merton 
College. It seems that, in common with many others of 
that college, he devoted himself to the study of the sciences, 
and he soon made such a progress^ says Wood, in ' the 
pleasant studies of mathematics and astrology^ that he be- 
came the ablest person in his time for those studies, not 
excepting his fnend Recorde,* whose learning was more 
general. Having taken the degree of bachelor of divinity, 
in the year 1531, he was the year following made by King 
Henry VIII., to whom he was chaplain, one of the canons 
of his college in Oxford. In December, 1543, he was made 
a canon of Windsor, and afterwards one of the chaplains to 
Queen Mary, who highly esteemed him for his learning. 
He died on the 25th of August, 1558, and was buried in the 
chapel of St. George at Windsor. He left behind him 
several works in manuscript, of which two, ' De Culmina- 
tione Stella rum Fixarum,' and * De Ortu et Occasu Slella- 
rum Fixarum,* are preserved in MS. Digby, l43, in the 
Bodleian Librar]^. According to Wood, Sir Kenelm Digby 
also possessed three other tracts by Robyns, vix. : 1, ' Anno- 
tationes Astrologies,* lib. 3; 2, ' Annolationes Edwardi 
VI. ;' 3, *Tractatus de Prognosticatione per Ecclipsin ;' and 
Wood adds that these were also in the Bodleian Library. 
We suspect Wood is hero in error, for in the sale catalogue 
of tho library of George, earl of Bristol, sold by auction in 
April, 1680, a copy of which is in the BriiUh Museum, we 
find an account of several manuscripts said formerly to have 
belonged to Sir Kenelm Digby. and among these (No. 49) 
is'Johaonis Robyns Annotationes Astrologicse.* We are 
inclined to think that Wood may have taken the titles from 
the catalogue of Thomas Allen*s library, in the Ashmolean 
Museum, nearly the whole of which came into the bands of 
Kenelm Digby, and that the two titles of * Annotationes* do 
in reahty belong to the same book. We are not aware that 
any oopy of this work of Robyns*s is now in existence, 
although there are some extracu from it in MS. Bodl. 3467, 
and the loss of it is perhaps not much to be regretted. 
Wood slightly refers to a book by Robyns under the title of 
* De Portontosis Comet is,* but he says that he had never seen 
a oopy. Bale however mentions having seen one in the 
Royal Library at Westminster, and this copy is now in the 
Brituh Museum. Shvrburne, in the appendix lo his *Mttui- 

lius,' mentions another in the poaeessioD of GMe^ and \h i 
is tioW in the librarf of Trinity College^— O. >. 1 L W^ 
fliid also that xhptH h atill aiiothar eopy io the AsfamoU r 
Museum, MS. No; 16d. The prefeoa to thia latter tttrb 
which is partly plagiarised from Ciceni, ia printed in Hi; 
well's ' Rara If athematica.* p. 48-64. 

ROBINS, BENJAMIN, a celebrated mntlieiDitic. ' 
and artillerist, was bom at Bath, in 1707, of parents *•> 
were members of the society of Friends, and in auch hunt^* 
dircomstances as to be unable to give their son the beueti « 
of a learned education. By the aid however of aome uiTi. 
fsional instruction and* tllifid by natnre farmed to comrrr* 
bend readily the piDoesses of mathetliatieal in^estigati .> 
he early attained to a eonsiderable proficiencsr in iIm f u.r 
sciences ; and, as the best means of being enabled to f ri«»t' 
cute his favourite studies, he determined to establiab hiiii>*'/ 
in London as a private teaoher. 8ome speeknans of ;: % 
skill in the solution of problems having been forvrardcd w 
Dr. Pemberton, this learned mathematician oonceivcd k 
favourable an opinion of his abilities as to encourage b:in .:. 
bis design ; and aeoordmgly, about the year 17SS, Mr. Robu > 
came to town, in the garb and professing tfaa doctrines ei a 
Quaker. The former, after a. time, he exehanged ibr ti;^ 
ordinary dress of the country. 

In the metropolis, and apparently in the iBterrals c^f 
leisure which his employment as a teacher afforded, Mr. 
Robins applied himself to the study of the modern Um* 
guages» and diligently cultivated the higher department* of 
science by readins^ the works of the antieni aiid the bf^t 
modem geometers; these he appears to have naatered w\Ur 
out difficulty, and in 1727 he distinguished himself bv 
writing a demonstration, which was inserted in the * Piwu^ 
sophtcal Transactions' for that year, of the eleventh propi^ 
sition in Newton's treatise on quadratures. 

During the following year he published, in a work entitltrl 
the 'Present State of the Republic of Lettefi,' a refutation 
of John Bernoulli's treatise on the measure of the act.Ti 
forces of bodies in motion, a subject whieh had been proposoi 
as a prize question by the Royal Academy of Betencefi n 
Paris, and successfully answered byMaclaurin. The foreign 
mathematician had endeavoured to support the hypothec i» 
of Leibnitz, that the forces are proportional to the square 
of the velocities which they produce, while both Maclaur.n 
and Robins were in f&vour of the original opinion of Do- 
cartes, that the forces are proportional to the relociiio 

About this time Mr. Robins began to make those ex- 
periments for determining the resistance of the air a(?ain«t 
military projectiles, which have gained for him so much re- 
putation. He is said also to have directed the energies if 
his mind to the construction of mills, the building of bndjio. 
draining marshes, and making rivers navigable ; but it d(v« 
not appear that he was ever employed in carryiitg su'ii 
works into execution. The methods of fortifying places bt< 
came a favourite study with Mr. Robins, and, in comps::^ 
with some persons of distinction, probably his pupils. ht> 
made several excursions to Flanders, where he baa opportu- 
nities of examining on the ground the works of the giesi 
masters in the art. 

In 1734, the celebrated bishop of CHoyne, author of tl •' 
'Treatise on Human Knowledge,* pnMished a small work 
called the 'Analyst,' in which, without intending to denv 
the accuracy of the results, it is attempted to be shown that 
the principles effluxions, as they were delivered by Sjr I»jjc 
Newton, are not founded upon strictly correct reasoning, in- 
asmuch as it is assumed that the ratio between two van«i^:c 
quantities may have a finite or infinite value when ttc 
quantities are nascent or evanescent ; that is, as the objector 
supposes, when both quantities become zero. The object ]ifit 
is founded on a misunderstanding of the subject, for by the 
term nascent or evanescent is meant, not tnat each qusu- 
tity is nothing, but that both are infinitely small, or that 
they are less than any thing assignable; in which cs-e 
one of them may, notwithstanding, exceed the other 
in magnitude a finite or even an infinite number of 
times.. The talents of both Maclaurln and Robins wer? 
employed in answering the objection ; and lor this purpi>.«« 
the latter published, in 1 735, * A Discourse oonoernmg thi 
Certainty of Sir I. Newton's Method of Fluxions, and of 
Prime and Ultimate Ratios.' It is easy to imagine how e^ cr 
that great difficulty would at first be felt in admittin); a 
principle so different firom any which occurs in the antir m 
geometry J and, before the subject was set at rest, Mr 




of thftl time he accepted (1770) the appointment of secretary 
to admiral Sir Charles Knowles, who had been invited by 
the empress of Rassia to superintend the improvements 
which that sovereign contemplated making in her navy. 
Two years after his arrival at St. Petersburg, Sir Charles 
became president of the board of admiralty, and Robison 
was made inspector of the corps of maritime cadets at Cron- 
itadt, with a liberal salary and the rank of lieutenant- 
colonel in the Russian service. He gave no instructions, 
but his duty was to receive the reports of the masten, and to 
class the cadets in the order of their merits ; this he per- 
ibrmed for four years, but finding Cronstadt a dreary place 
of residence during the winter, he accepted the professorship 
of natural philosophy at Edinburgh, which had become 
vacant by the death of Dr. Russel. He arrived in that city 
in June. 1 774, bringing with him two or three of the Rus- 
sian cadets, whose education he had undertaken to super- 
intend ; and in the same year he gave a series of lectures 
on mechanics, optics, electricity, astronomy, &a This course 
he continued to deliver annually during the rest of his life, 
except when ill health obliged him to appoint a substitute 
for the purpose, improving each subject from time to time 
by the introduction of every important discovery which it 
received from the researches of his contemporaries. The 
lectures are said to have been distinguished by accuracy of 
deflnilion and clearness as well as brevity of demonstration ; 
and the experiments by which they were illustrated, to have 
been performed with neatness and precision. But it has 
been objected to them that tbey were delivered with a ra- 
pidity of utterance which made it difficult for the students 
to follow him; that he supposed his pupils to possess a 
higher degree of preparatory informatiou than they had in 
general attained, even when they had gone through the 
university course of study, and that the experiments were 
too few in serve the purpose intended by them. 

It may be thought that the second objection might have 
been obviated by merely requiring, in the pupils who were to 
attend the course of lectures, an adequate portion of mathe- 
matical knowledge previous to their admission ; but it is pro- 
bable that the ground of the complaint lay, partly, in the 
difficulties inseparable from the oommunication of scientific 
instruction by general lectures. The result attained after a 
geometrical investigation on paper may be admitted by a 
reader who can take the time necessary to satisfy himself of 
the truth of the several steps and of their dependence on 
each other ; but this is seldom possible when the investiga- 
tion is delivered from the mouth of a lecturer, who must go 
on with his subject without waiting for the slow operations of 
the judgment in the mind of his auditor, and the conse- 
quences too often are that, at the expiration of the hour, the 
latter carries away only a number of ideas in a state of in- 
extricable confusion. In former ages, when books were 
scarce, there was no other method of conveying instruction 
to a number of persons than tliat of general lectures ; but at 
present such lectures can only be useful as auxiliaries in 
teschiog the physical sciences, and probably the chief ad- 
vantage to be derived from them consists in the oppor- 
tunities they afford for exhibiting experiments which it may 
not be in the power of students individually to make. It 
seems to follow that such exhibitions should not be omitted 
whenever they can be made conducive to the illustration 
of the subject. 

On settling in Edinbureh, Mr. Robison became a mem- 
ber of the Philosophical Society of that city. In 1785 he 
was attacked by a disorder which was attended with pain and 
depression of spirits, but he was only occasionaUy prevented 
from performing his duties and following his literary avoca- 
tions. In 1 798 be was made doctor in laws by the Univer- 
sity of New Jersey ; and in the following year, by that of 
Glasgow; and in 1800 he was elected a foreign member of 
the Academy of Sciences at Sl Petersburg. In 1785 he 
wrote a paper which was published in the first volume of 
the 'Philosophical Transactions of Edinburgh,* on the de- 
term ioation, from his own observations, of tlie orbit and 
niotion of the Georgium Sidus; and he afterwards wrote 
one which appeared in the second volume of the same work, 
on the motioo of light as affected by reflecting and refract- 
ing substances which are themselves in motion. But his 
most imoortant works are the numerous articles which, in 
1793 and the following years, he contributed to the third 
edituHi of the 'Encyclopaedia Britannica* and its supple- 
ment : a series of treatises which may be considered as 
Amnuig a eomplete body of physical icienee for that time. 

Mr. Robisoa wis prevailed upon to superintend the p. 
lication of Dr. Blank's lectures on cnemistryr, and i. 
came out in 1803, but that science had undergone so r. 
a change since the death of the learned lecturer, thai i . 
work excited little interest In the following y esir be p . 
lisbed a portion, containing dvnamics and astronomy. •>!' 
book entitled 'Elements of Mechanical Philosophy;' ^. 
the substance of it, together with that of some M."^"* 
which had been intended by the author to form part of :!- 
second volume, and also the principal articles which b. 
been written for the ' Encydopfodta Britanniea,' were r .. 
lected by Dr., now Sir David, Brewster, under the titU .. 
'A System of Mechanical Philosophy,' and published i. 
1822, with notes, in 4 vols. 8vo. Tins work is oonsidert:*: 
by the late Professor Playfair as firmly establiahing :^^ 
character of Mr. Robison for scientific attainments. 

While Mr. Robison was on his journey to Russia in i TTl. 
he was hospitably entertained by the bishop of Ui^ge, vi^ 
with all his chapter, constituted a lodge of neemaaons ; a: : 
into this society our traveller was induced to enter. Ii ^ 
unknown from what source he obtained his informs:.:*:; 
respecting its proceedings, but twenty- nine years af^erva» U 
he published a remarkable work containing * A Historr u 
the German llluminati.' whom he describes as the asJiji^ 
in a plot formed by the freemasons to overturn all the' re i- 
gions and governments of Europe. The work met «r^ 
little attention, and Robison was charged |rith a degree i; 
credulity scaicely to be expected in a person so weli Oi • 
quainted with the laws of philosophical evidence. 

Having taken a slight cold, and suffered an illness of orilr 
two days' duration, Mr. Robison died on the 30th of JaiiL- 
ary, 1805, in the 66th year of his age, leaving a widow aui 
four children. He is stated to have been a person of pre- 
possessing cotmtenance* a good linguist, a draughtsman, 
and an accomplished musician ; and it is added that his con- 
versation was both energetic and interesting. 

ROBORTELLO, FRANCIS, was born of a nol.. 
family, September 9lh, 1516. He was educated at Bolo^ra 
under the celebrated Romulo Amaseo, and he began about 
1538 to teach the belles-lettres at Lucca. Five years afiez- 
wards be went to Pisa, where he lived during the next fivr 
years, and laid the foundation of his fame, which was io^ j 
spread over the whole of Italy. In 1549 the senate oi 
Venice elected him successor to Battista Egnaxio, professor 
of rhetoric there, whose advanced age obliged him to retjr« 
from public duties. In 1552 Robortello was promoted \o 
the chair of Greek and Latin literature in the university <>i 
Padua, in the place of Lasaro Buonamici, who died in lint 
year. Thence he removed in 1557 to Bologna, in order Ij 
undertake a similar ofiice in that city. Having been ap 
pointed to pronounce here the funeral oration in honour of 
the emperor Charies V., who died in 1558, he is said U) 
have forgotten the exordium, and to have been incapab.e 
of proceeding, which brought him into some disrepuie. 
About this time he had violent disputes with Sigoniua, in 
which Robortello appears to have been the aggressor, a^i 
which did not terminate till the senate of Venice emplo\e 1 
their authority in imposing silence upon both. Roborte..j 
died at Padua, March 18th, 1567, in the fifty-fint year m.' 
his age, so poor that he did not leave enough to defray th^ 
expenses of his funeral, which however was celebrated is 
the University in a style of great magnificence. 

Robortello seems to have been naturally pugnacious, an i 
he was continually involving himself in disputes with me.i 
superior to himself. He could not refrain from attack :r.<: 
such writers as Erasmus, Paulo Manuxio» Muretus, a:; a 
Henry Stephens. He was however a man of oonsiderab.e 
talent and learning, and he published several books of ^e^i 
utility. The following are his principal works: 1, *Var>)> 
rum Locorum Aonotatioues lam iu Gnacisquam in Latin a 
Auctoribus,' Venice, 1543, 8vo. ; ' De Historica Facukat^ * 
&c., Florence, 1 548, 8vo., being several treatises on Greek an d 
Roman literature, all of which are inserted by Gruter in h.t 
'Thesaurus Criiicus.' 3, ' De Convenienti& Supputation:> 
Livians Annorum cum Marmoribus Romania que in Capi- 
tol lo sunt ; De Arte sive Ratione corrigendi Veteres Auctor*^^ 
Disputatio.* Padua, 1557, folio; 4» *De Vitaet Vietu Popuu 
Romani sub Imperatoribus Cabs. Augnstis,* Bologna, 1 j , •. 
folio. Besides these he published editions of Aristotle \ 
'PoeUcs/ the * Tragedies' of i£schylus, the * Tactics' of .h 
lian,' and Longinus * On the Sublime.* 
(Weiss in Biograpkie UniverseUe.) 
ROBUU'NA, [FoRAMiNiFXKA, vol X, p. 3480 

K O C 



ctpftbiliUes as ft naval utation having attracted notice, works 
««€• eommenced, in the reign of Louis XI V., in a.d. 1666 ; 
atiice which timo the immense works curried on have ren- 
dered it one of the most important naval station*} of France. 
An expedition against Rochefort was sent out fiom Eng- 
land« A.D. 1 767, but from cowardice or mismanagement it 
ended in a disgraceful failure. 

The town stands in a low marshy district, which in the 
summer and autumn renders the town unhealthy : it is on 
the northern bank of the Charente, about ten or twelve 
miles from the sea; the river, though not very large, affords 
autficient depth of water at all times to lloat the largest 
vessels. The town is regularly fortified, and the approach 
is defended by forts on the Isle of A ix, and at the mouth or 
on the banks of the river. The ramparts are planted with 
trees. The streets are well laid out, broad, and straight, and 
well lighted with lamps and reflectors ; they are watered daily 
in the summer months by a forcing-pump from a large re- 
servoir. Some of the streets are planted with poplars and 
acacias, and the principal of them terminate on the parade. 
The houses are well built, but low, so as less to impede the 
circulation of tho air. The harbour is formed by the 
Charente. The arsenal is one of the most extensive and 
flncftt in the kingdom; it comprehends an armoury, a large 
dock for building, basins for repairing, and immense store- 
hou»cfi, extending more than 1300 feet, of every necessary 
for equipping vessels, a cannon- foundry, a ropewalk about 
1260 feet long, a victualling-office, barracks, a depot for 
convicts, with a saw-mill, and a mill which cleans the har- 
bour, moves the cylinders for rolling out sheet-mctul, and 
performs other work ; and a fine naval hospital, including 
ei'^htcen wards, besides the officers* apartments, and con- 
taining 1240 iron bedsteads. In the part of the harbour 
reserved for merchantmen, ships of 6 UO tons, fully laden, can 
come up to the quays. There is an Exchange. 

The population of Rochefort, in I»3I, was 10,332 for the 
town, or 14,040 for the whole commune; in 1836 it was 
|j,441 for the commune. Besides the buainess connected 
With tho arsenal, vessels are fitted out for the cod Qahcry, 
and a roTi4idcrahle coasting- trade is carried on. The chief 
export* are v/ine, brandy, corn, and salt. There are three 
} early fairs. Rochefurt has two churches, three chapeU, a 
general hospital, besides that fur the navy, a fuundhng hos- 
pital, a high ftch^x>l, a school of navigation and h>drography, 
a srhofil of naval meflicine, schools of surgery and mathe- 
matics whoois on the monitorial s) stem for drawing, sing- 
ing, and music ; a society of literature, science, and art ; a 
publ.c library of 1 JOO volumes, a library of lU.OUU volumes 
for the navy, a cabinet of natural history, a botanic garden, 
and a theatre. A con%istory of the Reformed (or Calvinistic) 
riiurcii 14 established here; and there is a Protestant Bible 

Tho arrondiHscmcnt of Rochefort contained, in 1831, 
fort}-«fiven communes, and was divided into four cantons or 
districts, each under a justice of the peace. Its population 
at that time «a» 48,sar.. 


of a dHlinguishcd noble family of Fiance, was born in 1613. 
He appeared early at the court of Louis XllL, and showed 
»r>me talents and ambition, but was kept out of employment 
and favour bv the jealousy of Cardinal Richelieu. In the 
early part of the subseauent reign of Louis XIV. he figured 
in the civil war of La Fronde. He attached himself to the 
party of the Duchess of Longueville, whose avowed admirer 
ho was and he was severely wounded at the siege of Bor- 
deaux, and in the battle of St. Antoine at Paris. After 
U>uis XIV. had firmly established the monarchical autho- 
rity. La Rochefoucauld withdrew to private life. In this 
serond part of his career he exhibited private virtues which 
atoned for the fully and violence of his younger years. He 
Won Ultimate with Madame de la Fayette, and with Madame 
de S/:\igii6, who ttpeaks of him, in her correspondence, in 
terms of real esteem. He died in 1680, with calm and 
chri»tian-like re^iignation. The Cardinal de Retz, his con- 
temporary and fellow-partisan, in his 'Memoirs,' says of him, 
that he was always irresolute in his temper ; a good soldier, 
Willi no mditary talent ; a bad courtier, though ambitious of 
flf^uriiig and meddling in intrigue ; but at the same time he 
praiM*t * his natural good sense, the ease and mildness of his 
manners,' and says tuat *he was a very upright man in pri- 
vate life.' La Rochefoucauld left several works, the prin- 

cipal of which are, 'Memoires de la R^ence d*Annr* «•' \ 
triche,' and his * Maximes,' or • Pens^es,' for which he !- 
known'as an author. This book has made much noise u 
world ; it has been aLii'>ed« criticised, controverted, ar. : 
no one can deny that there is a great deal of truth •.' 
though it generalises too much* La Rochefoucauld . 
butes all the actions of men, good or bad, tothemovioi;-?' 
of self-interest. Friend>hip is an excliange of goo«l <•*! 
generosity is the means of gaining good opinion, jus!. • 
self is derived from the fear of »ufiering from the oppr^^-* 
of others. This may be all true, but still there arc* a< t 
in which men can have no self-interest in view, in \i . 
they act from enthusiasm, or a strong sense of clr:.. 
from benevolence, or some motive other than self in:* ! • 
such are, for instance, the self-devotedness of the pu'.i 
the perseverance of the upright man through g"o 1 : 
evil report, the sacritlce made by pure love, and abt>U' 
the calm resignatiun of the Christian martyr. These ... 
other similar instances La Rochefoucauld has not t.i^- 
into account, because probably he had seen no «>(>ec:: • 
of them. La Rochefoucauld has accounted for most ac: r 
of a great proportion of mankind, perhaps by far the irrt.. : . . 
and for so duing he has been abused, because, as a Fr» 
lady observed, he has told every body's secret. He i - 
placed himself, with regard to private morality, in : 
same predicament as Machiavelli with r^ard to pol. 
morality. [Machiavelli.] J. J. Rousseau, who wns < : 
tainly not free from selfishness, has abused La Ro^-ht: .• 
caulds Maxims, and yet in his *£mile' he observes t...: 
'selPishncss is the main spring of all our actions,* ant! t' 
' authors, while they are for ever talking of truth, which S x 
care lit lie about, think chiefly of their own interest, of w :: . ' 
thev do not talk.' La Fontaine, in his fiible (b. i.. 
' L'Hommeet son Image,' has made an ingenious defc. • 
of I^ Rochcfoucauld^s book. 

La Rochefoucauld's 'Maximes' have gone through tu.. 
editions. Tlie 'C£u^Tesde la Rochefoucauld,* 18 1 8, corn i 
besides his already published works, several inedited Xvv • 
and a biographical notice. 

Several other individuals of the same family have i' 
uired an historical name, among others, Louis Alexand: - 
e la Rochefoucauld, Peer of France, who embraced t - 
popular part at the bcf^inning of the great French revoluti . . 
and displayed considerable violence in his sentiments, t •.: 
withstanding which, after the 10th of August, he was cl i- 
sacred by the Jacobins as an aristocrat i 

ROCIIELLE, LA, a town in France, capital of the !.- 
partment of Charente Infcrieure, .301 miles south- we»'. 
Paris bv the road through Orleans, Tours, Poitiers, .<.. 
Niort; in 46° 8' N. lat. and 1* 8' W. long. 

La Roclielle was antienlly a small town and fort be' \ :- 
ing to the lords of Mauleon, from whom it was taken b* ,. 
of the counts of Poitou. On the marriage of Henr>' 11 . 
England with El6onore of Guienne, heiress of P.iii.n. / 
came into the hands of the kings of England, from wh*".. 
obtained considerable municipal privileges. It was t.i;. • 
from the English by Louis VIII., aj). 1-224, wasaj^iii c>- 
to them by the treaty of Bretigny, ad. 1360, but finally .- 
vered, a.d. 137'2. by Duguesclin. Under the French k :..* 
the privileges of the town were further augmented ; the 
portance of the place increa.«ed, and upon the acquis/' • 
of it by the Huguenots, a.d. 1557,. it became a s.trt .. 
republic, and the stronghold of their party. It was i. 
sieged in 1574, by the duke of Anjou, but in vain : the :. .- 
risen was commanded by La None. In 1627 it was n^.. . 
besieged by the royal forces under Louis XIII. and his n 
nister Richelieu. By means of an immense barrier uf i . • ^ 
carried across the entrance of the harbour, assistance :» . 
the sea was precluded, and the attempt of the Engl -i • 
succour the townsmen was defeated by the incapan.v 
the duke of Buckingham, the favourite of Charlc& U v\ 
commanded the expedition. The townsmen, under i 
mayor Guitton, holdout for thirteen months, but, after . 
dergoing the most dreadful extremities from famine, w- 
compelled to surrender, and the power of the Uu^ut •. 
party was finally broken. Rochclle was fortified aiu^u \ 
Vauban, by order of Louis XIV., and is still maintained .* 
a fortified town. 

The town stands on the northern side of a small inl*. i 
the Atlantic, which extends eastward about two niilc» r 
the land, and terminates, just above Rochelle, in a v. : 
marsh. The entrance of this inlet, which serves a^ 
roadsted or outer harbour of the town, is defended bv ^>rt« . 





tiont ire ray good : the roof of the choir and of hoth tnin- 
wpis is raulted and groined, except in one part, which was 
nerer fini&hed. The pillars of the choir are of Petworth 
Barbie. The crypt is very spacious, extending under the 
buildings of the choir; its character is ear^ English, 
•eaieely differing, in one part, from Norman. There are a 
lew antient monuments, singular rather than beautiful, and 
noeii mnlilated. The old altar-piece, a painting by West, 
of the Angela appearing to the Shepheros, is now in Cha- 
diam church. There are seyeral chapels, in one of which 
thA bishop holds his consistory court. The architecture and 
masonry of Gundulph's tower give reason to think that it is 
improperly ascribed to him. The interior of the cathedral, 
baa lately (1841) been repaired, and in many places restored 
to its original beauty, by the present dean and chapter, 
who have exhibited equal taste and [liberality in the im- 
provements which they have suggested or sanctioned. Arches 
and windows fur a long time filled up have been opened, 
cspeciaUy in the north transept, which now forms a valuable 
study for tlie architect and antiquary, as a specimen of early 
Sngiish, not excelled, if equalled, by any in the kingdom. 

There are two parish churches in Rochester, St. Nlargaret 
and Sl Nicholas ; they are not remarkable for tbeir archi- 
tecture, but each has a very antient stone font, and St. 
Margaret's contains several antient monuments. Within 
tbe city is a commodious Weslejan chapel, and a meeting- 
boose belonging to the Society of Frienas. 

There was probably a bridge at Rochester at a very early 

Sriud, but there is no distinct mention of it till the time of 
enry I., when it appears to have been of wood, with ten 
arches or spaces between the piers, and a total length of 
about 431 feet. The Arequent damaj^e sustained by this 
wooden bridge and its continual need of repair led to the 
erection of the present one (a little above tho site of the 
more antient structure), which was completed in the reign 
of Richard II. It is a stone bridge of eleven arches, 560 
feet long, with a stone parapet and balustrades. The con- 
servators of the bridge are an incorporated body under the 
title of the ' Wardens and Commonalty of the new Bridge 
of Rochester,* and have considerable funds appropriated to 
the repair of the bridge. The approach to Rochester from 
the London side of the bridge is very striking. 

The castle is on the bank of the Med way, just above the 
bridge. The outer walls were 20 feet high above the 
ground, and 7 feet thick, strengthened with towers, square 
and round, and defended by a ditch on every side except 
the west side, where it was washed by the Med way. These 
walls enclosed a quadrangular area nearly 300 feet square, 
and are, with their towers, now in ruins. In the south- 
eastern angle of the court was the keep, a massive building 
yet standing, about 70 feet square on tne outside, and rising 
about ] 04 feet from the ground, with a tower at each angle 
rising 12 feet above the rest of tbe building ; tliree of these 
towers are square, that at the south-east angle is round. On 
the north side near the north-eastern angle is another 
tower, through which was the entrance ; it joins the keep, 
and rises about two-thirds of its height. This smaller 
tower covers half the breadth of the northern side of the 
keep, and projects from it about 18 or 20 feet. The roof and 
floors have been destroyed: there were originally three 
stories besides the vaulted basements : each story was divided 
into two apartments by a partition wall rising to the top of 
the keep, with open arches or doorways on each floor, and 
having a well 2 feet 9 inches in diameter curiously built into 
it, to which well there was access from each floor. The 
walls of the castle are of great thickness, built of Kentish 
ragstone, cemented with a grouting or mortar equal to the 
stone itself in hardness. The coigns are of Caen stone. The 
architecture is Norman, except perhaps the round tower at 
the south-eastern angle, which was rebuilt in the place of 
the original square one destroyed when King John besieged 
and took the castle. The four towers at the angles rose one 
story above the keep, and, as well as the keep itself and the 
entrance tower, were surmounted with a platform, with 
parapet and embrasures. 

The other public buildings are, a commodious town-hall, 
with a market-house beneath, and a small gaol adjacent ; a 
clock-house, built by Sir Cloudesley Shovel on the site of a 
former town-hall ; a neat theatre ; and the bridge chamber 
or record-room, opposite the east end of the bridge. There 
are some remains of the city walls; and part of the fortifica- 
tbns of Chatham, especially Fort Pitt, are within the citj^. 
. Strood and Frindibury, considerable portions of which 

have been added to Rochester both by the Boundary ati«l >T> 
nicipal Reform Acts, are on the north-west side of (ht- >f • 
way; Strood on the London road, and Frindsbury a hi '.. 
the north-east Strood consists of one pnncipul st.«. 
irregularly built houses ; the place has improved coll^> . 
ably of late years; it has a neat church. Frindsburv • 
sists chiefly of one long street The church is on an k-i 
nence commanding a very fine prospect. There is a Met i i : • 
meeting* house. Upnor Castle on theMedway is in Fm.' 
bury parish: it consists of an oblong central building;;. %. 
a round tower at each end, and is surrounded by a tno..i 
was used during the late war as a powder-magazine. 

The population of the borough, as enlarged by the al/>'. 
acts, was as follows, according to the census of 1831 : — 
Rochester old borough : 

St Margaret^s • • 5,025 

St Nicholas • . 3,050 

Cathedral precincts . . 138 

Strood intra . . 1,173 

Chatham intra . • 506 

Addition — Strood extra and 



There are no manufactures in Rochester. Trading ve««^' 
come up to the bridge, whera they dfscharge their car^ -. 
chiefly coals, which are conveyed up the river in small c. ::. 
The oyster fishery is carried on with great activity under t,. 
direction of the corporation, who have jurisdiction over * ! ^ 
fisheries in the creeks and branches of the Medway. C. ^- 
siderableauantitiesof oysters are sent to London or exp^ut'. l 
to Holtana ; a considerable quantity of shrimps also are m : 
to London. There are two weekly markets, one, lately c^: - 
blished, on Tuesday for corn, and one on Friday for {tru\ . 
sions ; and there is a monthly cattle-market The fairs :t 
almost disused. A canal was cut some years ago from Ti 
Medway to the Thames at Gravesend Reach, but the uit<]< .- 
taking has not been profitable. This canal is can;- i 
through the chalk hills by a tunnel two miles and one Ti - 
long in length, which commences near Rochester bri'l^o 

The corporation of Rochester, under the Municipal Rrr« .. t 
Act, consists of six aldermen and eighteen councillors * : 
city is divided into three wards. The corporation hav*- t\ 
elusive jurisdiction over all offences committed within c 
city and liberties. There are no quarter-sessions; but pir.\ 
sessions are held twice a week ; and there is a court ut ri 
quests having jurisdiction over several neighbouring pari^i.t <. 
Some other courts connected with the corporate jurisdict i 
are held. Rochester has returned members to parli9n:< : ' 
since the reign'of Edward I. The number of voters on tK • 
register for 1834-5 was 967; for 1835-6, 1002. 

The livings of St Nicholas and St. Margaret arc vit n - 
ages of the value of 389/. and 13G/. respectively ; there w 
glebe-houses to both. Strood is a perpetual curacy, of t... 
clear yearly value of 238/., and Frindsbury a vicami'c, . 
the clear vearly value of 449/. They are all in the djoct--.- 
and archdeaconry of Rochester. 

There were in the city of Rochester and in the pan>b< < 
of Frindsbury and Su-ood, in 1833, forty schools, in win, 
1219 children, viz. 567 boys and 574 girls, and 7» of .- . 
not specified, were receiving daily inbtruction; and fi\ 
Sunday schools, with 761 scholars, viz. 369 boys and ;: . 
girls. One of these schools is a proprietary* school; :i> : 
another, called the King's School, is governed by the <) 
and chapter. An endowed mathematical free-school v - 
established in 1701. Among the schools enumerated wo • 
two large national schools. There is an almshoui^e ji . 
dormitory for poor travellers in the town, where they u- 
ceive entertainment and a night's lodging. 

Rochester Diocese. — The diocese of Rochester ii» ti.^. 
of the smallest in the kingdom, and one of the most «>I< u- 
derly endowed. It contains but one archdeaconry, that t 
Rochester, divided into the three deaneries of Rochc^to'. 
Dartford, and Mailing, all in the western part of the coui.!% 
of Kent The deanery of Shoreham, though nearly on e\ . v 
side enclosed within the diccese of Rochester, and frcquc:r.\ 
reckoned as a part of it, is in the peculiar jurisdiction of t; 
archbishop of Canterbury. Tlie number of parishes in t 
diocese (not including the deanery of Siioreham) is ^i\. n 
by Hasted (Hist, of Kent, vol. ii., Canterbury, l;^.\• ^i 
ninety-nine: in Lewis's 'Topographical Diet* it is given *; 




flomr (Ckeir€nnthu$ Cheiri) are well known on walls and 
rocky situations. Aiyssum ccUycinum, montanum, murMl, 
srjraiiie, Iberis Tenaredna^ Coehlearia saxatilis, Aubrietia 
alpina^ Arabis alpina, beliidifolta, petreea, Draba aizotdes, 
Aizr)on, tiellatOj tomentosa, Thlaspi alT)estre» &c., will all 
grow on rock- work, and many of them bloom all the summer 
round. The False Cytisus (Vella pseudo-cytims) is a 
shrub with yellow petals and purple claws, which may be 
prettily associated with the dwarf furze and the Nitraria. 

Of the Labiate plants, the species and varieties of the 
thyme claim the fi rst place. They grow well amongst rocks, 
especially of a calcareous kind ; and patches of the various 
species, especially Thymus vulgaris and grandiflora, should 
form a part of every rock- work. They are not only beautiful 
in Uower, but are exceedingly fragrant, and are a source of 
attraction to bee's. Betonica alopecurus, and Ajuga alpina 
and pyramidalis may be also cultivated. 

Many of the species of the ordei* Caryophylleas may be 
grown. One of the most prolific of these is the Cerastium 
repens, which grows very rapidly, and is consequently 
adapted to cover parts that do not look well exposed. It 
is for this purpose often used to cover heaps of rubbish. 
Various species of Dianthus will grow well, and are very 
ornamental, as D. deltoides, armeria^ cnliinus, hyssopi/olius^ 
plumariut^ virgineus ; also Cerasiium latifolium, alpinum, 
Silene atocion, and rubella. 

Many of the Saxifrages are true rock-plants: they 
mostly blossom early in the year. The following species may 
be grown amongst rocks:— S. oppositifolia, paniculata, 
aizoides, nivalis, pelrtsoy densa, retusa, elongella. 

Many of the Campanulas may be grown successfully. 
C, carpatica^ collina, alba, and saxatilis blossom nearly all 
the summer: the latter is a very ornamental plant. Many 
other plants have been recommended for cultivation in 
rock-work: of these we shall add the names of a few that 
are deserving of attention on account of the continuance of 
their (lowers during the greater part of the summer:-— 
Oralis violaeea, Rubus arcticus, Chamamorus saxatilis^ 
Jllecebrum Paronychia^ Linaria alpina, Epimedium al- 
pinum. Arnica montana^ AchillcDa Claventje, 

ROCKET is a cylindrical vessel or case, of pasteboard or 
iron, attached to one end of a light rod of wood, and con- 
taining a composition which, being fired, the vessel and rod 
are projected through the air by a force arising from the 

Rockets have long been used as a means of making 
signals for the purpose of communication when the parties 
have been invisible from distance or darkness, or otherwise 
jnaccesdible to each other; and they have occasionally 
served the important purpose of determining the difference 
of longitude between two places. In the latter case the 
rocket U fired at some convenient spot between the stations, 
from both of which the explosion must be visible ; and the 
latter being instantaneous, the difference between the times 
at which it is observed, as indicated by chronometers regu- 
lated so as to show the mean times at the places, is the re- 
quired difference of longitude. Rockets have also been 
coniitructed for the purpose of being used in warfare, and 
such missiles were so employed for the first time at the 
siege of Copenhagen in 18U7. 

In sij^nal rockets the part of the case which contains the 
composition, by whose combustion the projectile force is pro- 
duced, is joined, at the upper extremity, to a conical case 
containing the composition for producing the explosions or 
slars of light which constitute the signal, and the length of 
this part is always rather greater than the diameter of the 
cylindrical part of the case. Such rockets are made to 
vei^h half a pound, one pound, or two pounds. Tlie ex- 
terior diameter of the one- pound rocket is 1 J inch; the 
length of the cylindridal case is 12J inches, and the length 
of the conical head is 3 J inches. The rod is generally at- 
tached near the base and on one side of the rocket ; its 
«englb is about 8 feet, or 60 diameters of the rocket, and its 
thickness in about half a diameter of the latter. Tlie com- 
pcjMi ion with which the cylinder is filled consists generally 
of saltpetre, sulphur, and charcoal or gunpowder ; the whole 
14 reduced to a mealed state, and well mixed together in the 
following proportions: — saltpetre, 4 lbs. 4 oz. ; sulphur, 
1 2 oz» ; ana charcoal or mealed powder, 2 lbs. The compo- 
sition which produces what are called the stars consists of 
saltpetre, 8 lbs. ; sulphur, 2 lbs. ; antimony, 2 lbs. ; mealed 
powder, 8 oz.; and isinglass, 3} oz. The latter is dissolved 
in one quart of vinegar, after which one pint of spirit of 
wine ii added, and then the mealed composition is mixed 



with tae liquid till the whole becomes of the same cnn 
ency as a stiff paste. 

,The composition for burning is rammed or driven 
the rocket-case ; but in the interior and about the a\t^ 
void space of a conical form is left in order that a c<.«n«-.'i 
able surface of the composition may be at once in a stat 
combustion ; and, at the choke or neck of the rcK-Let t : 
part to which the rod is attached), there are sevei-al a' . 
tures, by one of which the fire is communicated to tbe r„: 
position. The combustion of the latter immediately t : • 
place on all the concave conical surface about the voul Hf - 
just mentioned. 

In order to understand the cause of the roeket*s nutu •-< 
let it be observed, that if the composition were to be !::• 
within a vessel or case closed on all sides (combustion t' 
ing supposed to be possible in such circumstances), tlie pr' - 
sure of the liame would be equal in every direetion, nnd !« 
case would either burst in pieces, or, if suflScientl}' s^tr. • - 
would remain at rest while all the composition was bf . . 
consumed. Now, the case having apertures at tbe cbok* 
lower extremity of the cylinder, the pressure which if i' ' 
have taken place against that extremity is in great part m 
nihilated by the flame escaping into the atmosphere ; r . 
sequently the pressure exerted against the opposite e\r^ 
mity, being no longer counteracted, impels the n>< . 
forward or upwards. This force of impulse acts in a i<) •: 
ner similar to that by which a gun recoils when tbe chu ^^ 
is fired; but, in the latter case, the fluid escaping aliu. ' 
instantly from the bore, the force of impulse on the bot:<> . 
of the chamber ceases nearly as soon as it is gener.iK^.. 
whereas, in a rocket, the composition continuing to b r> 
during several seconds, the force of impulse becomes a fw.- 
of pressure, which continues to act till the material is < •• .- 
sumed. Hence it follows that a rocket ascends, or mux > ? 
forward, with an accelerated motion till the resistance of - 1.' 
air becomes equal to the accelerative force; and when i. - 
composition is burnt out, the rocket falls to the ground. 

The rod serves to guide the rocket in its flight: fur '- 
common centre of gravity of the rocket and rod beinL i 
little below the top of the latter (in the one>pound rocke« . 
is 2 feet from the upper extremity of the rocket, or 7 f . • t 
from the lower extremity of the rod); if we suppose > •■ 
rocket to be fired vertically upwards, and a vibration sho\ 
take place about the said centre of gravity by any excc>^ • 
pressure on one side arising from an irregularity in li ' 
burning of the composition, the resistance of the air aea:* ^. 
the long portion of the rod below that centre, like a ti. .- 
acting on the longer arm of a lever, will exceed tbe forcf ;. 
which the vibration is produced, since the latter force a- < 
on the rocket and the upper part of the rod which constat ^\- 
the shorter arm of the lever; and thus the TibratK>:i > 
checked, or prevented, and the rocket is enabled to a>v.v : 
steadily. But, in proportion as the composition burns our. i . 
common centre of gravity approaches nearer the tni'lJIc . 
the whole length of the rocket and rod ; and the resistauo- . 
the air acting at length nearly equally above and It. . * 
that centre, it can no longer counteract any tnequal.:;. /. 
the burning of the composition. Thus, in fallmg, the ' 
of the rocket, or the rocket end of the rod, is downwards. 

The rod performs a similar service when Uie rocket ^ 
impelled horizontally or obliquely; for, while tbe force • 
projection is great enough to carry the rocket forward, a. . 
the centre of gravity of the whole is near the rocket en*! :' 
the rod, the resistance of the air against the tail oi t v 
latter will nearly prevent any vibration; but, when t. 
centre of gravity has got near the middle of tbe le: .: - 
the head of the rocket begins to droon, and at length i 
whole comes obliquely to the ground. It has b&ppi . ' 
however, from the rod being too shorter too light, that i. 
weight of the rocket, when the latter has been projtou : 
with a small elevation, has so much incurvated the hi t: ' 
its path before the composition has burnt out, that the r 
has turned over it, and the whole has been driven ti> t . • 
ground in a direction tending towards the place from wK < • 
it was projected. 

Rockets whose diameters vary from 1 to 2 inches, 1.. 
been found to ascend vertically to the height of about . 
yards; and those whose diameters vary from 2 to 3 n:c! > 
have ascended to the height of 1200 yards. The di!*ta; - 
at which rockets can be seen vary from 35 to 40 mile* . .: 
the times of ascent, from 7 to 1 seconds. (Robins's Ti\i^ . 
vol. ri.) 

Rockets, to be employed as military projectilesv were ■•  
vented by Sir William Congreve,and, in the Brltuh aitUU./ 




senb«d as too hypothetical (it merely involves an inference 
fel ?om disputed), the equally hypotliclical titles of Eocene, 
Mciu««ne,and Pleiocene deposits, should be freely admitted 
eTcn by those who think Lower, Middle, and Upper less ob- 
jectionable iu ihis particular instance, and more useful and 
applirable in regard to all the older stratified deposits. 
Brongniart classes rocks under the Saturnian (antient) and 
Jo\ ian (actual or modem) periods. (Tableau des Terrains.) 

Systematic views of rocks, considered as mineral aggre- 
gates without any reference to their geological history, have 
been seldom completed. M. Brongniart has presented a 
classification of 'mixed rocks' nearly conformed to this 
principle, which has been of service. Dr. MacCuUoch's 
* Treatise on Rocks ' is a mixed method, mineral ogical in 
detail, geolof^ical in the large features. This writer gives 
the following list of 

' Minerals which enter into the composition of rocks :' — 

Indurated clav, from the 
softest substances 
found in trap to jasper 
and silicious schist. 


Compact felspar, includ- 
ing the hornstonc and 
petrosilux of some 

Common and glassy fel- 


Carbonate of lime. 


Chlorite (fuliated). 









Noble Serpentine. 


Iron, in various states of 
oxidation, and com- 
bined with carbonic 
acid, water, &c. 




Hornblende. I 

He then adds a libt of minerals occasionally imbedded in 
rtH-ks, «o to modify their aspect, viz. : — 



S o luaienc, 


S lUio'ide 








Fluor Spar. 


Oxvdulous Iron. 


Chroma tc of Iron. 





Oxvde of Tin. 


He tiien names the rucks in which the minerals of the 
fn< cla^s occur. We extract the most important of these 

Indurated clay occurs in claystone not schistose, some 
ptjrphyries and amy^daloids, some basalts ; also in argil- 
lactious schist, shale, limestone. 

Cjuipact felspar occurs as a simple rock; also in gneiss, 
porph>rie:(,amygdaloids, syenites, greenstones, augite rocks, 
h\{>t;rsthene rocks, granite. 

Quartz occurs in quartz rock, granite, gneiss, mica schist, 
chlorite schist, talcose schist, argillaceous schiiat, sandstone, 
p-^rphyries, syenites, and greenstones. 

FfUpar occurs in granite, gneiss, chlorite schist, horn- 
bl»jtido schist, actinolite schist, sandstone, quartz rock, 
grecfistone, porphyry, syenite, pitchstone. 

Mica occurs in granite, gneiss, mica schist, quartz rock, 
snri'Klone, dhale, limestone, claystone, syenite, porphyry. 

Chlorite occurs in chlorite schist, granite, gneiss, actino- 
lite sdtist, argillaceous schist. 

Talc occurs in talcoae schist, primary limestone, granite, 

Hornblende occurs in granite, gneiss, hornblende schist, 
niK*ac»;uus schist, argillaceous schist, primary limestone, 
seipuntine, »)enitc, greenstone, busall, porphyry, chloritic 
6«-riiiU actinolite schist. 

M. Hr jngniart's general view of mixed rocks may be put 
ill ti.u fo.'.'jNMUi: abbrc\iaied form : — 

A. Crystallized isumerous rocks (the parts equally 

1. Ftlspathic rocks. 
a. i I ramie. laminated felspar, quartz, and mica, equally 

A. Protojfi'.e. Felspar, quartz, steatite, or talc, or chlorite, 
c. PeiMditite (graphic granite). Laminated felspar, and 

d. Mimose. Laminated felspar, and augite. 
2. Homblendic rocks. 

a. Syenite. Laminated felspar, hornblende, and qu a. ' 

b. Diallage. Hornblende, and compact felspar dt>>'. n 

c. Hemithrene. Hornblende and limestone. 
6. Crystallized Anisomerous Hocks (the parts unequ j 


1. Base of quartz. 
a. Hyalomicte. Crystallized quartz, and dissemina i 


2. Base of mica. 

a. Gneiss. Micaabundantin plates, lamellar or grai.u 
lar felspar — a laminated rock. 

b. Mica schist Continuous mica and quartz. 

3. Base of schist, 
a. Phyllade. Clay slate containing various tuin«r:tS. 
6. Calcischist. Argdlaoeous schist and lialc^t : 

variously mixed. 

4. Base of talc. 
a, Steaschist Talcose base with disseminated iii i i .l r- 

5. Base of serpentine. 

a. Ophiolite. Serpentine, including various minci t'v 
as chromate and oxide of iron, diallage, garnet, ^l. 

6. Base of limestone. 
Cipolin. Granular limestone with mica. 

b. Ophicalce. Limestone, with serpentine, talc, or cl.i 
rite, imbedded. 

c. Calciphyre. Limestone enveloping crystals, as l.i- 
spar, i^rnet, hornblende, &c. 

7. Base of cornean (compact felspar of MacCulIoch). 

a. Variolite. Including nodules and veins of Vdru .!> 

b. Vakite. Including mica, augite, &c 

8. Base of hornblende or basalt. 

a. Amphibolite. Base of hornblende, with di><^oii . 
nated minerals. 

b. Basanite. Base of compact basalt, with di^&cu'. 
nated minerals. 

c. Trappite. Base of hard compact dull oomean tr:-'. 
with mica, felspar, &c. 

cL Melaphyre (Trap porphyry). Black petrosih.ioi > 
hornblende, with crystals of felspar. 

9. Base of petrosilex, coloured by hornblende. 

a. Porphyry. Paste of reddish petrofiiIe.x, with cry.-: .i • 
of fel^par. 

b. Ophite. Paste of green petrosilex, with crys»taK < t 

c. Amygdaloid. P«iste of petrosile.x, with nodule^ • ' 
petrosilex of a different colour. 

d. Euphotide. Enclosing crystals of diallage. 

10. Base of petrosilex or compact felspar. 

a. Eurite. With mica, &c. disseminated. 

b. Leptenitc. Base of granular felspar, with mica i; ! 

c. Trachyte. With crystals of glassy felspar. 

1 1 . Base of claystone. 

a. Clay porphyry. Cr\ sf als of felspar. 

b. Doinite. Crystals of mica. 

12. Base of pitchstone. 

Stigmite. With cr}-stals of felspar (commonly la!-' t 
porphyritic pitchstone). 

13. Base undetermined. 

C. Aggregated rocks (uncrystallized ; the parts irrcgu* j 

1. Cemented rocks, 
a. Psammite. Grains of quartz, &c. united. 

(This includes sandstones, grauwacke, &c«) 

2. Imbedded rucks. 

a. Mimophyre. Cement argillaceous, uniting dibit- 
prains of felspar, &c. 

b. Psefite. Cement argillaceous, including fragmer 
of mica schist, slate, &c. 

c. Pudding-stone. Cement including large rou' ■• 
pieces of different kinds in different varieties of i 
ding-stone, as quartz, limestone, tlints. 

d. Breccia. The fragments angular. 
The most prevalent classification of rocks in actual uv4« 

founded on one leading feature of their ori(;in and lu>t.>. 
Rocks are of ii^^neous origin (pyrogenous rocks), or of aquo 
origin (hydrogenous rocks), and thus make two great ol i-- 
the former being often considered, with rclVicncc tw •. 






lum *tM i^Biien! * «e!Edi^arj:ii, vA tLe-»tfare csrwst ' Tza cetera ^erf Tvtr rf tlia 
w;a irmrti*^ "K inni:i*<i o » Tarj? «Tr*-3, pi»-«.*- €x*'*-=- 1.-4 ^:<» wc <J«sBeo 
pn.*n t:!.: '-ift >':r:i Aaer-jTxi n-ire 'b* C' ff^-yxn ue lt-> '-^. N .re fete-re en 


fo 6Bef, the upper \ 

M'Ut.ftl '* 


T'.i**« Tijiia.--* '.rtr-T^ '-•? '■i-itn; fans c« 
., . , 1'.', . i* :•♦? A-.VH -. S .-h A'r-r'-.n. rii-j 
I. -t It u- 1 \*iA.'^ ui 'ii? Pi-"> 'ii-*. *--- 'i-i A-'.i--' r Oei-. 
r :►: •-1 . oK'v-ir. M..-..U-1.4 ^-•* iir ^-e** kr. . z. :i.i - :!i£ 
A vii^ . I Sot:' a An»»xa. P=rtii:H =:";r< thir ctr^-c.iJ' 



>- J 

»-■ *, 

i.ii ^i .^ « well *5 

Ic w»« f:r=:'er^T sirprosi-^ i^si Use Seem de 

samd^ of 1<>7^%V 
vitk the Shewn 6e X . 
&^;Kd to tbe vbS : r. 
de ■» Miabfck It af p. . .'• 


BO*, k 

32^ N 

m extent interred 

»ri a IfT?-! * l- i;oct 
rw^-rs the :t: nj:r». 

T:jc wc**eTs gf.i.n cf the SoQiheni QappevyaBs > 
tre S ..m '^.» Ijs G-^carMs acd ft is snppoaed to ; 
pr-^-.T:ii -bi::: i.t lie Sjcrra %'erde. Bat witb thv «- 
I-.- 2 .f » m.-jr-t-iis irx-t, wblA oeemn about 37* N 
a'-i 1..- W. *: -.r, i=d a propez^rnSed Sierrm G„ 

•*'■ - nr.r* is cut- v-w^ is its vbcle extent. It is l 

^rarveiy §iaa . part, V-e '•h: 
aiaeMst :.:.'* -o-vx 

It wa* formerif turp-^^ thit thi.* i2cr:n^i.n'5yi*?3i 
fliiW a e^.nti-.nai.'jn cf the An-ie* of S.>«-:a Ar::^.'-*. i: 
thai thft^ fto nsourr^.-r-r^r- .'".* •«* tv^.'-.-.i^'^i rj a "hi .- 
whirl. t:aT^T^ li.e Meil.-aa liT.-riif in :U -*:. le jen.tb. 
But it rt rr-w a^erta n^fl h*} ..r.i -i .--U t:.!.: atliJ rc^-rnr 
of €ftn^i'I«-ih> eV^T.: ir.' b^-^€»?n :he Ar.-i.^ ar.i 
the ni'/tin:a..'n of tl.e l^'hr/.u*. 'Paxav*. ' I: is a**.-^ 
a^certam^ that the m.:Tr.'i.r.-r3r»:e »..:«:- is kn wn 'j'iiT 
the name of the S:ern Maire, ir. :r^ n^^^r^hem .:f 'he Mexi- 
can Sta*«, I* not rr,r.:.crr:i:i w.'h any f th-? *c .'h-^rr. o5- 
•etft of ihe Ch pjwixy.n Mount i.ui, Ljt le.'Tii.'i:** a'-.iut 
150 milt's w>mh of' the Sierra de M'^z- .In, ur thit bricth 
of the Chippewjan Mountains ^h;ch ay preaches neare*: 
to it. 

This mountain-iystem may be diTided into three r"rts — 
the Southern, Central, and Northern Ch:pr€«^>-an M oca- 
tains. The first extends from 29= to -iT* N. lat. : the Cen- 
tral Chippewyans from 42* to 49'' N. lat. : and the Njr.hem 
from 49* to nearly 70* N. lat. The vhMe length, from .'9^ • pewyan M;ui:u.a 
to 70* N. lat., exceeds 3000 roilef, and when the r.dges, ' As thtcccctncs sarronniiEj tbe Sonthem Oupp*'^: 
which probably traverse the north-western peninsula of are almost eniirel;. :nbab:!ed by ssra^ tribci» which - 
North America from east to west, and apy^arently are only • to have n.» :r.:ercojrse wi:h oae azx>tber, tiie nrates i.-. 
offsets of the great mountain range, arc included, the whole known, w:!h the eire^ti-o cf coe orer tbe eastern r • 
length is about 4000 miles. near 36* N. lat^ wb rh is nscd by tike North Am- 

The Southern Chivpewycms resemble the Northern , caravans, whirh start frcni the town of Franklin n 
Andes in being divided into three long ranges, which run " state of Mi»:cri, for tbe t;wti of Santa Fein New M- \ 
off in divere^ing lines. The point from which they diverge whence they procet-d to Ch.h::ahca. Tbe deration lI 
is a mountain-knot, about 42'' N. lat, and is called Sierra mountaia-pass d:«s nM appear to be Tcry great- 
Verde. From this point the three ranges run southward, j The Oim/ Cvrr-^*, -:^r between the Sierra V. 
The most eastern ranfce forms one elevated mass of rocks ! (42" N. U:.> and 4S' N. liL have been often cro^sc i 
between 42* and 34* N. lat, and within these limits pre- I American travelers, in pa»>^.^ frcm tbe United Su** 
serves the name of Chirpewran or Rockv Mountains. It \ thenverColccsbia. In this part tbei2>u 



*.:-•: wn i rather ih.s nzzt js s;:==::t d ire M. Berrarda?, wbidi 

34^ N '^t. an i 117* W. V.^z. If a efaaxn of 

shiuid b« f: -- i 'a cxte^ betw«= tbe luX-r 

ST-Tnc: ar^i tbe S.errade Ix Gt.acara^ wbieb is not \  

bil.>, the tarun'a'c:^:* asd porky pensnsnfai of Ca!:: 

wjuld c:r.«t:::::e the m^st socibem extremitj of the CI. 


:nta:n-re^on ^ 

runs nearly due south between 104* and 106* W. long. I to contain twj rar res of great elevatxn, mnning y :- 
Between 35* and 34* N. lat. it divides into two ranges, bi.>th i to one arcther at the d.s:ar.c«* of liO ini!es» and en< \ 
of which run southward and parallel to one another, includ-  hgh val.eys. which are generally filled cp by the r 
ing the narrow valley of the Rio Puerco, and terminate in • masses, w:.:rh pp?Tude fr:Tn the great chains to a con-. 
the great bend of the Rio del Norte, between 29* ar.d 3i>° able d^^tance With n the valleys- Tbe two chains h.u. 
N lat. In the present state of geographical knowledge, ' do n^t s'wbsiie eiiher en the east or en the west into \\. 
these two ranges, which are called the Sierra de los Co- j bein? serira ted frcm the level gr: end, which onh ort. 
manchcs, must be considered as the most southern esire- ! a great disiance frcm thciD, by hiHy Tegu>ns of cor«>. <.: 
mity of the Chippew>'an Mountains. It is hardly known j extent. 

on what authority these two raniies have been laid down on N^t far fr?m the Sierra Verde, towards the north, betr. 
our maps* as the valley of the Rio Puerco and the countries | the Spanish R.ver. 5up7:5<d to be the Rio Colorado. ^ 
east of it are in possession of the savage and warlike tribe ; falls into tbe most norihem recess of the Gulf of (. i- 
of the Comanches, who do not allow strangers to enter their 
oocntrr. Onlv the western declivitv of ihe western ran^ 
has been seen by travellers, who describe the range as rising 
only to a moderate elevation, but ba^-iog a very desolate so easy indeed that it may be crossed \y carha^t-^ 

n:a. acd the Big Ucm RiPer, an aflicent of tbe MissOLr: 

eastern chain cf the n::.ui:ta:as contains a deep an \ « 

depression, which presen;s aa easy passage over the r. 

and barren aspect, and being alm:st entirely without water 
axid aood. 

That part cf the Stuthem Chipfewyans which extends 

these parts there is a pla.n between moderate he j 
which is about ten miles in circumference, and the si : 
of which is encnisted wi:h salt as white as snow to a i 

from 34* to 42* N. lat. is perhaps the be»t known part of, of twelve or eiiihteen inches. North of this depressK : 
the ar.jle system, tbe eastern dccl.iity ha\ing l-etn exa- 
mined f jr a ccni-deTitble extent by Ma;?r Long. He says 
that tL*r brtaitb vine* 60 to J*. iu;'e>, TliC mjun- 
la.iis r-»e air*,;:!? fr m the jli.r^s to the ea>t of thta. 
t'/wer.'.^ ir to p*.ik.s uf grtil ht ght, wh:?a are visile 
at tL< '!.*Ta^ce cf ro,re l.o Ti..les east of thtir 
bi«« T:.<T c-L».»t cf r.-j^i. k...b% ar.d fie&ks varir-slv 
c •'«v**-l i::;-.ic wh.-.b ii.t::e 
t.^ li -}k. Tn* ere ele^aUrl 
f-f/i^ e-l -■ h f^— ^*.i; iz..w, w: 
a'^i «t a rrta.: <, »•' * r«cs a I 
i*jt-f f.iie ->-.-.*"i u^ r.iT.e of tr* •*£...'. r.? 
Tr.*: h* ar*.: '/f 'l* Ji-j:»^ p-^c v.-* b 
ai#,.t rS '. t'*:\ \- rt .'a ^a*', itL/i': 

§*■.•• '.-'if -*«.-• ; 

mountains rise to a greater he'.ght ; but they do not p. 
a ran^ie of uniform elevation ; lliey are rather exit: » 
groups, here and there overtopped by high peaks, ar 
nhich there is one which probably rises to 15.«- 
ab.«ve the level of the sea. The eastern range is fiiir 
l:r.r.tud.nally by deep and narrow valleys drained by m 
, and rap.d streams. Tlie higlier parts of the ranges V. - > 
are ci.'.y zz.i fcr- of granite, aiid are bleak and bare, being neariy de>! : 
f *h* T=:u.~'a.r.s a:e ' <i^ vegtlaf. -n, but many of the inferior ridges are m*i.. 
h g -se* ;hra a.-:.-.n:us, cljlbv-d with scrub pines, oaks, cedar, and furic 

scme places these mountains have traces of volcanic :>«- 
S^meof the mterior valleys are strewed with sct>ria 
br.ken stones, evidently of volcanic origin, and %esi!^*c- 
cxi^Lct craters are seen on the highest points. 

Farther north, between 4" and 47", the eastern i 
apr^a:^ to maintain a ro ^re equal elevation, and to r-vi 
STtit he ^h^ Their h^l-.e^t parts are covered wiih ^ 
.n :Le m r.ihs of Aujtus: and September, and in the 1 . 


'« ncs a Lr. .-*:.: a:-«=-a«*ar.ce. WLeCv'e 


n as-cftair-^d 

*ft».i;rc<i as }j^ 

/, -. 

:» 1 «. • • 

• - 4 • z 'A 

.^t !r'7 w. z^-^'u i.^-'f-l r^'^ ^-Dg the watcrcoat^es and intbenvuies^ snow ilo 




Peace River. This river breaks through the eastern range 
of the mountains, its upper course being in a valley between 
the two principal ranges, which appear to be here of nearly 
equal height Both of them contain summits which are 
always covered with snow. Their height above the sea- 
level however seems to fall short of 4000 feet. Their ele- 
vation above the flat country east of the range does not 
exceed ,1500 feet, and their base is hardly more than 2000 
feet above the sea. The western range, which is about 200 
miles From the Pacific, constitutes the watershed between 
the rivers which run east to the Atlantic and west to 
the Pacific The valleys of the Peace River, or Unjigah, 
and its tributaries, contain very little level ground. Steep 
rocks commence at a short distance from the banks of the 
rivers. In some places the summits of these rocks extend 
in level plains to some distance from the lower valley of the 
river, but in others their surface is broken into small ridges 
or isolated hills. These rocky masses are furrowed by nar- 
row valleys, in which the tributaries of the Upper Peace 
River run with great rapidity between steep rocks. Though 
it is very cold in these elevated valleys, even in the earlier 
part of the summer, and this region on that account is only 
visited by the native tribes in that season* yet nearly the whole 
of it is covered with trees, whilst the mountains farther 
south are generally bare, or only clothed with stunted trees 
and shrubs. The low tracts along the Peace River and 
some of its tributaries are covered with willows and alders, 
interspersed with spruce and white birch, and the uplands 
are overgrown with pines, cypress, spruce, and some other 
trees. Later information confirms these observations of 
Mackeniie. North of 52** or 53° N. lat. the forests that 
cover the declivities of the Chippewyan Mountains are very 
extensive, and the trees themselves are large and of very 
vigorous growth. 

North of 57" the mountains appear rather to sink lower, 
than to rise. We have no information as to the elevation 
and character of the mountain- system as far north as 62^. 
It seems, that it occupies a much greater width, and con- 
sists of three or more ranges running parallel to one another, 
or nearly so, in the direction of the whole chain. Owing to 
this circumstance, the watershed between the rivers which 
fall respectively into the Atlantic and Pacific is advanced 
much more to the west, and seems to occur about 100 miles 
from the shores of the Pacific. TheTurnagain River, which 
after having left the mountain-region assumes the name of 
the Southern Branch of theMacxensie, rises on the water- 
shed just mentioned, and breaks through two ranges of 
mountains before it reaches the great plain east of the 
Chippewyans. Between the ranges which fill up this im- 
mense tract of country there are low tracts, which however 
are partly covered with water, if it be true, as it is said, that 
about one-sixth of the entire surface of this region consists 
of extensive lakes. This circumstance shows that the mass 
of snow which falls every winter must be very great, and 
that the general slope of the country must be gradual. It 
is said that a great part of the country is also covered with 

Between 62® and 69* N. lat. the eastern ranges of the Chip- 

Kwyan Mountains approaches the valley of the Mackenzie 
iver, and within these limits they were seen by Franklin 
on his second expedition to the Polar Sea. Dr. Richard- 
son says that they appear to consist of short conical peaks, 
scarcely rising 8000 feet above the river. Lateral ridges 
project from their sides, which stretch south-south-west 
and north-north-east, being nearly at right angles to the 
general course of the great range, to which they belong. 
Their bases are tnm one to two miles wide, and their 
eastern slopes present a succession of precipices, with shelv- 
ing acclivities beneath them, formed of debris, and ex- 
hibit on their faces regular lines of stratification. The 
valleys which separate these ridges and open upon the 
river, are narrow, with level bottoms, but very steep sides 
well clothed with trees. One of these ridges presents towards 
the river a very precipitous descent, 1200 feet high, which 
extends for at least 15 miles. According to information 
obtained on the spot, the mountain-range consists of 14 or 15 
ridges, of which the three easternmost are the most rugged, 
those that succeed being broader and more rounded. It seems 
that a large portion of this mountain-region is drained by the 
Peel River, which breaks through the eastern ridge near 
67^ 40' N. lat, but is only known at its junction with the 
Mackenzie River, whc;e it is a river of considerable size, 
and brings down a great \olume of water. 

The statement, that the most northern portion of the Chip- 
pewyan Mountains consists of several parallel ridges is par ilr 
confirmed by the manner in which this mountain- sy tern ui 
minates on the shores of the Arctic Ocean. Between iLf 
embouchure of the most western arm of the Mackeni e 
River (137** W. long.) and 146"* W. long., four distinct ndgt^ 
are seen from 12 to 25 miles from the shore. At their 
northern extremity, they are divided from one another h\ 
valleys about 20 or 30 miles wide. The summits of \lv 
two eastern chains, called Richardson Chain and BucklaLii 
Chain, are lower, being free from snow in summer, but ihf 
two western, called British Chain and Romanzow Chain, are 
always covered with snow. Romanzow Chain occupies the 
greatest width, and presents to the Arctic Ocean a fruni 
exceeding 60 miles in extent These chains consist of &Uic- 
rocks ; their summits are rounded and naked, but the nar- 
row valleys between them are covered w ith grass. No busfae» 
nor even shrubs appear on their declivities. At a great dtv- 
tance farther west, between 151^ and 152^ the nortb^^rr. 
extremity of another chain, called Pelly Mountains* is sein 
from the shores of the Arctic Ocean, but it is not knovn 
if this chain is connected with the Chippewyans. 

It is not improbable that the moimtain-chain which is 
observed to skirt the shores of the Pacific, at no great dis- 
tance from the sea, and in numerous places to advance with 
its offsets close to the water's edge, forms a part of the 
Chippewyan system and is connected with it. But on th's 
point we are without information, the interior of the coun- 
tries along this coast not having been visited by Europeaos. 
Nor do we know how far the rocky peninsula of Aliasko, 
with its snow-capped volcanoes, may be considered as an 
appendage of the Chippewyan Mountains, as the interiur 
of that large peninsula, which extends between the F^cifv 
and the Arctic Sea, is closed against our researches by lU 
inhospitable nature of the country. 

Nothing certain is known respecting the minerals of thu 
range. Some traces of iron and lead have been obsened. 
Rock-salt exists in several places, especially in the Souther-. 
Chippewyans, where several rivulets occur, whose water ^ 
salt or brackish. Coal has been found in several places ic 
the Northern Chippewyans, especially in the southern por- 
tion, near the Saskatchevan and Peace River* and aiso 
towards the mouth of the Mackenzie River. 

(Humboldt's Essai PolitiquB nor la NoupeUe Efpagn^: 
Pike's Exphratofy Travels thrrmgh the Western TemOfry 
qf North America, &c.; James's Account qf Major Lon^* 
Expedition to the Rocky Mountains; Lewis and Clarkt'* 
Travels to the Source qf the Missouri, &o. ; Irving's J*- 
toria; Mackenzie's Voyages through the Continent / 
North America to the Invzen and Pacific Oceans; Frank- 
lin's Second Expedition to the Polar Sea; Dease au 
Simpson's ' Account of the recent Arctic Diiooveries,* i:. 
the London Geographical Journal, voL viii.) 

ROD. [Perch.] 

RODE'NTIA, Rongeurs, the name of Cuvier's fifth fa 
mily of mammals. 

Speaking of the Phalangers [Marsttpialia, vol. xi\\ p 
460], Cuvier observes that their canine teeth are so siu i! 
that they may be considered as null ; and, consequently, \',f 
nourishment of those animals consists in great part of voce- 
table productions ; their intestines are long, and their caeci.!. 
ample; and the Kanguroos, which are entirely with.;/ 
canines, live altogether upon herbage. He then states \U. 
the series of animals under consideration, and which po^K^ 
a still less perfect mastication, may be commenced bv tK 
Wombat. [Marsupialia, vol. xiv., p. 463.] 

Cuvier in continuation remarks that two great inci> r 
teeth in each jaw, separated from the molars bv a wide spaco. 
could hardly seize a living prey, nor rend flesh ; they could 
not even cut aliments, but they might serve for reducm; 
them by continued labour into fine molecules—in a word, t.' 
gnawing them ; whence the term Rodents, or Gnascers, ap 

Elied to this order. With these weapons they attack tU 
ardest vegetable productions, and frequently feed on uv^'i 
and bark. The better to effect this object, these inciscn 
have enamel in front only, so that their posterior hord<: 
being worn away more than their anterior edge, they a. .• 
always kept set like a chisel ; their prismatic form cauM-^ 
them to grow from the root in proportion to the weann^ 
down of their cutting edge, and this disposition to grow ir 
push forward from the root is so strong, that if one of thca 
is lost or broken, its antagonist, meeting with no opposit.^ia 
to keep it within bouuds, dexolops itself so as to Vocoai 




' The Murid4s are about equally abundant in Europe, 
Afnca, and South America ; in North Ameriea and India 
they are much less numerous. 

' The Arvicolida appear to be confined to North America 
and the European province. In South America they are 
apparently replaced by the Octodonlida, Chinchillidce^ and 

' Tlie family Leporida is but feebly represented in each 
of the provinces above mentioned, excepting in North 
America, where the number of species already discovered is 
almost equal to all those found in other portions of the 
globe taken together. In earlier periods these Rodents, 
which are very Tow in the scale, appear to have been much 

more numerous, judging from the fossil remains which ha>? 
been found — at least in the European province. 

' The remainins; families of Rodents are almost entinrli 
confined to South America. The genus Aulacodui of We»:vr. 
Africa, the genera PeJromys, an inhabitant of the Cape • i 
Good Hope, and Balhyergus, found both at the Cai>e an I 
north-eastern portions of Africa, possess certain charactt.-i 
in which they approach the South Amerit an forms. P^ 
tromys analogically appears to represent the Octodon^ J 
South America, and Balhyergus may be compared tu lie 
genets Poep/uigomys and Cienomys; whilst lu Auluc^i^^ 
we possess a representative of the Capromys of the \Vv»; 


SciMridtt* • • * < 



Mvidm . . / 

Armcolidm nm < 

^Hjfdricidm», i 





LEPORI K A • • • Ltporida . . . <| 

Kuropa and North 

5. Sciunu. 

1. l*teroiiiys. 
f . Tnmu*. 

3. Spermophilas. 

2. Arctomys. 

3. Myoxtti. 

8. Dipus, 
16. Mia. 

6. Crioelufl. 

1. Caitor. 

20. Arvicola. 
4. fjcmmiu. 

2. Spalox. 

Vorih America. 

1. Hyitrix. 

5. Lepus. 
3. Ln(;omy«. 

HI spo. 16 gen. 

20. 8cinru«. 

3. Pierumys. 

5. Tatniat. 
10. spcrmephil 

3. A return y>. 

1. Aplodttntia, 

2. Merioncs, 

6. f Mn». 

I hesperomys. 

1. SigmtxloD. 

3. Neotuma. 

1. Castor. 
I. Oodalni. 
8. Arviiiuli. 

4. l<ommtt«. 
10. Gcomv?. 

1. Erctliisoa. 

15. Tepus. 
i. Lngomys. 

99 spe. 19 gen. 



3. Xcnu. 

2, Gnp)iinni& 

3. MyuJLiu. 

4. Dipiu. 

India and !■• 

2S. Sciunu. 
9. lleromys* 

12. M us. 

10. Mus. 

2. Dtrndromya. 
6. Gorinllua. i 2 Grrbiilus. 
1. I'^ammomyt. ' 1. Phlocomys. 

3. Kuryutis. 9. Rbisooiya. 

South America 

and West India 


6. 8cinn». 

30. ( Mnt. 

\ H<»«ptfnNnj% 
3. Uctthrodua. 

1. Ilvstrix- 

1. Ilvstrix. 
1. Atherura. 

I. Anlnrotlus. 
I. l>ryru»ru», 
4. Itaihjprxu*. 
1. PeUouYs. 

6. Lepiu. 

53 spo. 16 gen. 

3. Cen-uln* fs. 
3. Synetltrrea. 

3. Cnproroy*. 
1. Mvoi>o*amitt. 
10. Kcnimya. 
6. Nelua)>*«. 
1. LVrconiy*. 

5. Dasypinrta. 

1. Cologenya. 

2. Ctcnomys. 

1. POephagomy^ 

1 . Octotloti. 

2. .\brocoaia. 

1. Diinriulla. 

2. La^^oti^. 

1. I^aj^Mtomuai 

6. Cavia. 

a. Kenilon. 
1. Dolichjtis. 
1. llytUi>clcrm«. 

4. Lepus. 
1. l.a){omysu 

1* Lepus. 

58 »pv>. 10 gen. S3 spo. 23 {r^n. 

Mr. Waterhouse observed* ' that he had not yet been able 
to satisfy himself as to the precise situation, in a systematic 
classification, of the genera Ctenodactylus and Helamys, the 
former from North and the latter from South Africa. Four 
other genera are omitted in the above table for the same 
reason ; they are Oiomys* of Dr. Smith, a genus found at 
the Cape of Good Hope; Akodon, Meyen, which inhabits 
Peru ; Heteromys, Desmarest, founded on the Mus anuma' 
iut of Thompson, an animal found in the island of Trinidad : 
and lastly, Saccomys of F. Cuvier, which is supposed to be 
from North America. These four genera in all probability 
belon|{ to the family MuridUe. 

' The genus ApMontia is placed with Sciuridoft but it 
must be observed that it diflTers much from the typical spe- 
cies of that group, there being no post-orbital process to 
the skull, and the molar teeth being rootless.* (Zool, 

The student should further consult The Zoology of the 
Voyage of H.M.S, Heagle, Nos. ii., iii.. iv. of part ti. {}fam' 
maitau where many Ilodents arc dc^^cribed and (laurel, 
and tlio characters of the Oetod^mtidce (pp. b3, 84) clearly i 
pointed out. 

We have gowl rea^^a for stating; that besides the Lepo- 

• Tills is a dtflrrrttl prons fi'im ibe (Hwmy* of f Warier, wbkh is JSWryolii of ! 


ridi^t which differ considerably from all othoreroups f 
Rodents, there are only a few genera which Mr. Waterhot^.* 
has not yet sufficiently examined to determine satisfactt<r iv 
to himself how many families Ihey form. These genera .w 
the South American foims Capromys, MyofX)tamuf, Krht- 
mys, Cercomys, DasyproctOt and Ccelogenyt ; they are, n 
his opinion, certainly very nearly allied to each other, n* 1 
may perhaps with propriety be collected into one fan) :-< 
under the name oi DasyprocticUe. There are moreover o r- 
tain African genera which Mr. Waterhouse has not ycc L. 1 
an opportunity of thoroughly examining. Some ub*>etv.i- 
tions by the same author on the families ChinchiUuiiV at)! 
Cavt f(f<p will be found in the Zoological Proceeding's tt 
1839 (p. 61). 

Brandt has arlmirably worked out the family Hystrindir, 
in \\\^ Mammalium Exnticorum not^orum, vel minus rite c> »s- 
nitorunit Musei Academici Zoologici Descriptionee ei Iconcf, 
(^. (Pctropoli, 1835) 4to. 

Fossil Rodentia. 

Dr. Lund, in his view of the Fauna of Brazil, previous to 
the la^t geological revolution,* af\cr noticing the living Ro- 
dents inhabiting; that district, proceeds to notice the reiuaim 
found in the limestone cave<« there. 

* THpro it a (ood IrnnflaiuNi of thta motk iatorttUng |»p«r ia Uic Ji«yast« 

ofNtittni tiUtvry, hew berm, 1840, 




nearly three years. There it a fahulons chronicle of this 
kine, or rather a romance of chivalry, in which the popular 
traoiiions current among Moors and Christians respecting 
the invasion and conquest of Spain, as well as many ridicu- 
lous fables like that of Florinda, and the enchanted Tower 
of Toledo, have been embodied by an anonymous writer of 
the fourteerith century. It was printed for the first time at 
Toledo^ 1549. and has since gone through several editions. 
Another fabulous history of Roderic and the eyento in 
which he was engaged, was written towards the middle of 
the sixteenth century, by a converted Moor of the name of 
Luna (Granada, 1592, 4to.). These, and other books of the 
same stamp, have furnished ample materials fur some of the 
best works in English literature. (Scott, Southey, and 

(Al-makkari*s Eittory qf the Mohammedan Dyruuttei tn 

Spaiih vol. i., chaps. I and 2.) 

RODNEY, ADMIRAL. LORD. Georok Brydoxs 
RoDNBY was bom at Walton-upon-Thames, in the 
county of Surrey, February 19. 1718. He was token from 
Harrow School, and sent to sea at twelve years of age. In 
1739 he was made a lieutenant; in 1742, a captain ; and in 
1 748 he was sent out as governor and commander-in-chief 
on the Newfoundland station, with the rank of commo- 

In October, 1752. Rodney returned to England, and was 
elected member of parliament for the borough of Saltash. 
He was appointed successively to the Fougueux, 64 guns; 
the Prince George, 90 ; and the Dublin, 74. After twenty- 
eight year^ of active service, he was raised to the rank of 
rear-admiral. May 19, 1759. 

In 1761 Admiral l^odney was appointed commander-in- 
ehief at Barbadoes ana the Leeward Islands. Having cap- 
tured the islands of Martinique, Santa Lucia, and Granada, 
he was recalled on the conclusion of peace in 1763. Soon 
after his return he was created a baronet, and by succes- 
sive steps reached the rank of vice-admiral of the red. He 
was also appointed governor of Greenwich Hospital ; but 
resigned this office on being sent out, in 1771, as com- 
mander-in-chief on the Jamaica station. In 1774 he was 

Under the pressure of pecuniary difficulties, Sir George 
Rodney now retired to Paris, where he remained till May, 
1 778, when he was promoted to the rank of admiral of the 
white, and in the autumn of 1779 was again appointed 
com mander-in- chief on the Barbadoes station, for which be 
sailed December 29, 1779. His fleet consisted of 22 sail of 
the line and 8 frigates. France and Spain were at this 
time united against England. Before he had been ten 
days at sea be had captured seven Spanish ships of war, and 
on the 16th of January, 1780, fell in with a Spanish fleet, 
under Admiral Langara, near Cape St. Vincent, consisting 
of 1 1 ships of the line, and 2 frigates. Of these five were 
taken ana two destroyed ; but the action being in the night, 
and the weather tempestuous, the rest escaped. 

On the 17 th of April, 1780, Rodney came in sight of the 
French fleet, under the Comte de Guichen. near Martinique. 
Rodney intended to attack the enemy, which was a little su- 
perior, with lus fleet in close order ; but the greater part 
of his captains disobeyed, and kept at a cautious distance. 
Only five or siK ships supported him, while in his own, the 
Sandwich, he engaged a 74 and two 80-gun ships for an hour 
and a half, and compelled them to bear away, and broke 
throngb the enemy's line. In his dispatches Rodney cen- 
sured the conduct of his captains, but the Admiralty sup- 
pressed the passage, and only one of them was brought to 
trial, who was dismissed from the service. The admiral 
was rewarded with the thanks of the House of Commons, 
and a pension of 2000/. a-year, to be continued after his 
death to his family in specified portions for their respective 
livet. In 1 780. he was chosen, free of expense, to repre- 
sent the city of Westminster, and was also made a Knight 
of the Bath. Soon afterwards war was declared against the 
atatcm of Holland, and instructions were sent to Rodney to 
attack their posMMions in the West Indies. The Dutch 
iftUnd of St. EuAtatias surrendered* without a shot having 
been flrefl, Feb. 3, 1761; and in the course of the spring, 
the Duirh colonies of Demerara, Essequibo, and Berbice were 
taken. Rodney, having returned to Europe in the autumn of 
1781 for the recovery of his health, was received with uni- 
ver»al enthusiasm, was created vice-admiral of England in 
tne place of Admiral llawke, deceased, and wasappointed to 
'mmand of the wbok of the West Indies. Both the 

French and Spanish fleets were at this time in the Wc^t 
Indies, and it was intended to form a junction, and attark 
Jamaica and the other Britisli possessions. The Frercn 
fleet was commanded by the Comte de Grasse,and consi>tt^! 
of 33 or 34 sail of the line, besides frigates. Intelligence 
having been brought to Rodney, on the 8th of April, i:^i 
of their having sailed from Fort Royal Bay, Martinique, 
he immediately followed them. A partial action took fiUv- 
on the 9th, when two of the French ships of the line «rre 
disabled, and a third was rendered useless by an accideot in 
the night of the 11th, thus reducing the French fleet to :• 
or 31 ships of the line. The British fleet was rather mere 
in number, but much less in weight of metaL The gcherij 
action Commenced on the 12th of April, 1782, at f>e\fu 
o'clock in the morning, and lasted tQl half-past six in l-j 
evening. Rodney, in the Formidable, broke through Ux 
French line, and engaged the Ville-de- Paris, I>e Grass<.' s 
flag-ship, and compelled her to strike. The result was 
that seven ships of the line and two frigates were taken bj 
the British. 

About this time the Whigs had come into office, an i 
Rodney having been always opposed to them, an officer «j< 
appointed to succeed him, who bad only just sailed « I vii 
the news of this great victory reached England, and t.v 
Admiralty immediately sent an express to overtake aud 
bring back the officer, but it was too late. Rodney reathc i 
England, September 21, 1782. He was raised to the (peer- 
age with the title of Baron Rodney, and received an atld- 
tional pension of 2000^ a*year. He lived chiefly in tlu* 
country, till May 23, 1792, when he died, in his 75lh )i ir. 
He was twice married, and left a numerous familrl A 
monument was erected to his memory in St. PauFs c^tl.t- 
dral, London, at the national expense. His portrait \\ 
Reynolds was in the royal collection at St. James's Palai\. 
but has since been sent to Greenwich Hospital 

{Gallery qf Jhr traits, vol. ii.; Mundy*s JJ/e and Cvrrrj 
pondence cf Lord Rodney , London, 2 vols., 8vo.) 

RODOLPH. [Gbrmany] 

RpDRIGUEZ, VENTURA, the most eminent Spani \ 
architect of the eighteenth century, was bom at Cienpozuel-s 
July 14, 1717, and commenced his first studies in his p:i- 
fession under Esteban Marchand, who was then employ ' 
on the works carrying on at Aranjues. AJter the death : 
Marchand, in 1733, he still continued at Aranjucz, udi^ 
J uvara engaged him as his assistant in making dra«uj« 
for the design of the new palace at Madrid; and after \\ 
death of J uvara, he was similarly engaged by his suoct^ r 
Sacbetti. with whom he was subsequently associated w. 
the execution of that vast pile, as aparejador, or princ; .: 
clerk of the works, 1741. In 1747 he was made honoMv 
member of the Academy of St Luke at Rome ; and on tt /. 
of St. Fernando being established at Madrid, in 17j.\ l.-.* 
was appointed chief director or professor of architectun* .n 
it, an office for which he was peculiarly fitted, not onh l> 
his talents, but by his zeal for his art, and his soli- 
tude for the improvement of the pupils. Commi>a»io: «> 
poured in upon him from every quarter; for therv u^« 
scarcely a work of any importanre throughout the couui \ 
on which he was not either engaged or consulted. He «^* 
employed on various cathedrals, churches, colleges, hos) i /^ 
and other structures at Zaragoza, Malaga, ToWo, Graiu.; 
Vailadolid. and numerous other places; and a mere li^t •': 
the works designed or executed by him would be one of o * • 
siderable extent. We can here merely point out, as K-i: c 
among the more remarkable for their design, the sanciu.n 
at Cobadonga* the church of San Felipe Neri at Malawi. 
that of the hospital at O\'iedo, and the palace of the DuqM* 
de Liria at Madrid. 

These multiplied engagements, and the frequent journ* > » 
which they occasioned him, prevented his visiting Itsi . 
but he collected all works of engravings relative both it* . > 
antient and modern buildings. He also carefuUy sti.J . . 
the various monuments of Roman, Moorish, and G.ti * 
architecture in his own country. He died at Madrid, I : > . 
in his sixty-eighth year, and was buried in thechuichi: 
San Marcos, the only one in that capital erected by him^i \'. 
Rodriguez has been honoured with an Elogio bv' the n !<. 
brated Jovellanos, to which we must refer those who \( i?>li : * 
a more detailed notice of his character and works. Il«' i- 
also repeatedly mentioned with high commendation by Poi :. 
in bis' Via^e deEspana;' and he doubtless deserves \ 
title he received from his contemporaries, of the Restorer ^f 
Architecture in Spain ; yet whether his merit lay chictty a 

KOKBUCK. rDEER.vol.viiL,p. 360] 

\H.Ki ATION DAYS. Il was a general cuslam formeily, 
u>^) B»urnc, and it is atiU observed in many country 
.in-:1i<!d. to go round tlie bounds and limits of the pHrisQ 
41 orii- of the three dayii preceding Holy TIjiiisday ; wlitii 
lit! iniiiisler, Bccompanied by hU cliurchwardens and 
nnshiciners, used to deprecato iha vengeance of God, bug 

I lik'^sing on the fruits of the earth, and preserve the 
::.'liin uiid properties of the parish. Spelnian contiders this 
nsium as tjx imitation of the Roman Terminalia. The 

niiiiitivc cuslom used by Christians on this occasion vas. 

a- the people to accompany tlie bishop or some of the 

li'i'iry into the fields, where Liianies were made, and the 
niTuy of God implored, that he nould avert the eviU of 
4.i'.;uc and pestilence, that he would send them good and 
<.M4iit)able weUlier, and give them in due season the 
I'liils of the earth. Tlie Lilaniei or Rogations then used 
;jve ihu name of Rogation Week to Ibis lime. They occur 
L-, cui'ly as A.D. S5U, when they weie first observed by 
^rtmcrliiis, bishop of Vienna, on account of the frequent 

artliquakes that huppened, and tiie Incursions of wild 
' M~ts, which kid in ruins and depopulated the ci(y. 

WiiUfred, Stral., c. 29, De Repub. Kcclesiast.'i In the 
Ninons of Cuthbert, archbmliop of Canierbiiry, made at 
.l.<vt'9b<>o,in the year 747, it was ordered that Litanies, that 
•. It igalions, should be observed by the clergy and people, 
'iih great reverence, on the seventh of the calends of May, 
iri.'iirdiii!; to the rilea of the churuh of Rome, which terms 
liis the Greater Lilany, and also, according to the custom of 
'iir f'lrcfatherB, on the three days before ihe Ascension of 

 111 Ljrd. with festings, &c. (WUkins, Concil. Brit., p. 
: 1^); Spetm., G^t., r. 'Lilunia.') The continuance of thia 
u^lorn through later limes is evidenced by old parish ac- 
oiiipl!, and by the various episcopal articled of inquiry. In 
lie iiijuncliona issued in Queen Eliiabelh's reign, it j 
k-ivd that the curate, at certain and convenient places, 
'rlniLiiiish tbe people to give thanks to God, in the beholding 
il Gud's henetlts. for the increase and abundance of his fruits, 
■■■^ymyi lbs 103rd Psalm, &c.; at wliicb lime Ihe minister 
lull inculcate these or such sentences, 'Cursed be he 
.< iiii'h ii anslateth the " boundsand doles of his neighbours," 
ir sui-h orders of prayers as shall be hereafter.' 

RitLiaiion Week, in Ihe northern partsof England, is called 
'^ung Week, from to gang, nhich in the north signifies to 
^)- Cjnj-puea, gnng-wcuk, occurs in the rubric to John, 
'- 17, in ihe Saxon Gospels; and Gin;-bijay are noticed 

II ibc laws both of Alfred and Ailiclslan. 

{'^xanC'^ Popular Antiq., 4lo. edit,, vol. i., p.lC8-173; 
llindv's Clavit CuUndaTta. 8vo.. 1812. vol. i., p. 32!-3i6.) 
ItOOER OF SICILY. [SiciLits. Tvo- Hislonj.] 
KUHAULT, JAMES, was the son of a merchant at 
\liiiciis. wbere he was born in 1620. He received the nidi- 
iK'nls of a scientific education in that city.andwas afler- 
ixvirl, scut to Paris for the purpose ot prosecuting hvs 
-iiiili(.'s in philosophy. 

Ill that nge the physical woiks of Aristotle hod begun to 
.■:vc plai-e to those of Descartes, and most of the learned 
I'li'ii in Prance received with complacency the explanation 
<!' the phenomena of Nature whicli were given in Ihe 

 I'niu'ipia.' the ' Dioptiice,' and the ' Meteora' of iheir 
iiliiiinuus countryman. Among the persons alluded to, 
itilmult was one who diligently studied Ihe writings of the 
f'ltiwk philosopher and of his numerous commentator), but 
v.liu alM> applied himself with ardour to Ihe productions of 
'.[iv' WKV suhuol, of which he professed to be B Ecalons dis- 

I 1,1^. Tliis circumstance appears to have brought hira to 
ilii' noiire of Clarselicr, who, being himself a warm Car- 
i.-.Laii, conceived so great aregard for the young philosopher, he gave hira his daushler In marriage, and engaged 
Mill lo write a commenlary on the worUs of the man who 
ud^ the object of their common admiration. Rohault seems 
1. 1 have executed the task assigned to him in a manner 
I'.l^rli graiilied the wishes ofhis patron and fnlherin-law, 
,1 .'1 ill ibe spirit of an enihusiaiiic follower ; for in the 
I I'l'laic to his 'Traitf de Physique' he designates Descartes 
:ij a man ulio, by bia works, had shown that France was 
P. a, No. 1235. 

the pnuosopny oi Newton, which. In a very few years, had 
entirely supplanted that of Ihe French school. 

After Ibe above-mentioned work was Gnished, Rohault 
appears lo have been occupied for several years in giving 
instructions in mathemalicB, and tbe subjects of his lessons 
were published after his death in two volumes. The course 
comprehends geometry, both plane and practical ; trigono- 
metry, plane and spherical ; forlilication, mechanics, per- 
speclive. and oriihmolic. 

Besides ihe ' Traits de Physique.' Rohault published also 
a work entitled ' Entretiens sur la Philosopliie,' consisting of 
a scries of dialojjucs, in which the snbjcrts are treated ac' 
cording to (he Cartcsinn principle.^. >]c died in 1C73. 

ROHILCUND. [Hindustan, p. 218.1 

ROLAND, MANON. Manon Phdipon, for such was 
her maiden name, was horn in Paris in 1756. Her father 
was an an iat of moderate talent; hermollicrnasawomanof 
superior understanding and of a sin):nlarly amiable temper. 
Manon learned to read so early and so easily as not to be 
able lo recollect the procesis ; and. having once learned to 
read, she read everything that came in her way. In her 
father's bouse she enjoyed, to a ceriain cxlenl. the means of 
cultivating painting, music, and general literature. It is 
probable that her early devotion to Ibcse pursuits tended to 
exalt her imagination and lo inlluenco Ihe whole of her 
future career. Whilst yet a girl, she was, at her own earnest 
request, placed fur one year in a conventual school. At 
Ibis age her relif;ions enthusiasm was extieme; in after- 
years it subsided, end her opinions, she confesses, went 
throujrh every chnnt;e, until they rested in scepticism ; a re- 
sult in some decree due to her perusal of the wntinss of 
many celebrated authors. Her reading, under her father's 
roof, was of a most miscellaneous du^icription. Tho works 
of the fathers and the free writings of the seventeenth and 
eighteenth centuries were equally accessible to her, and 
perused with equal avidity ; but Ihe most powerful and 
lasting impreisiiin was made on her by an early familiarity 
with Plutarch's 'Lives of lUuslriousMen.' From this lime, 
Greece and Rome were constantly present to ber thoughts, 
and when she was fourteen years old. she is said lo have 
wept to think that she was not n Roman or a Spartan 

At the age of five and twenty, she became the wife of M. 
Roland, a man twenty years her senior, of laborious habits, 
great abllily and integrity, and manners described us of 
antique severity. A daughter was the fruit of this marriage, 
and Madame Rolomra time became divided between the 
care of her child's education, and giving a.ssiBtance to her 
husband, from whose knonleilge she derived great ailvan- 
tage in return. He held the office of In!peclor of Manu- 
factures, of which he fuimied the duties in a liberal spirit 
well according with Ihe previous Impressions of his enthu- 
siastic partner. With him Madame Roland visited Eng- 
land. Switierland. and other countries of Europe— every- 
where Industriously inquiring Into the nature of the civil in- 
stitutions, and manifesting Ihe warmest sympathy with the 
advocates of political liberty. On witnessing the camforta 
ijoyed by the English coitacers. she is said to have ob- 
rved. that in this country a handful of wealth did not con* 
itule the nation, but that man, whatever his station, was 
reckoned as something. 

The inlenso interest wilh-which such a woman regarded 
the first movements of liberty in her own country, may 
ily be conceived. Her husband being appointed to re- 
present Ihe city of Lyon in the National Convention, left 
ins residence near that city, and, accompanied by his wife, 
proceeded to Purls, where the curiosity of Madame Roland 
was gratified, and her seal, if possible, increased, by ;he op- 
portunity of observing some of the most distinguished acton 
the political stage— as Mirabeau, Cazalfs, Maury, Bar- 
'e, and others of less note. To the catise espoused by 
se notable persona Madame Roland and her husband 
-e warmly attached ; and, during the ministry of the 
party of the Gironde, Roland nas appointed minister of the 
'"terior, for which his information, bis assiduity, and hii 
riet probity highly qualified him. It was, whilst hoidinK 
this oflice, that he appeared at court with a round hat ana 
strings to his shoes; and was regarded by the courtiers as a 
symbol of a monarchy about to fall. His sincere language 
Vol. XX.— K 

R O L 


R O L 

to the court as his pUin attire was di»- 
to the courtieRi. The talents of his wife tvere at 
applied to ass:»t him in the composition of public 

CpoK. M about pretending to direct him. she avows her 
Iief that by mingling with the severer accents of patriot- 
isis the expressions and feehngs of a woman of sensibility, 
she rendered these documents more impressive and effectual. 
The iunoQS letter of M.Roland to Louis XVL (May, 1792) 
was drawn up by her: a letter designated, according to the 
political feelings of the readers, as an enlightened lUthough 
a severe remonstrance, or as audacious and full of 
evil prophecy. This production occasioned M. Roland's 
dkmisksal by the court ; for which he was compensated by 
the wann applauses of the Convention. He again became 
a minister after the events of the 10th of August; hut his 
party bad then passed the hounds prescribed by his judg- 
ment, and entered upon extremes repugnant to his high- 
minded and generous wife. Still tney were apparently 
favoured by their party, to whom Roland's character and 
popularity were necessary. Amidst the real and affected 
grossness of dress, manners, and language of the republi- 
cans, society preserved its respectability in the circle as- 
sembled round the table of the minister of the interior. 

Tbe events of the reign of terror do not require to be de- 
tailed. The frightful massacres in the prisons of Paris on 
the 2nd and 3rd of September, were boldly denounced by 
Roland in his capacity as minister; but the Convention, 
which applauded him, wanted courage, or virtue, or power 
to act upon his advice ; and from that hour his own doom and 
that of his wife became only more certain. Madame Roland 
had herself been already arraigned before that assembly, on 
an absurd charge of treasonable correspondence with Eng- 
land ; and by her presence of mind, her acuteness, and her 
wit, had baifled and mortified her accusers. The recollec- 
tion of this defeat is said to have so haunted the minds of 
Marat. Danton, and Robespierre, that in every subsequent 
difficulty, and in every attack made upon their proceedings, 
they imagined they recognised the boldness, sagacity, or 
sarcasm of Madame Roland. She and her husband began 
to receive warnings of their danger, and for a short time 
consented to take the precaution of not sleeping at the 
Hdtel of the Interior. The appearance of deception 
was little agreeable to Madame Roland. 'I am ashamed,* 
she said, on an occasion on which she had almost consented 
to leave her house in the dress of a peasant, 'of the part I 
am made to play. I will neither disguise myself nor leave 
the house. If they wish to assassinate me, it shall be in 
Diy own home. This courageous example is due from me, 
and I will afford it.' Her husband quitted Paris, and she 
might have done so, but she declared that the care of evad- 
ing injustice cost her more than it would do to suffer 
from it. 

The time arrived when tbe intellectual superiority 
hitherto maintained in the Convention by M. Roland's 
party, or the Girondists, was overcome by absolute force. 
Forty thousand men were marched against the Convention, 
by the Jacobins, on the 3 1st of May, 1793; and in the 
evening of the same day Madame Roland was arrested and 
thrown into the prison of the Abbaye. Here she displayed 
her usual firmness, and continued to exercise towards the 
poor and unfortunate a benevolence for which in her pros- 
perous days she had been remarkable. Before her friends 
she appeared cheerful; she always maintained the lan- 
guage of a patriot when speaking of the aspect of affairs, 
nattering and fearing none;, and she professed herself 
capable of overcoming her ill-fortune. In solitude 
the feelings of the wife and tbe mother overcame 
her, and the attendants remarked that she passed many 
hours in tears. Her sufferings were greatly aggravated by her 
being one day unexpectedly liberated, as if the danger was 
past. She drove home with extreme delight ; sprung out of 
the coach, as she says it had always been her habit to 
do, but with more than usual vivacity ; and was running 
gaily up stairs, when she was attain arrested by an officer, 
and at once taken to Sainte Pelagic, a prison of a lower 
order than the Abbaye, where she was shut up with the 
worst of her sex. In this second prison she remained until 
her trial and execution. The only explanation given of 
this circumstance was that her first arrest had been illegal. 
The wretchedness of her situation at Sainte Pelagie was only 
alleviated by her literary occupations, and by the kindness 
of her gaolers or of their families, whom her fascinating 
manni»fa and behaviour converted into friends. WeU 

knowing that her 1i!b would be sacrificed, she devoted a! 
her hours to the composition of her Memoirs, writings fu I 
of lively description, entertaining anecdotes of her conter- 
poraries, and remarks indicative of penetration and babiCw . 
reflection. A letter to her daughter, written in th'v 
circumstances, is one of the most affecting of fkrewdlft. I: 
Madame Roland seldom gave way to melancholy emotiu ^ 
in her writings. Her pages detail the events of her ch-.i- 
hood and youth with matchless spri^htliness and graee, ar.L. 
excepting in certain passages wherein candour is carried t 
an excess which modem delicacy would not permit to t 
female writer, her Memoirs are models of that kind of coo- 

As the narrative advances, events of a deeper inter«»; 
are related with great facility of expression, sometimes «it 
mournful pathos, generally with great judgment, n>* 
always witnout satire, but always with easy eloquenrt: 
From a very early age we may discern in this relation 'L 
extraordinary decision of her character, her naturally cu;l>- 
manding manners, her fervent but well-oont rolled fc:r- 
perament, her indefatigable love of improvement, and her 
unswerving adherence to truth. 

Several unhappy prisoners delivered themselves fr>- 
certain execution by taking poison; and Madame RoliJ 
had at one time resolved to do the same. But comrou: - 
eating her resolution to a friend, who represented to r.; 
that a nobler course would be to wait for death, ar-j 
leave the memory of so great a sarnflce to the cause ft 
which she had lived, she calmly determined to abide the 

It was in the month of October (1793) that the Girond»u 
were destroyed. On the 3 1 at of that month she was seni :. 
the Conciergerie. On the 10th of November she appeared lie- 
fore the Revolutionary tribunal. She had declinea the pr.' 
fered aid of M. Chauveau Lagarde, the great advocate •{ 
the Girondists, of the unfortunate queen, and of Charlot'r 
Corday; knowing that no talents could save her, since h'- 
innocence could not, and not wishing to expose him to u^ 
less danger. Pftrt of the night was occupied by her a 
writing her eloquent defence. Her courage did not de><n 
her during her trial or at her execution. She sustained \ti 
insults of the unmanly tribunal, not without womanly efflc- 
tion. but also with a dignity worthy of the greatest women 
of the times with which her early reading of Plutarch had 
made her familiar. To the last moment she preserved Ltr 
presence of mind, and even her gaiety. On the same ds> 
and at the same hour a man was also to be guillotined :»t.i 
in such extremity, to die first being thought a privilege. &:e 
waived it in favour of her less courageous companion ir 
misfortune; overcoming the scruples of tbe executioner, 
whose orders were to execute her first, by representing t 
him the impoliteness of rofusing a woman's last request. It 
is said that bending herself before the statue of UberM. 
close to this scene of death, she exclaimed, ' Oh f Libert.^ ' 
what crimes are committed in thy name !' 

She had often been heard to say that her husband vox. '. 
not sui-vive her. As soon as he beard of lier executtun, ht 
took leave of two attached female friends in whose houjk*. i: 
Rouen, he had found a refuge, and to whom his re^olui. :■ 
was known; walked in the evening of the ISlh of Nover> 
her as far as Baudouin, four leagues on the road to Pan*, 
sat down by the side of a tree in an avenue leading to i 
private house, and passed hts cane-sword through his cbot 
By his side was found a paper, in which iheae words vee 
written : — * Whoever you are who find me lying here, re>f<i- 
my remains ; they are those of a man who devoted h > 
whole life to being useful, and who died, as he had lireil 
virtuous and honest.' 

These particulars are principally taken from a very recent 
edition of the ' Memoirs of Madame Roland,* published :.. 
Paris, in two volumes. 8vo., with abundant D0lea» by MM. 
Berville and Barridre. 

ROLLE, MICHEL, a French mathematician; was br. 
at Ambert in Auvergne, in 1652. He appears to l.a\e 
possessed from nature a remarkable facility in solving p;v- 
positions relating to arithmetic and algebra, and lo have a* 
Quired by practice a great proficiency in the calligraphic a^'. 
After having served during several years as an attumei's 
clerk, he came, in 1675. to Paris, where he obtained a suf 
sistance as a writing-master, and where he spent his leisure 
time in cultivating the mathematical sciences. An atv- 
dental circumstance procured for him tbe notice of M. 
Colbert. Osanam, who was himself a good analyaV hap 

ROL 6 

vonns, ilugt, and iniects generally. Yarrell inrunn* ua 
that the fiMd consisis of vormE, slugs, insect* in ibeir n- 
riout itaget, and berries. 

BechaMin obaerves Ihat till lalelj ha hid thought that 
the RoUer fat unlameable; but Dr. Meyer of Offenbach 
had coDTineed bim la the contrary, having himself reared 
Ihetn in his room b; the following method: — The joung 
onet must be taken from tlie nest vhen only half grown, 
and fed on litllo bit* of cow's heart, or any other meat which 
is Jean and tender, till Ihey can feed alone; imall frogs, 
worms, and insects may then be added. Its mode of kill- 
ing and swallowing insects ii thus described: — it com- 
mences by seixing and crushing them with its bill, and then 
throws Ihem into the air several times, in order to rei 
them in ita throat, which is very capacious. When the 
morsel is too large, or Ibe insect isatill alive, the bird strikes 
it hard against the ground, and begins again to throw 
into the air till it falls not acrou, but so as to thread the 
throat, when it is easily swallowed. Beebslein tays ihat he 
had never seen the bird drink. The translator of Bech- 
slein'a inlereiling little book stales that he once saw a 
Roller drink after having swallowed dry ants' eggs ; it then 
ate greedily of lettuce and endive. ' Another which 1 
kept, adds the translator, ' liked the outside of lettuces and 
apinach after having eaten insects, especially beetles, which 
are very heating. To judge from what I have observed, the 
Roller ii by nature wild and solitary ; it seldom chanj;es its 
situation, eiccpt to seek .its food or to hide itself from 
•tranger*. It is a good thing, whether kept in a cage or let 
range, always to have a box in its way, in which it may 
lake cefuee when frightened ; it will not fail to hide itself 
there, and by this means will not be tempted to beat iUelf 
violently, which it does when it cannot tly from the object 
of Ita ^ight. It knows its mistress very well, lets her lake 
it up, comes near lier, and sits without any fear on her 
kneci for whole hours without stirring. This ii as far as it 
gTHM even when tamed. It is neither caressing nor fami- 
liar: whan frightened it utter* harsh urics, softer ones when 
its food IS brought, but crag, crag, eraag. at the sume time 
raiting its head, is the expression of its joy or triumph.' 

The MinoBird. "neula religiota, Linn., Beo and Mfne/io 
of the Javanese, Tieoag of the Sumatrans, will find a more 
appropriate place among the Slurmdee, according to Mr. 
Swainson. Mr. G. R. Gray arranges it under the family 
Corrida, in the aubfamily Graculina. Mr. Swainson 
■tale* that analysis has convinced him that neither the 
Bntlfriaat the bird in question belong to the Corvidts; 
and he remarks that the little value that can be attached 
to apeculations on the rank of the present geneia founded 
Upon mere synthesis, will best appear by looking to those 
■rtillcial arranfcements that place the short-legged Rollers 
clas« to the tanj^-legged and |>owerfully constructed Grakle 
(Gracula religiosa). 

M. Lesson, as we have seen, places this bird next to the 
Rollers, and amonK the Bury»lomidir, and though we are 
bv no means tatisQed ihat this is its proper position, we 
•ball, in the present iiale of opiDtoii, notice the form 

Eulabet, formed, says M. Lesson, the genus Jfouaai 
Brisson, and was placed by Lir.nnus and Gmelin among thi 
Graeula, next after the Orioles. M. Temmiaek retained 
the genus Gracula. reduced Id the Mino Bird alone, amoaj 
hia omnivoroua birds, and M. Vieillot kept it also, amngio; 
it in his family of Carottadit. 

Generic Character. — Bill short, stout, not ao long ai Ihi 
head; enth'ely compressed. Frcntal feathera advandof 
far upon the base, but not dividing the front. Culmcn 
gmdually curved from the base to the tip, which is de- 
tincily notched. Commissure but slightly angulated. L':- 
der mandible with the base broad and dilated. Nostr.h 
basal, naked, round, sunk in a depression. Frontal realfvn 
short, velvety. Head wilh naked wattles. Wings as .:. 
Ihtlor. TaiJ short, even. Feet rather short, very atrone- 
Tarsus and middle tne equal ; hinder toe shorter ; iDoet t.« 
almost equal to I ho outer tee. (Sw.) 

Example, Oracala reHgiota. 

Deitny/iOfj.— Deep velvety black ; a white space in (he 
middle of the wing; bill and feet yellow ; behind the e\t 
apringlleshyearuncletof a bright orange-colour, aad exteod 
beyond the occiput. 

Geographical Diitribution. — Java, Sumatra, and the 
great Kaslem Islands. 

Haiilt, Fond, ^. — Insects and fruits form the food of th« 
Mino-Bird, which is easily tamed, and learns to whistle arid 
talk with great facility. With the native* it i* a gtm 
favourite in consequence. Marsden aays of it, that it bi; 
the faculty of imitating human speech in greater perfeciiar. 
than any other of the feathered tribe. Bontius, who lertn 
it Pica, »eu poliut Slumiu Indian, beads the chapter when 
be ngures and describes it with the following linea : — 

JiuHloijiiiirl TillcLl me BliirDD>|ir¥ulu ladu.'— 

And tells the following story : — There was, when he was ii 
ButBVia, an old Javanese woman, the secvant of a Cfaiuc^ 
gardener, who kept one of these birds which waavery loqm 
clous. Bontiu* was very anxious to buy it: but lb in the u\: 
woman would not hear of. He then begged that ahe wou i 
at least lend it to him that its picture might be taken, a n- 
quest which was at last granted with no very good grace. iIk 
antient Mohammedan dame being under great apprehen- 
sion that Bontius would offer that abomination, pork, tii be: 
beloved bird. This be promised not to do, and bad the loa.i 
of the Mino, which kept continually saying Orang A'oiiirum 
Caljor Macan Babi. TbisbeinEinierpreted, means 'Club 
tian Dog, Eater of Pork:' and Bontius came to the conciu- 
sion that the unwillingness of the old woman arose not ocii 
ttom the fear of her bird being desecrated by an offer j 
swine's llesb, but also from the apprehension that he o: 
his servants, irritated by its contumelies, would wriog i:t 
neck. M. lesson also saw one at Java which know whv  
phrases of the Malay language. 

The general opinion seems to be that there ia but ■im 
species of Mino Bird. 

Gne<ilsrtll(lgti>. (Eubbn Jinm 

Cuvier however ststes that Linns 


s eonfoiuidctl 1 

\/.. llie Mianal 
ii'i Aff/ie/io of 

'uUcus above Qoliced> 

EuUbei Indlcni.' 

The bst-uentioned ornitliulogist applies Ihs old Indian 
M ncl Miiio as a icenerlc lerm for a very different bird. Mirto 
/iii'iif'iilii, described by him in The Zoology qfthe Coquitle, 
.itiil ihorc nzuTedaC pi. 26. He is alM or opinion IhatGra- 
• ■ii/-i mica, Linn., ihoulil be added to llus eenua. 

ROLLIN. CHARLES, bom at Paris. January 30, IGel. 
\v:is ilic second son ofa master cutler, end ivas intended by 
tiisfiiilivr fur tha same trade. Attracting llie notice of a 
Hviifiliclino monk, by the taste and aptitude for learning 
M liicli be showed at a very early age, he waa rescued from 
liisobsruredeittiny, and placed at the college of Plessis with 
:i iH'n-tion. Here he pursued his studies with great zeal, 
iii'lusliy, and docility, woa much noticed by the Principal of 
I he ci.llegB, and was selected bytha iniiiisler Lo Pelclier 
;i< the cumpiDionaf bis two sons, with whom he bad dis- 
piili'd the prize of academic distinction in generous rival- 
^liip. After having been instructed in humanities and phi- 
I'l-"!]!!!]. he devoted three years to the study of theology at 
iLi; Suibonne. At the age of twenty-tno he had ilistin- 
jjiii-licd himself so much iu the college of Plessis, that Her- 
>an, the professor of rhetoric there, pointed hira out as his 
nun suoceiisor in the professorial chair, which he wished to 
varale, nnd Rollin, in spite of his own diffidence, was made 
Ins assistant in 1GS3, and professor in his stead in ]6tl7. 
TIa- nc;(t year he received the additional lionour of the pro- 
fosrari^hipuf eloquence in the^Royal College. In both these 
c'<tiiioities he did not disappomt expectation. The orations 
u liicli lie delivered in public were very correct and elegant 
biUii c'lmpositions ; and the refurms and regulations inlro- 
tluird by him into the discipline of the university deserve 
i^iurh piaisc. He revived the study of Greek, which had 
V'i'ii gicatly neglected, gave more prominence to the culli- 
\:iii<>ii of the French languai^e in the course of general iti- 
nli'iicilmi, introduced the plan of learning by heart fine 
p.i:^t!cs of different authors, as an exercise of taste and 
ini'iuory, and substituted exercises in the room of the dra- 
iiriiic represent at iuns which the ecliolaLs had been in the 
biibitof performing. In lGt)4 ha was appointed rector of 
iliu uiiitersily, in which ofGce he continued two years, and 
infill! himself remarkable oat less for his constant attention 
In lis inlernal manugemenl than for his leal in maintaining 

i1 NoaiUes to superintend the studies of his nepht 
iumiB resigned all his public employroenls, except the pro- 
ltr-v>[sliip of eloquence in the Ro>ol College, in order that 
li" iiii|;lii have more leisure for his nrivate literary labours, 
tiliijrilf aflei he wu dragged from ois retirement, and un- 

to favour, and the intrigues thence arising in his coll^. 
Rollin was compelled to quit his office at Beauvais. In 
171S be published bis edition of Quintilian, in two 
volumes, 12mo., with a preface and a popular outline of 
rhetoric, short notes, and summaries of the chapters. The 
text was not published entire, but selections were made ac- 
cording to the judgment of the editor. 

In 1 720 he was again chosen rector of the university, but 
io consequence of the religious feuds already mentioned, he 
was displaced very shortly by a let tre -de- cachet, the uni- 
versity being desired to choose a more moderate rector. 
From this period till his death he seems to have withdrawn 
from public life as much as possible, and devoted himself 
lo study, the fruit of which was given lo the world in several 
works. In 1726 appeared his 'Traile de la Maniire d'Klu 
dier et d'Enscignei lei Belles-Let Ires,' a work which pre- 
sents a popular view of such classical and French literature 
■s he considered suited for the instruction of the young, and 
contains such a system of education as his own experience 
in teaching had suggcaied. This treatise, though deflcient 
in philosophical principles, and inferior to subsequent writ- 
ings of the some nature, was well adapted for the age in 
which it was published, and contributed probably very 
much to diffuse a general taste for literature throughout 
France. It was translated into English, in 1735, tinder the 
title of 'Thoughts concerning Education, translated from 
the French.' There is extant a letter from Bishop Atter- 
bury to Rollin, in whieh be speaks in high terms of iL En- 
couraged by the general approbation with which this publi- 
cation was received, Rollin composed his' Histoire Ancienne,' 
an account of the chief nations of antiquity drawn from 
profane authors, and terminating with the establishment of 
the Roman empire under Augustus, in thirteen volumes, 
which appeared successively iu Ibe interval between 1730 
and 1738, His last work was a hislor>- of Rome, which 
was afiernards continued by Crevier, from the end of ihs 
republic to the time of Constanline, in completion of the 

iginal plan. 

Rollins latter years were disturbed occasionally by the 
religions troubles which agitated bis country. His friend- 
ship with many distinguished Janienisis drew upon him 
from lime to time the suspicions of the government, and 
accused of Joining in conspiracies, and his house 
searched in consequence, though his enemies could not suc- 
ceed in criminating bim. He died Mth September, 1741, 

iving exceeded his eightieth year. 

From the testimony of his contemporaries it appears that 
RoUin's character was a model of piety and virtue. Ho 

IS remarkable (or his liberalily, modesty, integrity, and 

ig !e- hear ted ncjs. This last quality is shown not less in 
the whole tenour of his actions than in his writings, which 
ire from a certain simplicity than from any other 
The merits and defects of bis ' Belles-Lettres' are 
ne kind as those observable in his ' Histoire An- 
Thetc is the ^atnc want of profound thought, and 
absence of critical judgment, the same easy style, 
to a young mind, and pleasing from its very care- 
lessness, while Ilio want of critical judgment is compensated 
by the love of truth and the morality which pervade the 

Great praise has been bestowed on RoUin by his contem- 
porary admirers, among the most illustrious of whom were 
the duke of Cumberland and Frederic the Great, who wai 
his frequent correspandenL Montesquieu styled him 'the 
bee of France,' and Voltaire and Rosseau have confirmed 
ibis eulo^ium. 

Modern readers will perhaps think that RoUin's merits 
IS an author have been overrated by the zeal of personal 
riendship and esteem for his private character, and that his 
ivorka are chielly valuable as having contributed to form 
.he taste and strengthen the moral feelings of his age. Hi* 
Opuscules' were collected and publish^, 2 vols. IJmo., 
n 1771 ; they contain orations and poems, written in very 
classical and graceful Latin, correspondence wiih Frederic 
the Great, Rousseau, and other distinguished jiersons, and 
other smaller compositions. 

Estracle from his works, by M. I'Abbfi Lucet, were pub- 

of the 




lishtd lo 8to., Paris« 1780, under the title of Penwet Bur 
plusietirs points importans de litt^ratore, de Politiqae, et 
de R^liicion.' He is said to have written a ' History of the 
Aru and Sciences of the Antients,* London, 1768, 3 vols. 
8vo. His * Histoire Aneienne' has frequently heen re- 
printed. A new edition of all his works was commenced at 
jParis, 8vo., 1837. This history was edited by Smile Beres, 
with new maps and plates. 

The materials for a biography of RoUin are contained in 
the ' Eloffe de M. BLoUin,* written by M. de Boye, secretary of 
the Aca&mie des Inscriptions (of which Rollin was a mem- 
ber), and read before this Society. 14th November, 1741. 
It was printed, with additional matter in the form of notes, 
in the edition of the 'Opuscules,' in 1771, already referred 
to. See alio Chaufepi^'s ' Dictionnaire Historique* and the 
' Biographie Universelle.' 


ROLLS. [Recoros.] 

ROLLS-COURT, the Court of the Master of the Rolls, 
of which there are two, one at Westminster in the new build- 
ings adjoining the hall, the other in the Rolls Buildings in 
Chancery Lane. The latter was originally a house or hos- 
pital for the reception of Jewish converts : but when the 
Jews were banished from England by King Edward I., there 
was little use for an hospital of this kind : whereupon it was 
assip^ed to the Master of the Rolls, who had thenceforth the 
denomination of Magister Rotulorum, Recordorum, ^c, et 
Cuitof Domiu Convenorum. One or two converts were 
maintained on a poor pittance in this house in the sixteenth 

ROLLS, MASTER OF THE, a very eminent officer of 
the Court of Chancery, second only to the chancellor himself. 
Originally he had, as the name implies, the custody of the 
rolls or recorded proceedings of that court, and, it seems also, 
of any other documentary matter belonging to that court 
But the custody had long been merely nominal, the actual 
care of them being vektea in certain keepers, who were not 
even appointed by the Master of the Rolls : the two chief 
depositaries being at the Tower, where the records previous 
to the reign of Richard HI., and at the Rolls Buildings, 
where are Kept those of the later period. But this state of 
tiiinffs was altered by the act 1 and 2 Victoria, chap. 94, 
entitled an * Act for the better custody of the Public Re- 
cords,* by which the custody is restored to the Master of the 
Rolls fur the time being, and very extensive powers are given 
to him with -xespeet to the custody and use of them. The 
act further commits to him the records also of the Common- 
Law Courts and of the Court of Exchequer. 

Bv what means the Master of the Rolls became divested 
of the peculiar duties indicated by the name, is a point of 
legal antiquariauism which has not been satisfoetorily eluci- 
dated ; nor is it quite clear when or how he came to sit to 
hear causes in equity. Now the chief duties of this officer 
are judicial ; but from his decrees there is an appeal to the 
chancellor. He signs all injunctions of the Court of Chan- 

kOMA, com A RCA DI, is the name of a province of 
the Papal state, in which the city of Rome is situated, and 
which is under the same administrative authorities as the 
metropolis itself. It consists of the Agro Romano, or ter- 
ritory immediatelv around Rome, and of the districts of 
Tivoli, Albano. and Subiaco. The province extends on both 
banks of the Tiber, including Bracciano, Monte Rosi, and 
Monte Sent' Oreste (the antient Soracte) on the west or 
right bank o( the river, and it extends as fares Magliano on 
the eastern or left bank, including Palombara, Tivoli, Vico- 
varo, and the whole valley of the Anio, with Palestrina, Fraa- 
cati, Albano Geniano, and Porto d'Anio and Nettunoon the 
sea-coast It is bounded on the north by the province of 
Spoleto e Ridti, on the east by the kingdom of Naples, on 
the south by the province of Frosinone, south-west by the 
Mediterranean, and west by the province of Viterbo. The 
city of Velletri forms a separate government under the Car- 
dinal Deoano, or senior cardinal, who is by custom legate of 
Velletri and Ostia. For a description of the Comarca see 
Campaona di Roma. 

ROMAONA, ROMANDIO'LA, a name which was 
given in the middle ages to a tract of country north of the 
Apennines, extending along the coast of the Adriatic, from 
the river Foglia near Pesaro, which was the northern 
boundary of tho Picenum, or March of Anconn, to the 
Scoltenna. or Panaro, which flows half way between Bologna 
and Modena. This extent of territory oorresponds to that 

of the modem Papal legations* Bologna* Raveniift, 
and Forli. The Po was its boundarv on the nortb, and trt 
Apennines of Tuscany on the south and west. Ravencs 
was the chief town, xhe name of Romagna, or rather R ' 
mandiota, * Little Rome,* is said by Alberti to have been gi ve- 
to it in consequence of the Exarchs having fixed their r'-»f- 
dence at Ravenna, which thereby became a aeeond Room. 
being the seat of the Imperial government in Italy. Hl: 
the appellation came into common use later than the per: ». 
of the Exarchs, for in their time the old admin ut r^f- 
names of the time of the empire, ' Flaminia* and * ./Smi. :: 
were still in use. (Paulus Diaconus, Hist, qf the L>m;: - 
bards, ii. 19.) In the quarrels between the popes and t - 
Greek emperors on the subject of images, the peopk- > 
Ravenna and the neighbouring country took part with v 
former, and afterwards Pepin and Charlemagne bestovr: 
iEmilia, Flaminia, and Pentapolis on the see of Rome, a: i 
although the popes could not for a long time after enfjrsc 
their political supremacy over the whole of that countrr 
[Papal Statx], still they considered it as their own, an 
gave it the name of Romandiola. Such is the account \ 
Giannone and other historians. During the middle »i'^ 
several popes strove to maintain their authority over iirt 
pettv nrinces and towns among which the country i« 
diviaed. [Albornoz.] Alexander VI. commissioned h • 
son Cesare Borgia to conquer the country, which be effect'.^ 
in great measure, partly by force and partly by treacben, 
and the pope created him duke of Romandiola ; but afi«r 
the death of Alexander VI., Julius II. annexed it to tL» 
Papal state. The country was afterwards divided in*: 
administrative divisions styled legations, but the genen 
appellation of Romagna continu^ in uae, being applied 
more especially to the eastern part of the country near ti 
Adriatic, between Rimini and Ravenna, the inliabitants 
which are called at Rome to this day * Romagnoli.* T'. 
people of Bologna and Ferrara are not understood as in- 
cluded in this denomination. The Roma/^oU are lively a: 
quick, but they have the character of being ha^ty si 
violent. Of late years they, as well as their neighbour* 
Bologna, have shown themselves the most impatient .-^ 
Papal control of all the populations of the Papal Stitt 
The principal towns of Romagna are: Cxibna; Faeni^ 
Forli; Imola; Ravenna. 

cenza in 1761, studied first in the College Alberoni, vbm 
he had for a schoolfellow his countryman Gioia, who if-er- 
wards distinguished himself as a publicist and a politri. 
economist. [Gioia, Melcbiorrb.] Romagnosi continue -i 
his studies at Parma, where he took his degree of Doctor .: 
Law in 1 786. He afterwards practised as an advocate, b 
1791 he published his 'Genesi del Diretto Penale,' bein£ x 
investigation of the grounds on which the infliction ^* 
punishment for offences is founded. Becearia, Filangier. 
and other Italian jurists of that ago had adopted the FrviKt 
theory of a social contract, by which each member of ir 
cipient societies was supposed to have given up a portioB ' 
his original independence into the hands of the collec:.^" 
body, and to have thus bound himself and bis desoenrfan** 
Romagnosi rejected this hypothesis, and he derived vh'i 
he called the right of punishing from the principle of r * 
cessity and of self-defence, inasmuch as the whole of soctc'y 
is concerned in an injury which is done to any of its mtn.- 
hers. His work was well received in France and GermarA . 
but it has been little noticed in Italy until of late ^nk 
where it has been republished five or six times; and' ii <> 
now much studied, especially in Tuscany. Soon after ;be 
publication of the work, the prince bishop of Trent namc^. 
him prntor, or chief magistrate, of that town, an office hrl . 
for one year, but in which Romagnosi was confirmed f r 
three consecutive years, after which the bishop named fa.m 
his aulic councillor. 
During the turmoil of the French revolution, Romagi.-^ 
' not participate in the blind admiration of many of ^^i 


countrymen for what were called the new ideas, and he tnfi 
to define the just meaning of liberty andequahtr in tvi 
little works, * Che Cosa 6 Eguaglianza.' ' Che Gosa i Liberti* 
1 793. When the French invaded Italy in 1 796, Romacotf! 
remained in tbe Italian Tyrol, to whose population be wis 
greatly attached : he said of them, amonrother things, tfc: 
thoy did not know how to tell a lie. When the French 
entered tbe Tyrol, Romagnosi was named aecretary^ of tk 
provisional council instituted at Trent, in which capantv 
he did all he could to alleviate the evil of foraign invas ' 





ptrtod marit, and wbo ftubioribed on tbe ipot to raise a 
moDument to bis memory. iNotizia di G. D. Rotnagnosi, 
sUia da C^sare Can/u, Milan, 1835.) 

ROMAINE, WILLIAM, was born at Hartlepool, in 
Darham, on the 25th of September, 1714. His father was 
one of tbe French Protestanu who fled to England upon the 
revocation of the Edict of Nantes, and a man of the strictest 
piety and integrity. Mr. Romuine was his second son. He 
was educated at the grammar-schooi of Hough ton*le- Spring, 
in tbe county of Durham, whence he proceeded to Oxford 
in 1730 or 1731, and entered first at Hertford College, and 
afterwards at Christchurch. He resided principally at 
Oxford, devoting himself especially to the study of the 
Hebrew and Greek Scriptures, till be took his degree of 
M.A. in 1737. He had received deacon s orders the year 
before. His first cu:*acy was that of Loe Trenchard, in 
Devon, which he served for six months. In 1 738 we find him 
residing at Epsom, in Surrey, and about the same time 
that he received priest's orders from Dr. Hoadly, bishop of 
Winchester, he became curate of the parishes of Banstead 
and Horton, in Middlesex. At Banstead he became ac- 

auainted with Sir Daniel Lambert, who, on his election to 
le mayoralty of London in 1741, appointed Mr. Romaine 
as his chaplain. In this capacity he preached a sermon at 
St. Paul's, on Romans ii., 14, 15. This was the second 
sermon he published, the first having been one which he 
preached before the university of Oxford in 1739, entitled 
'The Divine Legation of Moses demonstrated, from his 
having made express mention of, and insisted so much on, 
the Doctrine of a Future State ; whereby Mr. Warburton's 
Attempt to prove the Divine Legation of Moses from the 
Omission of a Future State is proved to be absurd and de- 
atructive of all Revelation.' At the end of the year 1741, 
he returned to the attack on Warburton*s theory, in a sermon 
preached at St. Mary's, Oxford, having in the mean time 
been engaged in an epistolary controversy with Warburton. 
The next seven years of his life were devoted to the prepa- 
ration of a new edition of Calasio's Hebrew Concordance 
and Lexicon, which was published in 1 747. He discharged 
Lis office as editor of this work most faithfully. He was 
cbosen lecturer of St. George's, Botolpb-lane, and St Bo- 
tolph's, Billingsgate, in the year 1 748. In the following 
year he was elected to two lectureships at St. Dunstan's in 
the West, the duties of which he had discharged for some 
time, when the rector thought fit to deny him the use of the 

Sulpit The matter was referred to tbe Court of King's 
lench, which deprived Romaine of one of the lectureships, 
but confirmed him in the other, with a salary of eighteen 
pounds a year ; but be was still refused the use of lights in 
the church, and used to preach by the light of a single 
candle held in his own hand, till this unseemly contest was 
put an end to by the mediation of Dr. Terrick, the then 
bishop of London. This lectureship was held by Romaine 
till his death. In 1750 he was appomted assistant morning 
preacher at St. George's, Hanover-square. He held this 
office till September, 1755, when he was removed from it, 
his biographer tells us. on account of ' the popularity and 
plainness of his ministry.' About the time of his appoint- 
ment to this lectureship, he was chosen professor of astro- 
nomy in Gresham College. His views of natural science 
were Hutchinsonian, and he always expressed his opinions 
with boldness, and not always without bigotry. Accordingly 
he spoko of the Newtonian views as having *a difference in 
their demonstrations of no less than one hundred and 
twenty-one millions of miles,' and of 'the modern divinity 
as bringing you no nearer than one hundred and twenty -one 
millions of miles short of heaven/ It is not surprising that 
he gained little reputation from this office. He seems how- 
ever to have regained his credit with the citizens by his 
opposition to the bill for naturalizing the Jews in 1753. 

In February, 1 755, he married Miss Price ; and in the 
following year he became curate and morning preacher at 
St. Olaves, Southwark, where he remained till 1759. 
During this period he resided in a pleasant retreat in 
Walnut-tree Walk, Lambeth, where be was in the habit of 
inviting young clergymen to his early breakfasts, and many 
have spoken with great gratitude of the instruction and en- 
couragement they received from him. 

R'jmaine had frequently preached before the university of 
Oxford up to the year 1757, when he wa^ refused the use of 
the University pulpit, in consequence of the offence which 
was taken at a sermon he delivered thure on *the Lord our 
Righteousness.' This sermon he published in vindication of 

bis conduct In tbe same year be published a trmct. - 
dressed to members of t4ie Established Church, eaLhor* 
them to set apart one hour in every week for prayer oii 
half of the church and nation. 

About this time be received pressing invitations to * 
ministry of a church in Philadelphia, which Mr. Whit r: 
strongly urged him to accept, but he preferred remaioii.^ 
his own country. 

In 1764 he was chosen to the rectory of St. Andrew 
the Wardrobe, and St. Ann's, Blackfriars. His elec:. 
was disputed, but in 1766 it was confirmed by the Court 
Chancery. He spent the rest of his life in tbe faithful ^ 
zealous discharge of the duties of this office. He died J 
26th, 1795, and was buried in tbe rectory vault of BUckfn^ 
Church, on the 3rd of August. 

Romaine has been compared to a ' diamond, rough oft 
but very pointed, and the more he was broken by years* i - 
more he appeared to shine.' His firm attachment to v:. 
he esteemed truth was not always tempered with taoderzL-x 
towards his opponents, and sometimes, if we are to bel.t 
anecdotes that are told of him, his bold impetuostti ur 
t rayed him into acts of rudeness, for which bowe^er .' 
always apologised with Christian humility. His deportncA 
in private life' was mild and amiable, and be was ma»! tv 
emplary in his domestic relations. He was eapeciall.r re- 
markable for the diligence and regularity with which jt 
improved his time. His religious sentiments were mtron: 
Calviuistic, and he spent his life in boldly maintaining tic 
in an age when such a course was sure to excite violent ^ 
position and to shut out all hopes of preferment. Dur:r 
his whole life he continued strongly attached to the Churc. 
of England. His chief works, in addition to thoae alre^i 
mentioned, are the following: — *Nine Sermons on xi 
107th Psalm,' 1747; *A seasonable Antidote ags; • 
Popery, in a Dialogue upon Justification,* 1757; 'Tuen 
Sermons upon Solomon's Song,' 1759; 'Twelve Discourci 
upon the Law and the Gospel,' 176U; 'The Ufe of Faiu. 
1763; 'The Scriptural Doctrine of the Saitrament of :i 
Lord's Supper briefly stated,' 1765; 'The Walk of Fai^ 
2 vols., 1771; 'An Essay on Psalmody,' 1775; *Tbe Trios- 
of Faith,' 1795 ; and some Sermons and Letters. His v rk> 
were published in 8 vols., in 1796, with a Life by the hr 
and Rev. William Bromley Cadogan, M.A., some mcco. 
of whom is contained in ' The Life and Times of the Couote^c 
of Huntingdon,' vol. ii., chap. 49. 

(The Life of Romaine, by Cadogan and by Haweis ; * M^ 
moir' in the Evangelical Magazine for November, 2r9J.» 

account has been given under Civil Architecturx, t 
which article we refer for such information as is uece>»jr> 
for understanding the present one, which is to be con^ide.v. 
as supplementary to the other. 

With regard merely to the orders, Roman architect, r 
presents chiefly a corruption of the Doric and Ionic, f •? : 
may claim the Corinthian as almost entirely its own, ^i 
Roman examples of that order being not only numen*. 
and varied, but at the same time exceedingly differt*: 
in character from the almost solitary specimen of one «' 
foliaged capitals which occurs in a Grecian building. I 
even as regards the application of tbe orders, there is a « ' 
difference between the two styles; in the Roman they i:. 
frequently employed as mere decoration, the columns* b«> a: 
^^g^g^d or attached to the walls, or in some cases fas \i .< 
of triumphal arches) though the columns are insulated t 
advancea from the structure, they are in a manner detaci . . 
from it, inasmuch as they do not support its veneral er.-« 
blature, but merely projecting portions of it. Nor .*■ 
these the only differences, for besides the freouent em{ '• y 
ment of pilasters as substitutes for columns — that is, as» c \- 
stituting the order without columns — die preetice of ^wr. 
columniation, or raising one order upon an(»ther, was b% i* 
means uncommon ; a practice that was indeed a matter ' 
necessity in such enormous edifices as the Colosseum, if * 
lumns were to be employed at all. From all this it will ' - 
evident that, as regards the orders alone, there is a\o.« 
marked difference between Roman and Grecian archiU' 
ture ; yet such difference is by no means the «h-l 
the two styles being almost opposites in nearly c^t. 
respect If there were no other aistinction between the. 
that arising from the arch, and diverse applications o: .j 
principles to vaults and domes, would be a very mate: 
one ; but we also meet with a variety and oomplexitr .*. 
Roman buildings which does not oocur in those of Gxecoe. 




Yenvs and Roma, by HadHan. Of neither of them bow- 
ever more than the mere ruins now remain, owing to 
which they have never been cited as examples of the 
orders. What was the external design of the first-men- 
tioned temple is now altogether doubtfbU but its interior is 
very remarkable, the plan being divided in its breadth into 
three nearly equal portions, the centre one of which formed 
a spacious nave, terminating in a large semicircular tribune, 
or apsis, covered by a semi-dome. This nave was disposed 
in tnree compartments, presenting as many arches of ex- 
ceedingly wide proportions, opening into as many divisions of 
the lateral portions of the plan, which did not constitute 
continuous aisles along the nave, but small chapels or re- 
cesses. Of these the centre one on each side terminated, 
like the nave, iu a semicircular tribune, of the same di- 
mensions as that apsis, so as to form a transept, f|nd give 
the whole a marked cruciform appearance. The side divi- 
sions were covered by semicircular vaults, concentric with 
the arches opening into the nave; and this latter had a 
vaulted roof, in three groins or compartments, the ribs of 
which sprung from eight Corinthian columns, placed against 
the piers of the arches. Besides other peculiarities, we have 
here an instance of the effect resulting from the application 
of the semicircular form to plans in interiors, and of further 
varieties of design arising out of it, for the semidomes of the 
tribunes exhibit a rich specimen of coffering, being com- 
posed of octagons and squares. 

Assisted by the excavations made of late years in the 
Roman Forum, M. Oaristie, a French architect, has given 
us a restoration of the temple of Venus and Roma, judg- 
ing from which we may pronounce it to have been one 
of the most splendid edifices in the city. According to 
his plan of it, the temple stood in the centre of a quadrila- 
teral enclosure, or peribolus, measuring 525 by 318 feet, and 
was enclosed by double colonnades of the Corinthian order, 
consisting altogether of 264 columns. The temple itself was 
of the same order, upon a considerably larger scale, and its 
dimensions about 350 by 166 feet It was cont^equently 
large in proportion to the area within which it stood ; and 
when viewed in combination with the extended files of co- 
lumns around it, must have produced a powerful effect, — 
one in which harmony and regularity were blended with 
contrast This main edifice was further remarkable as 
being not only decastyle, but pseudo-dipteral also, that is, 
the space between the columns and the walls of the cella 
was equal to two intercolumns and a column ; accordingly 
the width of the cella corresponded with six columns and 
five intercolumns of the decastyle fronts. Each end eleva- 
tion of the cella was therefore made a tetrastyle in ant is to 
a pronaos or inner loggia ; and these pronai, being of greater 
depth than the surrounding porticos, were vaulted herai- 
cyfindricany in a transverse. direetion, or from end to end, 
whereas the others were ceiled horizontally with beams and 
lacunaria. The cella was divided internally into two dis- 
tinct halls, placed back to back, each of which was of nearly 
square proportions, but extended by a' magnificent semi- 
circular recess or tribune, containing; a colossal sitting figure 
of the deity to which it was dedicated. Along each side 
were five tabernacle niches, with pediments alternately an- 
gular and segmental, and placed within the intercolumns of 
a small order, with statues upon its entablature, over each 
column. The ceiling was a richly coffered hemicylindrical 
vault, and the dome of the tribune was similarly decorated 
with coffers of a lozenge-form pattern. If we have dwelt 
somewhat at length upon this edifice, it is because we re- 
gard it as a very important example of Roman, as contra- 
distinguished from Grecian architecture, and of that accumu- 
lated richness and pomp, together with that diversity of plan, 
which it affected. While they have noticed small and com- 
mon-place temples, most writers have adverted but slightly, 
if at all, to other circumstances than those relating to their 
resDective orders, as if architectural design was confined to 
or depended upon such matters alone, or as if they consti- 
tuted the chief differences between the styles of Greece and 
Rome, and their respective application. By no means are 
wo insensible to the refined uute displayed by the former, 
but neither are we to the grand compositions (Umished us 
by the latter. Taking therefore the above temple accord- 
ing to Caristje*s restoration of it, we agree with a writer 
who has said that it * must have produced an effect perhaps 
nnrivallad in sublimity by any work in the antient world ;' 
for whether viewed from within the peribolus, or as seen 
t^cMigh and towering above the open colonnades which 

I formed that court, it must have been a vmriad and maf* • 
ficent architectural scene. 

The Romans seem to have affected the praetioe of givj.> 
ing buildings together as features in one general sir. 
metrical plan. Their temples and baailicas were frequei * • 
placed, as the principal architectural objects, at the extr^r: 
ity of a forum, or other regular area enclosed with ec]..- 
nades. The temple of Nerva stood at one end oC s 
partly projected into an enclosure (measuring aboot 36'> 
160 feet), the entrance end of which had five open arck-. 
and the sides were formed by screen walls, decorated v-  
Corinthian pilasters, and columns immediately before iher 
over which the entablature formed breaks. Of Trajx: . 
forum, which was surrounded not only by oolonnmdef , &l 
various stately edifices, nothing now remains except t:* 
celebrated triumphal column that occupied its centre, at 
which, so placed as a principal object, must have hei^hier. 
the splendour of the whole. like that of Nerva, the tenji 
of Antoninus and Faustina was placed at one end of a cours 
moderate dimensions, whose sides were adorned with coup .- 
columns placed immediately against the walls; and ooli :. • 
portico part of the temple (a Corinthian hexaatyle, trtrr r 
style) [Portico] advanced into the enclosed area in fr^i 
The forum of Caracalla was nearly a square, entirely «l"> 
rounded by arcades, presenting thirteen arohea on eai-h a 
the longer and eleven on each of the shorter sides. Ic tht 
centre was a Corinthian temple very similar in plan to tM 
Pantheon, with an hexastyle, triprostyle portico in fVont, a: 
remarkable for having inner columns behind the seron. 
from each angle, so that there was a double range of the*! 
at each end, and the central space within the portico va^i 
perfect square equal to three intereblumns. The noit( * 
we have incidentally made in regard to these temples roa^ 
not improperly be followed by some additional remarks ufx s 
Roman edifices of that class. Unlike those of Greece, pe- 
ripteral temples were of comparatively nre occurrend 
among the Romans : they were mostly prostyle, the pori 
being attached only in continuation of the cella, whose w . 
formed the tianks of the building, though the order of v- 
portico was frequently continued along them either in h\\i 
columns or pilasters. Such is the plan of that celebraiev 
one at Nismes, known by the name of the Maison Quarre • 
which is a Corinthian hexastyle, pseudo-peripteral, there/, 
being ornamented with attached columns, thereby mak:. ; 
ten intercolumns on each flank, three of which are open, i : 
belong to the portico, which latter is accordingly trtf-^' 
style. The Corinthian temple atAsstsi was similar in p -c 
except that it was not pseudo-peripteral, the sides of xtr 
cella being plain. That of Fortuna Vinlis at Rome «s» in 
Ionic tetrastyle, diprostyle, and pseudo-peripteral. Be>i'.'« 
contributing to variety, temples of this kind possess a re* 
tain variety of effect in themselves, owing to the depib ' 
the portico, and the contrast between that part and tK- 
cella. The portioo announced itself more decidedly a^ :. - 
facade par excellence; particularly as such temples «i\ne 
generally raised upon astereobate continued as pedestal^ ( * 
enclose the steps leading up to them in front, and whr*: 
sometimes, as in the temple of Nerva, and that of Antor..- 
nus and Faustina, projected very considerably. As our •'- 
ject is rather to direct attention to the modes of comp-^ 
tion affected by the Romans and the elements of tKc 
style, than to describe their chief architectural monument 
either historically or according to their respective cla5» « 
and destination, we proceed now to consider some of th. 
individual peculiarities and features belonging to the.: 

In the application of sculpture, particularlv of statuei 
they were prodigal; but they employed the latter chieir 
as architectural accessories, frequently placing them w' 
columns, or on the summits of their eaifices as acrot^n 
to pediments, by way of giving variety to the ouilim* ' 
their buildings, and also of indicating at first sight tb^tr 
particular appropriation-- a practice almost unknown to '-^ 
Greeks, there being bnly one instance of it. In Itaha:: 
buildings, on the contrary, the practice has been frequeotli 
carried to a preposterous extent, rows of statues bemz 
placed on the pedestals of balustrades, so as almost to Iwk 
like pinnacles, and to produce rather a stiff and fomaal effect 
than one of richness ; whereas when they are introduced c^. 
the angles and apex of a pediment, or when there is merrl) 
one in the latter situation, such monotony does not tiit 
place, and additional importance and loftiness may bt 
given to that portion of the edifice by such decoration. 'The 




cootnry* be more concise tlian others, who have confiaed 
their notice of Roman architecture almost to them alone. 

Of the two Grecian orders, the Roman specimens usually 
referred to, namely, the Doric of the theatre of Marcellus, 
and the Ionic of that building and the temple of Fortune 
Virilis, are exceedingly poor and meagre, spiritless and 
tasteUna; while the Ionic of the temple of Concord may be 
pronounced detestable. In this last example the volutes of 
the capiuls are turned diagonally, a mode afterwards adopted 
by Scamossi for that order, and also practised in what is 
called the Composite. Both the Roman and Italian ex- 
amples are ill- composed and toUlly devoid of grace; yet 
it does not therefore follow that such arrangement is radi- 
cally defective and altogether inadmissible ; on the contrary, 
we find it partially employed even in the Grecian Ionic, 
namely, in the capitals at the angles of porticos, where the 
▼olute is so turned, in order that there may be two adjoining 
faces, instead of a baluster side showing itself externally; 
and a similar disposition of the volutes throughout, giving 
four faces to each capital, might be made, perhaps, fo pro- 
duce an agreeable variety ; and if authority alone be required 
to justify it, it may in fact be found in the Ionic order 
of the temple of Apollo at Bass». [Column, p. 384.] 
Even when comparatively pleasins in its contours, the 
Roman Ionic capital is ooor and nevoid of expression, in 
conseauence of the smallness of the volutes, which is such 
that tney almost cease to be characteristic features of the 
order. To this defect may be added the meagreness arising 
from the few revolutions made by the spirals, and the omis- 
sion of intermediate ones ; and also the harshness occasioned 
by the great projection of the ovale, the narrowness of the 
face of the capital above it, and by that part forming a 
straight line, instead of the gracefully- flowing festoon-hem 
which unites the volutes together in all the Athenian speci- 
mens of the order. Perhaps it is unfortunate that any 
Roman examples of it are to be found in buildings, because 
that circumstance has led to their being regarded as au- 
thorities, whereas many belter specimens are to be met 
with in single capitals and relics of 'that kind, which, though 
Ikulty in many respects, and evidently susceptible of im- 
provement, are at least treated with more taste, and possess 
a certain richness of character. Numerous studies of both 
▼olutedand foliaged capitals may be seen in Piranesi's 
* Magnificenxa de' Romani ;' and the variety of composition 
displayed in the latter very greatly exceeds what would be 
imagined by those who are acquainted only with what are re- 
ferred to as standard examples of that order. This last may 
in fact be emphatically aenominated the Roman order, 
although such distinctive title is usually applied to what 
is otherwise called the Composite, but which is only a variety 
of the foliage-capitalled class, and by no means the most 
striking aa such, there being instances of compound capitals. 
in which griffins, eagles, human figures, or masks, are 
introduced above the foliage ; consequently, if the voluted 
variety is to be received as a separate order, each of the 
others is quite as much entitled to the same distinction. 
How far the ordinary Corinthian capital differs from that in 
which the small volutes, or caulicoli, at the angles of the 
abacus are developed and enlarged to the size of those of 
the Roman Ionic capital, may at once be seen by referring 
to Column, p. 386, where a half of each example is placed 
in juxtaposition ; and at page 383 will be found a similar 
comparison between the capitals of the Tivoli Corinthian and 
that of the monument of Lysicrates. The contrast presented 
by the two last is striking enough, there being no simi- 
larity of character, but merely such degree of resemblance 
as serves to make the differences the more obvious. And if 
that Tivoli example be compared with the one shown in the 
other cut, and which may be received as an averaee sample 
of the order, it will be tolerably evident, even from such 
eomparison alone, that the foliaged capital was treated by 
the Romans in a variety of modes and m a free artistical 
•pirit. Neither are such distinctions confined to the capitals 
■lone, for different examples present equal diversity in their 
•nUblatures and cornices. That of the Tivoli temple is 
remarkable throughout ; and has such a peculiar character 
•tamped upon it, that it almost deserves to be considered a 
iepmte order — certainly much more so than the Composite. 
Among other examples, that of the three columns of the 
temple of Jupiter.Stator i% the richest and most elegant in 
iU capital, tnd is beauti(\illy composed throughout. The 
Romans bestowed great diversity of character and expres- 
•loo upon this order» at the Greeks had done upon their 

Doric and Ionic ; whereas, if they erred in nothing else. : 
Italian revivalists and their followers did so in puzautn; 
directly opposite course, endeavouring to estmblish a fi^ 
and unalterable standard for each order, reducing^ tfaea 
merely so many architec^^tural formulas, to be applied wuh. 
any change, on every occasion. 

For information respecting Roman buildinga adapted 
particular purposes, the reader is referred to the artr. 
Arch, Triumphal ; Am phitbeatrb ; Aqubduct ; Bathi 
Torum; Mausolsum; Naumachia; PANTHBOif; Thxjt 
trb; 8cc. 

ROMAN CATHOLICS. [Catholic Church ; Rxc: 


ROMAN DE LA ROSE. [Franck— X.of^g'sMi^ a-.. 

ROMAN HOUSE and VILLA. [Housb ; ATStric 

ROMAN LAW. [Romb.] 


ROMAN MUSIC. [Music, p. 26.1 

ROMAN SCHOOL OF PAINTING. That style of ^-. 
which was eventually formed, or prevailed, at Rome dur \z 
the golden age of painting, in the beginning of the :^ . 
century, is termed the Roman school, whether it was pnc- 
tised by subjects of the papal government, nativea of : . 
city of Rome, or strangers resident there. The ainr 
fact however, of having practised the art of painting a 
Rome, does not constitute a disciple of that aehool. TLt 
works of Raphael exhibit this style in its full developmet.i 
or most perfect form, and he is accordingly the bead i: 
representative of the Roman schooL 

The history of this school may be divided into thrts 
periods: its origin or gradual formation from the revival ^ 
painting in Italy ; its development, which was accompltsbeu 
in the works of Raphael ; and lastly, its decline, through L.s 
imitators and those of the great Florentine at Rome. 

The art of the earlier period cannot be said to have sxit 
further connection with the subsequent style, which", throu^' 
its peculiar characteristics, became distinguished aa one ..' 
the great schools of Italian painting, than that of bavir: 
been its basis; although the natural simplicity and dign.:. 
of the earlier style characterised the latter throughout, m 
its purer form. 

The immediate founder of the Roman school in its lt» 
extended sense was Pietro Vannucci of Citta delta Piete, 
commonly called U Perugino, from his having obtained tbe 
citizenship of Perugia : although that which may be termed 
essentially the Roman school both commenced and ewiei 
with Raphael, in the same manner as the Florentine d\l 
with Michael Angelo; for the stvles of these two gm: 
masters were rather destroyed than preserved by their 

Lin retracing the progress of the Roman school, we must 
go back to that original and most antient school of lulian 
painting, which flourished in the 14th century in vanuu» 
cities of the Roman states, within the limita of autiect 
Umbria ; in Gubbio, Fabriano, Maselica, Borgo S. Sepolcro. 
Urbino, Asstsi, and other places. 

But the influence of this school, which has been lermcHi 
the Umbrian, was not confined within these limita. It ei- 
tended not only throughout Romagna, but over many ciua 
of Tuscany ; and although the term Umbrian school h^* be«& 
restricted to the works of the masters of the district alluditi 
to, it might be applied with equal propriety and mott 
system to designate the style of art which prevailed in the 
works of the revivers of painting in Italy generally, or all 
the antient masters (gli Antichi), whether Umbrian or Tus- 
can, anterior to Masaccio ; in other words, previous to an\ 
acquaintance with or rather study of the works of aotieni 
art. Many of the Umbrian painters, and those of Bologus. 
Arezzo, and Perugia, and therefore also of Pisa, Siena, a»u 
Florence, had common masters : and if we compare tlie dis- 
similarities of the individual styles of these masters wuh the 
dissimilarity of those styles compared with that of Masaccicv 
we may declare them aJl to be similar. The only difference 
between what is termed the early Tuscan and the Umbnan 
school, 19, if any thing;, that the latter, with equal aimplicitv^ 
is somewhat less rigid than the former ; and if they di i 
not originate in the same source, they were at least both 
greatly influenced by the colonies of Greek artisU wh.> 
migrated from ConsUntiuople to Italy, and settled in Venice 
and Pisa, in the 11th and 12th centuries. 

Oderigi of Gubbio, one of the old practitioners of missal- 
painting, an art which wm never quite extinct in Italy, aeema 




the tmitmtion of the style of Michel Angelo is 
a|»|Hureat« is the Incendio del Bor^, decidedly the 
voot product ioD of Raphaers maturer years ; indeed it is 
cf en doubtful whether he had any hand in the execution 
of that work. 

In considering however the respective claims of these two 
great masters to originality of style, it should be borne in mind 
that IUphad*s great works in the Camera della Segnatura 
preceded tho«e of Michel Angelo on the vault of the Ca- 
pella Sistina, and that what has been generally con- 
sidered to be Michel Angelo's greatest work, the Last 
Judgment, was first commenced in the pontificate of Paul 
III., yeans after the pencil of Raphael had ceased its labours, 
and was not completed until twenty-one years after the 
death of that great painter. Therefore these two extraor- 
dinary men may be safely said to have been indebted the 
one to the other. 

Raphael has had many critics, but of these perhaps 
Mengs is the most discerning and the most just, although 
that painter s extraordinary veneration for the works of an- 
tient art must not be forgotten while we consider his cri- 
tique upon the works and genius of Raphael. The only 
essential fault, in the opinion of Mengs. in Raphael's style, is 
a deficiency of the ideal in almost every department. But 
is it not by reason of this very deficiency, as Mengs views 
it, that his style distinguishes him from and raises him 
above all other painters ? Raphael was pre-eminently and 
essentially natural ; idealize his style, and' you immediately 
degrade him to the level of Guido. 

His forms are neither so ideal, nor, in one sense, so perfect 
as the Apollo or the Mercury, but they are equally grand, 
and more natural. Such forms would be incompatible with 
Raphael's si>le. They are supposed to represent beings 
beyond the influence of the common emotions of mankind. 
His design however is very little inferior if not equal to 
the Discobolus, the Gladiator, or even the Laoeoon ; but 
it must decidedly yield in style to the Torso of Apol- 
ionius, and in beauty and elegance to the Antinous. 

There is a degree to which the powers of imitation may 
be combined with those of the imagination, which, when 
regulated by a just refinement of feeling or taste, constitutes 
the perfection of painting, and this degree, though not 
attained, was in the aggregate approximated more nearly 
by Raphael than by any otner painter. He never designed 
a figure which he did not inspire with appropriate senti- 
ment ; the affections of mankind were the sphere of his 
genius ; from the calculating sage to the thoughtless infant, 
is works are the history of the human heart, and deservedly 
has he been entitled the * painter of the passions.' The 
elements of his style are nowhere more apparent than 
in the Cartoons at Hampton Court. To particularise 
amidst so mach excellence, dnd to single out the works in 
which Raphael has been most eminently successful, is rather 
a delicate task ; yet perhaps the following examples may be 
instanced as being more decidedly c-onspicuous for those 
particular qualities which characterise his style: — for 
grandeur of design, the Heliodorus; for sublimity of cha- 
racter and conception, the Madonna di San Sisto ; for com- 
position and expression, the Cartoons ; and perhaps for 
invention and general technical excellence, the Transfigu- 
ration, his last performance. [Raphael.] 

The style of Raphael has seldom been found congenial 
to their taste by the lovers of colour, and certainly those 
who consider the perfection of painting to consist in splen- 
did colouring must not look for It in the works of the 
Roman school, but in those of Paul Veronese or of Rubens. 
Many critics have regretted that Raphael did not colour 
like Titian ; but colour was to Raphael a means, and not an 
end, as it was with the inajority of the Venetian painters ; 
and its effect is to dazzle and to obscure, rather than to 
enhance the essential qualities of the grand style. For as 
the painted face of a player harmonises with the accom- 
panying spectacle and the tone of light around, and would 
as certainly be ridiculous if exposed to the light of day, so 
the Venetian colouring, which is in such perfect harmony 
with the subjects of that school and their general treat- 
ment, would as certainly be in utter discordance with those 
iualiiies which characterise the style of Raphael. Even 
.ttdovico Caracci, the founder of the Eclectic school of 
Bologna, discovered that Venetian colouring was inapplica- 
ble to the subjects which he chose for his own pencil. And 
Raphael would not have been the great painter that he 
proved himself to he,had he chosen any other than the sombre 

colour for which he is so conspicuous, and which, so far fr 
being a defeet in his style, is indeed an additional e> lO^: 
of his profound genius. These remarks do not refer i" 
carnations particularly, which should always ttami - 
with the draperies, but to the composition of colours -.r. 
rally, to their choice and intensity, and also to the stuf^- - 
materials of which the draperies are composed. Kap 
rarely if ever painted silks or satins: most of the V"' 
tians seldom painted anything else. [VsNKTiAif ScHr*- i 

Raphael bad many scholars and many imitators ; u! 
former, the principal were Giulio Romano, Gianfrvnc" 
Penni (with Giulio, Raphael's principal heir), and P«^' - 
del Vaga: these painters completed, from Rapbael^s de^i - 
the great works in the Vatican, which he had left .. 

Giulio Pippi, called Giulio Romano, certainly the tn 
eminent of all RaphaeVs scholars and imitators, wa< . - 
spicuous for the correct and powerful design of his mit: - 
but in other respects he never approached him. Alth 
he had great powers of invention, an un pleasing exprert- 
and an evident absence of sentiment prevail throug;liuut : 
works. He is also heavy both in design and colouring , 
his particular employment under Raphael, that of <!> 
colouring aud preparing his works in oil, may have grn'*- 
contributed to this effect. Giulio left Rome during * 
pontificate of Clement VII., shortly afler the completion 
the Constantino series in the Vatican, and, at the invitar 
of Federigo Gonzaga, repaired to Mantua, where he foun' • 
a school and painted his famous works, the Fall of t 
Giants, and the Loves of Cupid and Psyche. [GiULto R. 


Gianfrancesco Penni, with little less vigour than Gii/ 
was conspicuous for more of the grace of his master. Pier 
Buonaccorsi, called Perino del Vaga, displayed nearly eqi 
powers. Other pupils and assistants of Raphael in the sts' / 
and the logyie of the Vatican, were — Giovanni cJa Udii. 
Polidoro Caldara da Caravaggio, celebrated for his im.'. 
tions of antient bassi-rilievi ; Pellegrino daModena; 3a r' 
lomeo Ramenghi, called II Bagnacavallo ; Vincenzio di n 
Gimignano ; Tiraoteo della Vite; Raffaellino del Colle ; Bt: 
venuto Tisi, called II Garofolo ; and many others too nuir.i . 
ous to mention here. 

III. The accession of Adrian VI. to the papal chair hi 
for a time paralysed the arts, but they were shortly insp.r 
with new vigour by his successor Clement VII., Guilian */ 
Medici, who continued the works that had been intemipv : 
by Adrian. But a more serious interruption succeeded in t\ . 
sack of Rome, in 1527, by the soldiers of Bourhon. The t * 
school of painters formed by Raphael was totally dispcr^t. ' 
it spread however the elements of his style all over h^ 
although scarcely a single beauty of the original was to a. 
extent preserved in the copies. 

In the pontificate of Paul III., the arts commenced ar^ 
to revive in Rome. Michel Angelo executed his gr^i: 
work of the Last Judgment, the labour of eight year«, '^ 
the orders of this pontiff: it was completed in 1541. T.> 
effect however of this work was for a time fatal to paint r: 
hosts of copyists and mannerists arose, who, possessed «.:^ 
mania for representing the naked figure, and sacrifi'". 
everything to anatomical display, imagined the perfec* • 
of design to consist in violent action and muscular pn ' . 
berance ; and in imitating the manner, they imagined u .' 
had acquired the art of Michel Angelo. 

This great painter, who in the time of Julius II b/ 
himself been chiefly instrumental in raising painting netfvr 
to perfection than it has ever attained in modern fini.v 
lived also to see it degenerate, greatly through his «^v'' 
influence, into a mere handicraft in the time of Pius IV. 
when a reference to nature was considered as an ackn.  
lodgment of a want of genius. 

The most distinguished mannerists of this school i: 
period, whose style was a species of compound of those 
Raphael and Michel Angelo, without the correctness o: 
purity of the former, and with only the manner of ^1- 
latter, were Taddeo and Federigo Zuccari. The forr-' 
died young. The latter executed vast works at Florti.* 
which were, however, remarkable for their vastnesa alo... 
and he has left specimens of his pencil in the principal cit. > 
of Italy. He surceeded Girolamo Muziano as preMdcnt 
the Academy of St. Luke at Rome, which had been la:^'' 
founded by Gregory XIII. at the instance of Muziat.- 
Gregory was elected in 1572. 

The following exceptions should he mentioned, as beicf 




Latin Chronicle in France; Wace'a'Le Brut,' a inetrical 
romance concerning the fahulous history of England, in 
Norman French; 'Le Roman duRou,* hy the same writer, 
concerning Rollo and hus successors ; and * I Reali di Francia,' 
in Ilalian prose. To these may be added the Latin romance 
of Gualtieri, found in the Chronicle of La Novalesa, which 
relates to the wars of Attila; next in order of date comes 
Guide della Colonna's • War of Troy,' and Mathew Paris's 
account of the Round Table. [Geoffrby op Monmouth.] 
The ' Roman de la Rose' was written under St. Louis of 
France. At that time chivalry was established over all 
Europe, and the writers of romance introduced the customs 
and manners of chivalry into their narratives of events, 
real or supposed, long antecedent to the existence of chi- 
valry. • 

The vast subject of romantic literature, in its general and 
more extended sense, may be divided into the following 
branches :— 1, Romantic ballads and traditional songs, which 
appears to be the oldest form, and which have existed among 
most nations in their primitive state. The songs of the 
antient bards, and those concerning Arminius, which are 
mentioned by Tacitus {Annal,, ii. 88, and German,, 2); the 
German Niebelunsen ; the poems of An tar, and others 
before the nra of Mohammed ; the song of Roland, men- 
tioned by the chroniclers of Charlemagne ; and the old 
Spanish romantic ballads, all belong to this class. M. de 
Tressan collected several fragments among the moun- 
taineers of the Pyrenees, which seem to belong to Roland*s 
'Cantilena,* or war song. 2, The narrative romances of 
chivalry concerning the deeds of Arthur and the peers of 
the Round* Table. 3, The romances concerning the sup- 
posed wars of Charlemagne against the Saracens. 4, The 
Spanish and Portuguese romances concerning the fabulous 
exploits of Amadis and Palmerin. [Amadis db Gaula.] 
5, The classic romances concerning Jason, Hercules, 
Alexander, those heroes having been transformed into 
knights of chivalry. 6, The epic romances of the Italians 
in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. [Pulci.] 7, 
The spiritual or religious romances concerning the 
miracles of saints and the death of martyrs, such as the 
* Contes divots ' of the French, the * Crolden Legend,* &c. 

8, The pastoral romance, which Cervantes ridiculed, and 
which afterwards gave rise in the seventeenth century to 
the interminable and dull romances of La Calprenede, 
Madame de Scudery, and others, in which perfection of 
beauty and pure spiritual love are the chief ingredients. 

9, The comic romances, which were written chiefly as 
parodies of the heroic and chivalrous romances. Such were 
those of Rabelais, Cervantes, Mendoza, and Scarron. 10, 
The political romances, such as T6lemaque, Sethos, &c. 
1 1, Lastly comes the modern novel, which forms a distinct 
species, as it does not deal in the marvellous and super- 
natural, but represents men conformably to the manners of 
the age in which they lived. 

The library of romance is extremely numerous ; biblio- 
graphical catalogues of those of a particular class and 
nation have been published, such as Count Melzi's * Bi- 
bliografia dei Romansi e Opere di Oavalleria in Italiano,' 
Milan, 1838. The Spaniards have several collections of 
their old romances : ' Poesias escogidas de nuestros Can- 
cioneros y Romanceros antiguos,' Madrid, 1796; Depping, 
*Golleccion de los mas celebres Romances antiguos £spa- 
noles, historicos y caballerescos,* Londres, 1825; *Roman- 
cero del Cid Ruy Diaz, en lenguage antiguo, recopilado por 
Juan de Escobar,* Madrid, 1818. Dr. Ferrario has pub- 
lished a good work on the Italian romances of chivalry: 
'Storia ed Analisi deglt antichi Romanzi di Cavalleria, e 
dei Poemi Romanzeschi d'ltalia, con Dissertazioni suU' 
Origine, sugl' Istituti, sulle Ceremonie dei Cavalicri, con 
Figure tratte dai Monumenti dell' Arte,' 4 vols. 8vo., Milan, 
1828-9. A notice of Ferrario*s work appeared in the 
' Foreign Quarterly Review,' No. XII., October, 1830. 
Panizzi, in the first or introductory volume of his edition of 
Boiardo, London, 1830, has elaborately investigated the 
origin and history of the romances of chivalry. Turner, in 
his * History of the Anglo-Saxons,* Ritson, in his * Histori- 
cal Essay on National Songs,* Dunlop, in his ' History of 
Romantic Fiction,* and others, have treated of the history 
of romance in various countries. 

ROMANCE LANGUAGE ('Langue Romane*or ' Ro- 
nande,' in French) is the name given to a kind of bastard 
Latin, which came into common use in Western Europe 
after the (all of the Roman Empire, among the populations 

formerly su^ect to Rome, While the Northern conquer-' 
the Goths, Franks, Burgundians, Langobarda, &c., sp-^ 
their own language or dialects, which are called by chr 
clers of the times ' lingua Teutonica' or * Teutiaea.* Tr* 
conquered people were called by the general name of R 
mans, from whence came the name of the langaage, wh 
was also called ' vulgaris.* In course of time however - . 
conquerors adopted the language of the oonqoered, v 
being more instructed* furnished most of the priests i 
scholars of the age. But the language thus adopted by S 
the conquering and the conquered races, althougn eaaenti. 
formed of Latin elements, differed according to the nr 
localities and the greater or lesser degree of admixtorv 
the northern people with the Roman population. F 
instance, King Dagobert in the seventh century poblis. 
a statute, styled ' Lbx Alamannorum,' for the use of r 
German tribes who had crossed the Rhine, the lan^oa^ 
which differs from that of the ' Lex Ripuariorum,* which L- 
same king published for the use of the people situjir 
between the Lower Rhine and the Mosa, who were m-j- 
of old Roman extraction. The former emp1o3rs the > - 
as an article before substantives, in imitation of the an;'.-' 
sa and der used bv the Groths and Franks in their owo !il 
guage ; but the Lex Ripuaria does not employ ilis fur '. 
same purpose. In the old charters of Italy and Sptii . 
the eighth and ninth centuries, we find ilie and ipse em- 
ployed likewise as articles, ipsa ecclesia, iUa aiia^ilfatcoi 
ilia itrada, illo riot &c. ; but these charters are not so : 
by a century or two as the Franco-Latin documents^ r 
which those pronouns are introduced for aaimilar purp*^. 
The oldest document in the * Espana Saerada' in which l - 
ille appears as an article is a.d. 775 ; and Uie oldest of tb •: 
of Italy quoted by Muratori are of the years 713 and 73^<. 

Of the various dialects thus formed, that of the south 
France, called afterwards Langue d'Oe, became a refi:? 
language sooner than the others, and retained its superic 
from the tenth to the thirteenth century, when the Ital 
Portuguese, and Spanish languages assumed aregulaur grtr 
matical and literary form, which they have retained ; %\ 
the Romance of the south of Frunoe has gradually fj. 
into disuse, having given way to the Northern Frer 
Langue d*Oil or d'Oui. The latter appears to have or i 
nally differed little from the Langue d*Oc, but it gradu^ 
changed its terminations, and assumed other peculisr' 
of form, which have been retained by the modem Frcr.* 
It is demonstrated by Raynouard that the inhabitanu 
Northern France in the ninth century spoke the same i^ 
guage as those of the south. The text of the oath taker. • 
Strasburg in the year 842, by Louis, called the German 
before the French people, would alone be a sufficient pr 
of this. The text of this curious document is as fo])o«» - 
' Pro Deo amur et pro Christian popio, et noatro connu 
salvament, dist di en avant, in quant Deus savir et podtr . 
dunat, si salvara jeo cist meou fradre Karlo, et in adjud. . 
et in cadhuna cosa, si cum om per droit son fradrcsar.: 
dist, in oquid il mi altre si fazet, et ah Ludher nul r- 
nunquam prindrai, qui meon vol cist meon fradre KArit 
dam no sit.* ( Roquefort, G/o««atrtf de la Langue Bompiv 
Paris, 1808, * Introduction.') 

The gradual process by which the corrupt Latin spi^& 
in the provinces of Western and Southern Europe ia ' 
sixth, seventh, and eighth centuries was transformed r 
the Romance languages of the ninth and tenth centurtp^ 
very clearly exhibited by Raynouard, in his • £l^men$ o.- - 
Grammaire de le Langue Romano avant Tan 1 000.' Vi 
Latin cases had become neglected or confused, and lo sur 
their place the prepositions de served to denote the c 
tive and ad the dative. The next step was to cut off 
final syllable of the noun, and so to make it indeclma 
Thus the accusative abbatem became abbat; maje^u.. . 
majestat; ardentem, ardent; amantem, amant; an«i -^ 
forth. The accusatives in icmem were reduced to ion, • 
gionem, religion, &c^ When the suppression of the U 
termination left two harsh-sounding consonants at the i- 
of the word, a euphonic vowel was added, ' arbitr-um,* ' .' 
bitr-e.' The pronouns ille and ipse had been used in i:: 
corrupt Latin as auxiliary to substantives : ' Dono illas ti=< .- 
quomodo ille rivulus currit ;' 'Ilia medietate de ipsa p 
cione,' &c. From ille so used originated the Romance a 
cles el, lo, la^ and from ipse the demonstrative pronouns : 
so or su, and sa, which the Sardinian dialect has rets.:.- 
to this day as an article. These articles were declined «::• 
the prepositions de and a ' Ego Hugo della Roca ;* * F t> 




leddo quia vestro scripto accepi .... direxi vobis soriptum 
parvum de fratre Militane . . , ego vero direxi epistolam 
tuam ad Cordoba,' &c. 

It is impoflsible to fix the epochs of the origin of the 
various languages of the Spanish Peninsula. The Catalonian 
and Galician or old Portuguese appear to be the oldest. 
The Castilian, notwithstanding; the assertion of Bouterwek 
to the contrary, was not formSin the eleventh century ; its 
oldest existing monument, the poem of ' El Cid/ is not older 
than the year 120(f. Previous to the twelfth century the 
Galician, or old Portuguese, appears to have prevailed in all 
western Spain. An old MS. Oancioneiro in this dialect, be- 
longing to the library of the Royal College of the Nobles at 
Lisbon, of which Sir Charles Stuart obtained a copy, which 
he communicated to Raynouard, speaks of the Galician 
dialect as being spoken in Galicia and in Portugal, as far 
south as Coimbra, in the tenth and eleventh centuries, after 
which the Portuguese grew into a separate and_polished 
dialect, which was much in use for poetry among Galicians 
and Castilians as welfas Portuguese. (Raynouard, Gram- 
tnaire Comparbe, * Discours Pr^liminaire.*) 

In the ' £lucida9ao das Palavras, Termos, e Frases que em 
Portugal antiguamente se us&rao,* 2 vols, fol., Lisbon, 1 798, 
are other specimens of old Portuguese or Galician compo- 
sitions. The original text of the * Amadis de Gaula,' by Vasco 
de Lobeira, which is lost, was written in the same language. 
The Catalonian dialect became early a literary language, 
and as such subject to fixed grammatical rules ; it has its 
grammars and dictionaries, a great number of printed books, 
and a still greater number in MS. It had its historians ; 
among others an anonymous historian of Catalonia, men- 
tioned by Zurita in his * Chronicas de Aragon ;' Bernard de 
Sclot, who lived in the thirteenth century, and wrote a his- 
tory of the principality of Catalonia and of the Aragonese 
kings subsequent to the junction of the two states ; and 
King Jayme I. of Aragon, who wrote an account of his own 
reign, which has been published under the following title : 
' Chronica o Commentari del gloriosissim e invictissim Rey 
Jacme Rey d*Arag6 de Mallorques e de Valencia, Compte 
de Barcelona e de TJrgell, e de Muntpellier, escrita per 
aquell en sa lingua natural, e treita del Archiu del molt 
magnifich Rational de la insigue Ciutat de Valencia, hon 
estava custodita,' Valencia, 1557. King Jayme also wrote a 
book 'de la Saviesa' 'on wisdom,* quoted by Nicolaus An- 
tonio, in his ' Bibliotheca Vetus.* The Catalonian is rich in 
poetry, which was introduced into the Peninsula by the 
troubadours of Provence and Languedoc. Alonso II. of 
Aragon, in the twelfth century, is numbered among its poets, 
as well as Guillermo de Berguedan, a Catalonian noble, who 
lived in the following century, and some of whose verses are 

£ reserved in a MS. in the Vatican library. Mosen Pero 
[arch, Jacme March, Mosen Jorde, Mosen Febler, and 
Ausias March of Valencia, rank also among the Catalonian, 
Aragonese, and Valencian troubadours. [Troubadours.] 

The languages of Aragon and Valencia, in the time of 
the Aragonese monarchy, may be considered as one and the 
same with the Catalonian. It is worthy of remark, that at 
the end of the 1 3th century, when the Castilian language 
had already gained the preponderance in a great part of 
Spain, we find a controversial conference between the Jews 
or Granada and some Christian missionaries from Castile, 
carried on in the Catalonian language, which appears to 
have been vernacular at Granada. {Memoirs qf the Royal 
Acofiemy qf Barcelona^ i., p. 615.) In the same Memoirs 
(p. 613) it is stated that the bishop of Orense, having been 
requested to examine what analogy there might be between 
the vulgar Galician and the Catalonian, answered, that 
there were in both, not only nouns, verbs, and other parts 
of speech quite identical, but also entire phrases. And 
Tcrreros (in his ' Paleography') and others have stated, that 
the language of Asturtas is the same as that of Golicta, 
bating the difference of pronunciation. 

The Catalonian, observes Raynouard, is the living language 
which most resembles the old Romance of the troubadours, 
and that of the Valdcnses of Pignerol in Piedmont is the 
next. The following are among the shades of difference be- 
tween the Catalonian and the Romance: — 1, The Romance 
substantives and adjectives ending in an, en, in, and un, 
add in Catalonian the euphonic final vowel y; affdn, affmy, 
estran^ estrany, &c. The plural feminine in cie is changed 
into ee. The Catalonian often changes the s into an x; axi,^ 
puix: it doubles the / at the beginning and at the end of 

an t, especially of the Romance participles in ent; dor^.: % 
servint, fugint, premint : it adds a final u to some iic 
tions of the verbs, &c. The Catalonian has rettuned the ath 
of the Romance, of which the following are apecia- 
taken from the poems of Ausias March, the Valeci^ 
troubadour :— 

M6tti» •• la Uam de Y«ta Mpennfa, 
• Be «c mostra Deu lo num que vol finir. 

Tot num parlar als que do m euran Tbtet, 
No lolament lot leigt qui I Teoen contra. 

The popular patois or dialects of the south of France, \K 
being long neglected, have of late years attracted the it: . 
tion of philologists. Colomb de batines has given an i 
count of the patois of Dauphin6 ; Sainte Beuve has inv r 
a notice in the * Revue des Deux Mondes,' vol. x., I83r 
the poems of Jasmin, the barber poet of Agen ; a ' Rec . 
de Po6sies Bternoises/ was published at Pau in 1 827. (7 
Bearnese dialect is a Romance and not a Basque d:a^ 
and resembles the Gascon.) The dialect of Gascony ^ 
been illustrated by the Viscount deM6tivier : ' De rAgr:r 
ture et du D6frichement des Landes,* Bordeaux, 1839 ; 4 
also by Du Mege : ' Statistique des D6parteinens des P 
r£nees. The Languedocian boasts of two graceful p.' 
brothers: 'Po6sias Patouesas de P. A. et Cyr. Rigi-' 
Mounpeyl, 1806 ; 'Melanges sur les Langues, £>ialectev 
Patois,' Paris, 1831; Beronie, ' Dictionnaire Patois,' T. 
1820; the poems of Verdi6, a self- instructed artisa:. 
Bordeaux, who died in 1820 — whose works, full of buo: 
and nature, are unknown beyond the precincts of his cat 
town ; an imitation of the fables of Lafontaine, in the di > . 
of Limousin, by J. Fou9aud, 1835; Brunet, 'Notices et Y.\ 
traits de quelques ouvrages Merits en Patois du Midi dt 
France,' Paris, 1840; Millin, ' Essai sur la Langue et la L 
t6rature Proven9ale,' Paris, 1811 ; J. Champollion F:^* - 
' Nouvelles Recherches sur les Patois ou Idiomes vul? i 
de la France, et en particulier sur ceux du D^partcmen; 
ris^re, su ivies d*un Essai sur la Litterature Dauphinoi^c. • I 
d'un Appendix contenant des pidces en vers et eo prose y 
connues, et un Vocabulaire,' Paris, 1809; Grinet, * Voca: ! 
laire Limousin,' a dialect which resembles those of Franc. 
Comt6 and Western Switzerland. I 

With regard to the antient Langue d'Oc, or Lan^ 
Romano, the most refined of all the southern dialects. \ 
which may be considered now as a dead language, it was tl! - 
trated in the last century, in Italy, by Bastero, 'La Cru^ 
Provenzale;' and in France, by L*Abb6 Millot, *Hi>t. 
Litt6raire des Troubadours,' who compiled his work fr\>m . 
voluminous MS. folios of M. de Sainte Palaye. In t 
present century, Raynouard has been the most industn • 
and most successful investigator of the Romance langu.. 
and literature. 

In Italy, the dialect of the valleys of Pignerol, or of *. - 
Valdenses, has most affinity to the old Romance. [Val: . ^ 
sxs.] The Piedmontese, which is a written language, i 
is spoken by all classes of people, bears also consideia 
affinity to the modern Romance dialects of Suuti.' 
France, and we have heard it stated that natives of Lu 
guedoc can understand those of Piedmont with e^-j. 
[PiEOMONT.] Dr. Pipino published a Piedmontese gn-: • 
mar, Turin, 1783; and Ponza published, in 1887-8, a I' 
tionary, Piedmontese and Italian. The language of N 
is also a corrupt dialect of the Langue d'Oc. [Nice.] 

With regard to the other North Italian or Lour 
dialects, they differ more or less from the old Romance i 
guai^e, though they had a common and perhaps rtc-j 
origin with it, and resemble it more than the Italian * 
Tuscan. The Langue d'Oc, having been formed chi« . 
from a corrupt and provincial Latin, as well as the dialo ^ 
of Italy, reduced its materials to a regular form sooner tiu 
they ; and having become a polished and literary lan^rt j.- . 
the Italians in their turn borrowed at second-hand tr • . 
it. Raynouard, in his ' Grammaire Compart,* observes tl . : 
the dialect of Ferrara is one of those which has re tar. . 
paore completely the forms of the Romance with the lea:»t . - 
mixture. That of Bergamo comes perhaps the nex: 
affinity: it often changes the e into o; for example, in»ic 
of el, del (Romance), it has made ol, dol. The dialer t> 
Bologna and Mantua abound with contractions and uyl . 
reses, which render them very harsh ; they have taken a'\ 
the t of the Romance terminations in at, it, ut. The Mil. 
ese has a broad pronunciation, and many double vuwi'i 
changing into aa, ii, and uu, the Romance terminal iui.> n 
at, it and ut; veritaa, servii, avuu, &c. : it also chanu«->s n 

words; aquell, Uoch, lluny: it sometimes changes the e into | into er ; no9ter, sepolchefp for the Romance nottre^eepohiir 





Languedoeian, from Adelung^M * Mithridatet.' 
NoBtre Pero que tes au ciel, que vottre udum siegue lan- 
tifiat, que vostre reyno nous arribe; que vostra voluntat 
siegue facba, tant lur la term aue din lou Ciel ; donna nous 
aujourd* ivi nostre pan quotioian ; perdonna nous nostras 
ouff«n9as, oouma naoutres las perrlounan on d'aquelles que 
nous an ouffenfat. Nous lesses pas sucoumba a la tenta- 
tion ; me delivra nous de maou. 

Catalonian^from Bern, Aldrete, ' Del Origen de la Lengua 

Pare nostro que estau en lo Cel, sanctificat sea el vostre 
sant nom ; yinga en nos altres el vostre sant reine ; fasas la 
voatra voluntat axi en la terra como se At en lo Cel. El pa 
nostre de cada die da nous lo gui : i perdonau nos nostres 
culpes, axi com nos altres perdonam a nostres deudores ; i 
no permetau que nos altres caigam en la tentacio; aus 
desllibra nos de qualsevol mal. 

Balearic of Mallorca, from Adelung. 
Pare nostro que estau en los Cels ; sia santi float lo vostro 
sant nom ; vingue a nos altres el vostro sant regno ; fases, vostravoluntad aixi en la terra com se fa en lo Cel. 
£1 nostro pa de cada dia daunolos, Senor, en lo dia de vuy ; 
y perdonaunos nostras culpas, aixi com nos altres perdonam 
a nostros deudors, y dellivraunos, Senor, de tot mal. 

yialeneiant from Hervae'i Collection in Adelung. 

Pare nostre que estas en la Cel ; santificad siga el teu 
nom ; venga a nos el teu reine ; fagas la teua voluntad 
aicsi en la terra com en el Cel. £1 pa nostre de cada die 
daunoste gui. Y perdonaunos les nostres deudes aicsi com 
nos otros perdonam a nostres deudores ; y no nos deicses 
caure en la tentacio ; mes lliuranos de mal. 

Sardinian of Cagliari and other Toums^ from Adelung. 

Pare nostru qui istas in sos Quelos ; Sial sanctiAcadu su 
Nomen teu; vengat a nois su regnu teu; fasase sa vo- 
luntat tua axi comen su quelu gasi in terra. Lo pa nostru 
de dognia die da nos hoe ; i dexia a nos altres sos deppitos 
nostros comente nosateros dexiam als deppitores nostros ; i 
no nos induescas in sa tentatio ; ma livra nos de male. 

Sardinian Rustic. 

Babbu nostra sugbale ses in sos Chelus, santufiada su 
nomme tuo ; bengiad su rennu tuo ; faciadsi sa voluntade 
tua, comenti in Cbelo gasi in terra. Su pane nostru de 
ognie die da nos lu lioe ; et lassa a nos ateros is deppidos 
nostrue gasi comente nos ateros lassaos a sos deppitores nos- 
tros ; e non nos portis in sa tentassione ; impero libera nos 
de su male. 

Gallego or Galidan, from Uervaie Collectton, No. 295. 

Padre nostro que estas no Ceo ; Santificado sea o tea 
nome ; venja a nos outros o teu renjo ; fagase a tua volun- 
tade asi na terra come no Ceo. O pan nostro de cada dia 
danolo oje ; e perdonainos as nostras deudas, asi come nos 
oulros perdonaimoB aos nostros deudores ; e non nos deixes 
cair na tentaxon ; mas libra nos de male. 


Padre nosso que stas nos Ceos» Sanctificado seja' o teu 
nome ; venba a nos o teu reino ; sea feita a tua vontade 
assi nos Ceos come na terra. O pao nosso de cada dia da 
nos oje ; e perdoa a nos, Senbor, a nossas dividas assi como 
nos perdoamos aos nossos dividores ; e nao nos dexes cabir 
in tenta^ao ; mas libra nos do mat. 

Vdldenses qf the year 1 100, from Leger. 

O tu lo noste Payre, local sies en li Cel ; lo tie Nom sia 
sanctifica; lo tie regno venga; la toa voluntiL sia fayta 
en ay ma ilU es fayta al Cel, sia fayta en la terra ; dona nos 
la nostre pan quotidian enchoy ; pardonna a nos li nostre 
debit e peccd, coma nos perdonnen a li nostre debitors o 
oflbndauon; non nos amenar en tentation ; ma delivra nos 
del mal. 

Modern Piedmontese. (T^'s dialect has adopted in a great 
degree the pronunciation qf the northern or modem 

Padre ncist. cb't sea in Ciel ; Santific4 sia 1.' to nom ; 
vcgna a noil* to regii; s' fassa latua volenti com in Ciel 
cosi in terra ; dane enciie l* niist pan di tut i di ' ; perdona 
a noi i ntist debit com noi perdonoma ai nSst debitor; lasne 
nen casch6 en t' la tentasion ; ma librene dal mal. 

Rumontsch qf the Orisons. 

Bap U06 clii est n' ils tschels; fat fangt vegna teiB nom; 

teis reginom vegna nan proa ; tia voellga dvainta a* con 
in tscbelt uscb6 eir in terra.; nos paun a* minchiada da a 
nus box, e perdunains nos debitts soo eir nus ils perdunain 
als noes debittadurs ; en 'nus manar in provamaint ; moh 
spendra ons dal mal. 

ROMA'NO. GIU'LIO. [Giulio Romano.] 

ROMANS, a town in the south of France, in the de- 
partment of Drdme, 10 miles north-east of Valence, on 9 
cross road from that town to Grenoble, and 362 miles from 
Paris by Lyon, Vienne, and Valence. The town owes lU 
origin to a monastery founded by Sl Bernard, a-ix 837 : :n 
the sixteenth century it was the centre of a oonstderabie 
trade in woollen cloth, which was exported even into Asia : 
but the religious wars of that period combined with the 
ravages of pestilence to diminish its prosperity. It is si 1.. 
however a place of considerable trade, and the actiT.:. 
which prevails in it contrasts strongly with the dulness of 
the neighbouring town of Valence. Romans is in a tiat 
district on the right or north bank of the Isdre. by which it 
is separated from the little town of Le P^ge du Pizan^ur, 
now called Le Bourg*du-P^e, which is virtually a subur. 
of Romans, and is joined to it by a handsome bridge. 
Romans is surrounded with an antient wall flanked vita 
towers and defended by a ditch : it is an ill-built town* det- 
titute of any remarkable edifices, except the parish church, 
which was antiently the church of the monastery foundc*^ 
by St Bernard. The population in 1831 was 7677 for to-, 
town, or 9285 for the whole commune ; that of lie Bourg- 
du-P6age was 3095 for the town, or 3577 for the commune, 
making 10,772 for.the two towns, or 12,862 for the com- 
mune. The manufactures of Romans are silks* wooUeo 
cloths, serges, and other woollen fabrics, worsted hose, an'I 
leather: toere are oil-presses for walnut-oil, and lime anc 
plaster kilns. The trade of the place comprehends wo^l 
tow, hides, silk, nut-oil, liqueurs which are made in tbe 
district, excellent truffles, and wine. There are three fa^i 
in the year. Hats and silk goods are made at Peagt. 
where also are dye-houses for cotton and silk« tanyaiL 
rope walks, and cartwrights' shops. P£age has four faj) 
in the year. Romans has a high school and a tribunal v! 
commerce. It was the native place of the unfortunatt* 
General Lalley. [Pondicherry.] The celebrated lie:- 
mitage wines are grown near Romans. 

ROMANS, EPISTLE TO THE. The Eputle to th 
Romans has been almost universally admitted to be 1.:. 
work of St. Paul. The only sects which have dispuui 
its genuineness are the Ebionites, the Encratites, and the 
Corinthians, and these purely on doctrinal grounds, iiu^- 
much as the doctrines of this Epistle were adverse to the r 
own opinions. (Stuart's Commen. on the Epis^ p. Al 
Some modern commentators however have supposed tli.: 
the Epistle properly ends with the fifteenth chapter, a sup- 
position which may seem plausible from the want of mi- 
nection between the last cnapter and the rest of the Epi>:^* 
But this want of connection may be accounted for csm^ 
enough, without any such hypothesis. (Stuart, IntrocL, p. i 

The verses 25-27 inclusive of this last chapter arc : 
some MSS., as in the Codex Alexandrinus, made to fuii •' 
ver. 23 of cap. xiv., and Griesbach and others give them t:< < 
arrangement. But a doxolosy of so sublime a character .• 
is contained in these verses does not seem a fit conclu».<: 
for a discussion about eating meats or abstaining from thcu 
and accordingly Hug and others agree with the receivv. 
text in placing them at the close of the Epistle. Some ic<« 
MSS. omit them altogether. The words /• Tertius. hic, 
xvi. 22, imply that this chapter formed the end of tbe 
Epistle, and that the Epistle is one. There are howexer 
indications in the last chapter that the Epistle received se- 
veral unimportant additions or insertions after it was in th/ 
main completed, according as any afterthoughts occurri*. 
to the writer, before it was finally dispatched. 

With respect to the date of the Epistle, various years hsu- 
been assigned to it, from a.d. 55 to a.d. 58. According \ > 
the most probable opinion, it was written towards tbe er . 
of 57 or in the beginning of 58, when St Paul was at C 
rintb, and on the point of setting out to Jerusalem m lO 
the 'contribution made by«them of Macedonia and Achuii 
for the poor saints which were at Jerusalem* and in Judsr 
(Cap. xv.,-ier. 25, 26.) 

The Epistle was dictated in Greek by the Apostle t. 
Tertius, his amanuensis (xvL 22), and conveyed to U.o 
church at Rome by Phcebe (xvi. 1), a servant or deaconc-M 
of the church at Cenchreo, a place not far from Conniu 



soldier under the reign of Constantiiie Dacas, and after 
that emperor's death was chosen by his widow Eudocia for 
her hQsliand and her partner on the throne, aj>. 1068. 
[Eudocia.] He passed with an army into Asia, and carried 
pn a successful war against the Turks, whom he drove 
beyond the Euphrates. Havins afterwards entered Ar* 
menia, he was defeated by Alp .^vlan, saltan of the Turks, 
and taken prisoner. He was kindly treated by his con- 

2ueror, and obtained his Uberty by paying a heavy ransom, 
n the meantime a revolution had taken place &t Constan- 
tinople, where Michael, son of Constantino Ducas, had risen 
against his mother, and shut her up in a convent. Romanus 
on his way homewards was seised by order of Michael, was 
deprived of his sight, and banished to the island of Prinkipos, 
in the Sea of Marmara, where he soon after died, a.d. 1071. 


ROM ANZOFF. NICHOL AUS, COUNT, was the son of 
the field-marshal Romanzoif who became celebrated by his 
victories over the Turks under the reign of Catherine II. 
He was born in 1753, and appointed Russian minister at 
Frankfort on the Main in 1785. Under the emperor Alex- 
ander he was nominated minister of commerce. He intro- 
duced many liberal measures into his department, and it 
was owing to his exertions that the first Russian expedition 
round the world, under Krusenstem and Lisianski, was sent 
out in 1803. In 1807 he was appointed minister for foreign 
afiairs, and soon afterwards chancellor of the empire.* He 
accompanied the emperor Alexander to the interview with 
Napoleon at Erfurt in 1608, concluded the treaty of peace 
with Sweden in 1809, and that of peace and alliance with 
Spain in 1812, by which Russia formally acknowledged the 
constitution of the Cortes of Cadis. In 1814 he left 
public life, and devoted his time and fortune to the pro- 
motion of literature, science, and education in his own 
country. Many important works were published at his 
expense, as fbr instance the diplomatic code of Russia 
at Moscow ; the history of the Byzantine writer Leo Dia- 
eonus, edited by Professor Hase at Paris, and a Russian 
translation at St. Petersburg ; the history of the Mongols 
and Tatars by Abulghazi, which was printed for the first 
time in the original Tatar at Kazan, 1825; and many 
other important publications relating not only to the politi- 
cal history of Russia, but also to that of its manners, cus- 
toms, literature, and art The scientific expedition round 
the world by Captain Kotzebue in the years 1815-18 was 
undertaken and the account of it was published at the 
expense of Romanzoff. He established on his estate of 
* Homel in the government of Mohiloff, under the direction 
of an Englishman, Mr. Heard, the first Lancasterian and 
industrial schools in Russia. This patriotic individual died 
in 1826. He had never been married. 

The Russian mode of writing his name is Rumiancoff, 
pronounced Roomiantzoff, but the form RomanzoflT has been 
adopted in all foreign works. 

ROMBOUTS, THEODORE, a painter, was bom at Ant- 
werp in 1597, and studied under Abraham Jansens until he 
was twenty years of age, when he went to Rome, and was soon 
known as one of the most promising young artists of his time. 
He obtained from a nobleman in that city a commission to 
execute a series of twelve pictures of subjects from the Old 
Testament, which, when completed, added greatly to his 
reputation. After residing at Rome a few years, and gain- 
ing constant employment, he was invited to Florence by the 
grand-duke of Tuscany, and executed for that prince 
several large historical works for .the palace. After an 
absence of eight years, Rombouts returned to Flanders, and 
established himself in his native city in 1625. He was soon 
engaged to paint in the churches, and his pictures excited 
universal admiration. He was thus induced to believe that 
he could rival if not surpass Rubens, who was then in the full 
exercise of his astonishing powers. Rombouts made the 
trial, and though he did not succeed, his failure was unat- 
tended by disgrace. If his works do not possess the mag- 
nificence of his great competitor in their conception, nor 
his splendour and breadth of effect in their execution, they 
must be admitted to show a readiness of invention, a correct- 
ness of design, an ai/imation of expression, a warmth and 
brilliancy of colouring, and a surprising facility of touch, 
which would have placed him, at another time and under 
other circumstances, at the head of his profession. The works 

* The ehatie«>nor»hip U tlic hiRh«wt rivil rank in Rn«i«ia, rimI the p!M« is for 
Vtfe. It hiM; in eutumoii uiiii its tyuouvmooc diguity ia Bui^ignd; the 
chancetiot of Hut<iia i* (he hvftd uf lb** totilgn acpartnieut. 

which he executed in competition with Rubens ^irere. Si 
Francis receiving the Stigmata; the Sacrifice of Abnih*r 
in the Church of the Recolets ; and Themis with tbe Afirr 
butes of Justice, in the town-house of Ghent. Tbe Takit.. 
Down from the Cross, in the cathedral of the same ciiy. - 
a composition which proves that Rombouts possessed iij.-t 
of the qualities of a great master. In order to gain xskotic* 
he did not hesitate to paint familiar subjects, such ba rvc- 
certs, assemblies, and merry-makings, which, tbougb ev* 
cuted with taste and fireedom, an far inferior to his oit^ 
works. He also painted decorations for theatres. Hai > * 
amassed a considerable fortune, he commenced builfliu.* z 
handsome mansion, but had not proceeded far when t 
found his means to be inadequate, and he pretended tl .*. 
tbe grand-duke of Tuscany required his attendance .: 
Florence, as an excuse for not proceeding with tbe edifirr 
The mortification of this disappointment is supposed to ht' . 
hastened his death, which took place at Antwerp in 16 ::. 
according to Houbraken, and according to Weyensans a 

{Biographie Universelle; Brywa^sDiciioiuiry of Atniet 
and Engraven.) 

ROME. ROMA, the head town of the Papal State, to-! 
formerly the capital of the whole Western world, is situa>: 
in the wide plain of the Campagna, on the banks of the 
Tiber, 15 miles from the sea-coast, in 41° 54° N. lat. and I3' 
26' E. long. The Campagna about Rome is not a pla'?^. 
like the flats of Apulia or Lombardy ; it is a kind of (al)K^ 
land with a verv undulating surface, crossed by groups ari 
ridges of low hills, and it slopes towards tbe south-west « it. 
a rapid descent to the alluvial marshy tract of the Maremn^ 
which extends along the coast of the Mediterranear. 
[Campagna di Roma; Mabbmma.] The dnoent from the 
dry table-land of the Campagna to the maritime pla c 
occurs, as we follow the right bank of tbe Tiber, about U':i 
miles below Rome, and two miles and a half above Can 
due Rami, or the bifurcation of the Tiber. At that po:: 
the table-land is from 100 to 120 feet above the sea. O 
the left or southern bank the descent is nearer the bif or- 
cation, above the Marsh of Ostia. [Ostia.] Farther south- 
east, the villages of Pratica (the antient Lavinium) a::. 
Ardea stand on the edge of the slope. 

The basin of the Lower Tiber, after the river emerp^ 
from the Sabine Hills on one side and Mount Soractc os 
the other, and enters the Campagna, partakes of the 
character both of the lowlands and the table-land, the iin- 
mediate banks of the river being considerably lower thit 
the surrounding country. The site of Rome consists part'r 
of several strips of low land on both banks of tbe Tiber. i\ > 
ordinary level of the river being there about 35 feet abort 
that of the sea, and nartlv of the table-land of the Campagru. 
which rises on both sides from 150 to 200 feet above the 
river. The projections of this table-land which advan" 
towards the river have been, perhaps improperiv, ca::«;-: 
nills; and hence, the name of the Seven Hills. After ilv 
enlargement of the city walls by Aurelian, these hilh - 
projections were considerably more than seven. On the n.: . 
bank of the river, the Vatican and the Janiculus, which'*: - 
within the modern city, are a continuation of the ndgi- 
Monte Mario, which is outside of the walls to the north, a. . 
is 450 feet above tbe sea, and of Monte Verde to the soutL 
On the left or eastern bank, the table-land of the Can)- 
pagna extends, within the walls of Rome, in a semicimiUr 
shape, forming several projections to the west towards ih< 
river. The low grounds between these projections and tU 
river constitute the Campus Martins, on which the greater 
part of the modem town is built. Beginning from th' 
north, the first projection of high lands within the town 3 
that called Monte Pincio (the antient CoUis Hortuloruici: 
farther east, and partly separated fix)m it by a depression jt 
ravine, is the Quirinal. and still farther south-east l..- 
Esquiline. In a kind of recess between the Quirinal ar . 
the Esquiline is a smaller projection, which has n?ct.x.. . 
the name of Mount Viroinalis, but which is now hardly <r- 
tinguishable from the other two. ' It rises above and nora 
of the church of San Lorenzo Panisperna. The Quinm . 
Viminal, and Esquiline are joined on the east, within the » alU 
of Rome, by an extensive plateau, which is about I50 fni 
above the ordinary level of the Tiber, and which slopes *-qi\i.\ 
towards the coun try outside of the walls of Rome. The hT?he . 
points of the Escjuiline and the Quirinal are nearly 20? iV% : 
above the Tiber. South of the Esquiline, and separated froiL 
it by a depression or valloy, is Mount Cselius, which seem* 




■boot one mile in length from tbe Piazza del Fo- 
ot gicet northern entianoe of Rome, a handsome open 
with an obelnk m the middle, to tbe palace of Venice, 
the foot of the Capitol. Two other streets branch out 
isa dd Popolo, on the right and left of the CSorso, 
at an aeote angle with it. One leads sontb-east to the 
open plaee called Piazza di Spagna, the great resort of 
at tbe foot of the Pinoian Mount, after crossing 
which, it eontinQes in the same direction to the College of 
Flropa^andm at the foot of tbe Quirinal. The other street, 
caDed Ripetta, nins in a south direction, parallel to the 
baiih of the Tiber, and then, following the bend of the riyer, 
leads, onder a different name, to tbe bridge of Sant* Anselo. 
About the middle of the Corso is a square, called Pmzza 
C(donna,from tbe antient pillar which stands in tbe middle 
of it [Antonins Column.] Immediately to tbe west of 
the Piazza Colonna is an irregular square, which crowns a 
alight eminence called Monte Citorio, or Citatorio, a small 
hilT which rises in the middle of tbe Campus Martius. It 
eoDtains a fine building, called Curia Innocenziana, in which 
the courts of justice sit: a handsome obelisk stands in front 
of it Returning to the Corso, and following: it southwards, 
we meet with a street on the left, which leads to tbe Fon- 
tana di Trevi, the handsomest fountain in Rome, and then 
we come to another street, leading to tbe ascent of the Qui* 
rinal, or Monte Cavallo. Farther up tbe Corso, on the right, 
is a wide street, called Strada del Gesii, which leads to the 
splendid diurch and convent of that name, tbe bead-quarters 
of tbe Order of tbe Jesuits, from whence, turning to tbe 
left, is a street that leads to the foot of the Capitol. The 
whole of this part of tbe city, in the neighbourhood of the 
Corso, consists chiefly of regular and substantial buildings. 
Tbe most remarkable are : 1. the Palazzo Borgbese, near 
Ripetta, one of tbe largest and finest in Rome ; it contains 
a choice collection of paintings, by Titian, Domenichino, 
Albano, Annibale Caracci, Caravaggio, Parmigiano, and 
other great masters. 2. Further north the old mausoleum 
of Augustus has been transformed into an amphitheatre, 
called Correa, for bull-fights, fireworks, and other popular 
diversions. 3. Palazzo Ruspoli, on the Corso, in a good 
style of architecture, by Ammanato. has a much-admired 
staircase, constructed by Martino Longbi, consisting of 115 
steps, each of a single block of white marble. The extensive 
ground- floor of tbe palace has been converted into a coffee- 
house, which is tne largest in Rome, and consists of 
various rooms, where several ' crocchi,' or clubs of lawyers, 
merchants, and other nersons assemble, that of the contri- 
butors to the 'Giornale Arcadico,* the literary review of 
Rome, among tbe rest Tbe club of the artists is held at 
tbe Caff6 del Greco, in the Piazza di Spagna ; that of the 
antiquarians at the caff6 of Foatana di Trevi ; the club of 

Srofessors and other men of letters meets at the Caff§ di 
[onto Citorio. 4. Palazzo Ghi^i, which forms the north 
side of tbe Piazza Colonna, contains some choice paintings, 
and a fine library rich in curious MSS., among others an 
inedited chronicle of the monastery of Mount Soracte; a 
copy of Dionysius of Halicarnassus, written in the eleventh 
century; several letters of Melancthon; one of Henry 
VIII. of England, concerning Luther; about twenty 
Tolumes of original documents relative to tbe treaty of 
"Westphalia; a handsome parchment volume, in folio, 
containing French and Flemish music of the fifteenth 
century, &c. 5. Palazzo Piombino, on the opposite or 
south side of the square. 6. Palazzo Sciarra Colonna, 
on tbe Corso, has a rich collection of paintings and 
a handsome Doric marble gate. 7. Palazzo Doria, a vast 
building, designed by Borroroino, also contains a gallery 
of choice paintings. 8. Tbe Palazzo Torlonia, formerly 
Odescalcbi, or Bracciano, on the Piazza S Apostoli, has a 
splendid marble gallery fitted up in the modern taste, and 
some good modern paintings. 9. On the opposite side, next 
to tbe church of S. Apostoli, is the Palazzo Colonna, with a 
handsome court and gardens behind, which extend up the 
slope of the Quirinal, and a gallery of paintings with some 
splendid portraits by Titian, Veronese, and Giorgione. 10. 
The huge Palazzo di Venezia, so called because it once be- 
longed to that proud republic, is now occupied by the Aus- 
trian ambassador ; it looks like an old castle, with its massive 
walls and battlemenU. 11. Opposite the church of tbe 
Gesd is the Palazzo Altieri. All these palaces are in the im- 
mediate neighbourhood of tbe Corso. The principal churches 
in tbe same district are : 1. Santa Maria ael Popolo, which, 
like moat churohea at Rome, eontaina tome good paintings. 

several remarkable sepulchral monuments, and a handsnr 
chapel belonging to the Gbigi family. 2. San CarH 
Corso. 3. 8. Lorenzo in Lucina, raised on Che ruina of - - 
antient temple. 4. S. Ignazio, which is rich in ornamen:* 
adjoins tbe GrM;orian or Roman College. 6. The bar 
some church del Gesii contains some good and some ind i ffen 
paintings, tbe splendid chapel of 8. Ignatiua, enricbed w «. 
lapis lazuli, silver, and gold, and tbe mausoleum of Bel . 
mine, by Bernini. 6. Santi Apoatoli, with the fine raai - - 
leum of Pope Ganganelli, tbe work of Canova when <.:■ • 
twenty-five years old (which has been so graphical 
described by Milizia in bis letters), and a cenotaph. * 
tbe same illustrious artist, to the memory of his fn^. 
tbe engraver Volpato. In tbe adjoining doiaters is u- 
tomb of Cardinal Bessarion. 7. & Marcello contains rv 
sepulchral monument of Cardinal ConsalvL 8. Sa: 
Maria in Vialata, &e. 

West of the Corso, and between it and tbe Tiber, is : 
dense mass of irregular streets, a busy part of the town, cc :- 
taining market-places, shops, and inferior dwelling, v.: :> 
here and there a fine buildmg. Towards tbe centre of tf » 
district is the fine oval place called Piazza Navona (the ^'.■ 
tient Circus Agonalis), one of tbe largest in Roone, with -* 
fountains, by Bernini, its three churches, and the nio«k^ 
palace Braschi at one extremity of it. Tbe university ca!!.: 
La Sapienza is in the neighbourhood. Between it and \ 
(}orso IS the Rotunda [Panthbon], next to which is tu. 
Palazzo Giustiniani, and on tbe other side of it is the la.^r 
church and Dominican convent of Jji Minerva. Nearer . 
the river are: 1. the Palazzo della Cancelleria. byBramar.r 
2. The Palazzo Farnese, the best-built in Rome, with : 
square be fore it, ornamented by two handsome fountain? : 
some of tbe apartments are painted by Caracci, Zuccjl- . 
Vasari, and others. Next to the Piazza Farnese U an- 
other square, called Campo di Fiore. 3. The Palazzo S pa<:: 
with a collection of antient sculptures, among others \i 
supposed statue of Pompey, and some very floe ba&'s<>-T - 
lievos, found at Santa Agnese without the walls. 4. T: 
handsome church of Santa Maria in ValliceUa,be\onginL * 
the brothers of S. Filippo Neri, or Congregation of tbe Or> 
toire [Neri, Filippo ; Oratorio], a most gentlemanly, u: • 
assuming, and useful body of clergymen. The library conUi:,« 
many valuable MSS., historical and ecclesiastical. 5. Tb-- 
church Santa Maria delFAnima has some good paintir.?« 
and the monuments of Pope Adrian VI. and of Lucas B • 
stenius, a Protestant converted to Catholicism, who d.t: 
librarian of the Vatican. Holstenius was succeeded in \ .- 
.office by Allatius, a native of Chios, and Allatiua «*as >Lt- 
ceeded by J. Simonius Assemani, a Maronite. This be- 
terogeneous succession of librarians gave occasion to !}>.' 
following distich, in tbe caustic humour of modern Rome:^ 

* Pneftut hsreticus; post hone tehismaliciu ; at nunc 
Turca prsest : Petrt bibliotheca. Vale.' 

Near the left bank of the Tiber, and parallel to it, rum i 
handsome regular street, called Strada Giulia, about tbnv- 
quarters of a mile long, from Ponte Sisto to Ponte S. Ac- 
gelo. This district, though well built, is dull, when cvzn- 
pared with the Corso and the adjoining stree& 

South of Ponte Sisto, along tbe left bank of tbe T.l> *. 
and extending round the western base of tbe Capital i 
the foot of the Palatine, is the lowest, meanest, and dtrt..^. 
part of modern Rome. It is partly occupied by tbe Je«v 
who are cooped up to tbe number of 4000, in several i . :> 
row filthy alleys, in rows of tall old bouses, near the rw^: 
side, between Ponte Sisto and Ponte S. Bartolomeo. Tlo 
are not allowed to live outside of their district, called Ghct* \ 
which is separated by a wall from the rest of the io«r 
They are not otherwise molested. Tbey have their Kab\o 
and a synagogue, a sort of municipal council, tbetr sch<A^, 
support their own poor, and follow their customary occl<( . 
tion of buying and selling. The lower sort are seen al . : : 
the streets of Rome, with their dingy bags, crying * r. 
vecchi,' old clothes. Some of the higher class catry •:. 
trade with foreign countries, and are regular merchant 
It has been obserFed that this district, Iqm and dirty as ii is 
is remarkably healthy. Facing the Ghcttois the island of S. . 
Bartolomeo, with the church of that name, and an Iioh[ui:i. 
kept by the philanthropic congregation commonly call *' 
the Ben Fratelli, from their motto, • Fate bene, Frad . ' 
(• brethren, do good' to your fellow-men), which was founde-; 
in Spain, about 1538, by S. Juan de Dies : tbe brethren <}e> 
vote themselvee to attend on and nurse gratuitoualy tbe sicl 




Hot IX. and continued by tuooessivd popes) is the eitadel of 
Rome, but it is not capable of a regular defence. It serves 
Bs a state prison and also as a house of oorrectiou. 

The district called Transtevere lies south of the Borgo 
and between the Janiculus and the Tiber, and commu- 
nicates with the Borgo by the handsome gate of S. 
Spirito. The JaniculCis is a long straight ridge about a 
mile and a half long from north to south, and it rises nearly 
300 feet above the level of the river. In the northern half 
of its length it rises almost immediately from the bank of 
Tiber, leaving however sufficient level ground for a street, 
which from its length is called La Lungara, This street 
contains some fine buildings, the Paltfzzo Salviati, the 
Palazzo Corsini, one of the handsomest in Rome, once the 
residence of Christina of Sweden, with a gallery of paintings, 
a library, and delightful gardens which extend up the slope 
of the Janiculus, and from which there is a splendid view 
of Rome; and lastly. La Farnesina, a house and gardens 
built by the wealthy banker Ghigi in the time of Leo X.. 
with some fine frescoes by Raphael. On the slope of the 
Janiculus is the Villa Lante, the casino of which was painted 
by Giulio Romano. Tbe church and convent of 8. 
Onofrio, likewise on the Janiculus, above La Lungara, is 
worthy of notice, as having been the last asylum of Tasso, 
where he died and was buried. Another Italian poet, Gkiidi, 
is also buried at S. OnofriOb 

Towards tbe southern end of the Lungara the hill recedes 
farther fVom the banks of the river, which here makes a 
bend to the east, and it is within this bend that the great 
bulk of the district called Transtevere is situated. Some of 
the streets run up the Janiculus to the gate of 8. Pan- 
crazio, but the higher part of the hill is chiefly unbuilt, 
though it is enclosed within the walls. Tbe villa Spada is 
in this part, near the gate, outside of which is the villa Pam* 
fili, a favourite promenade of the youth of Rome, with shady 
walks, waterworks, and clusters of lofty umbrella pines. 
Among the most remarkable buildings of Transtevere is the 
church of S. Pietro in Montorio, which contains some 
fine paintings, and in the cloisters an elegant circular temple 
by Bramante. Above S. Pietro in Montorio, in a com- 
manding situation, is the fountain of L'Acqua Paola, the 
largest in Rome^ which appears at a distance like a triple 
triumphal arch with streams of water rushing through : it 
was constructed by Paul V. with the marble taken from a 
temple of Minerva. Lower down, at Uie foot of the hill, is 
the collegiate church of Santa Maria in Transtevere, a 
vast and handsome structure, with granite and porphyry 
columns, rich marbles, some good paintings, and an old 
mosaic of the twelfth century. Near to it is the fine Bene- 
dictine convent of S. Calisto, in the library of which is 
a splendid Latin Bible of the ninth century, which is sup- 
posed to have belonged to Charlemagne, but from the illu- 
minations it appears more probable that it was written 
for his grandson Charles the Bald. A long street leads 
from S. Calisto to the church and convent of S. Fran- 
cesco a Ripa, once inhabited by St Francis of Assisi. The 
church is ornamented with paintings, sculptures, and rich 
marbles, and has a chapel with vaults belonging to the 
the Pallavicini ikmilv. Not far from S. Francesco is the 
large building of 8. Miehele a Ripa, near the Tiber, 
facing the Ayentine hill, which rises on the opposite bank. 
S. Miohele is one of the most useful and best conducted 
charitable establishments of Rome, and is inhabited by above 
seven hundred persons. It consists of a work-house or 
house of industry for poor boys and girls, of a school of 
the fine arts for those boys who have a ta&te for them, of 
an asylum for the old and infirm of both sexes, and of a 
house of correction for j uvenile offenders. Tournon, Val6ry, 
and other recent writers agree in praising the arrange- 
ment, and regulation of this important esUblishment. 
Along one side of this vast building is. the handsome 
quay and landing-place of Ripa Grande, where the vessels 
which ascend the Tiber from the sea land their goods, 
and annexed to which are warehouses. Below it is the 
Porta Portoee, or gate leading to Piumioino, which is the 
southern extremity of Rome on the right bank of the Tiber. 
There are above three hundred churches in Rome, most 
of which are worthy of notice, either for their arehitecture or 
for their paintings and other ornaments. We have men- 
tioned a few of the most interesting, and we refer to Vasi, 
Fea. and the other guide-books for further information. The 
churches constitute one of the principal attractions of mo- 
dem Rome. 

The palaces of the nobility form another clais of i 
ing objects. It has been said sneeringly, that every bu>u-' 
atltome that has a ' porte cochdre,' or carriage-gaite» ia cat". 
a palace : this may seem very witty, but it is never tbek-*. 
true that Rome contains many reel palaces, buil<lings . ' 
princely magnitude and imposing style, containing \u>' 
courts and long ranges of spacious apartmenta. and it c . 
boast of a greater number of these than any other capital 
the world. In point however of interior oemfort, neatnesi* r 
splendour, most of them are sadly deficient. The walls «r 
of Travertine or Tiburtine stone, the pillars and atairca*^- 
are frequently of marble and other costly materials ; but i j 
furniture is old, clumsy, and scanty ; the floor of the apar- 
ment is often of unvarnished brick, and the eurtcuns aj. . 
tapestry are dingy, and a general want of deanllnesa is irt 
quently observable. The men-servants are often numtra l • 
in the hall, but thej^ are dirty, laiy, and Unpaid. Pas^: . 
through the long suites of vast and lofty apartments, you h - 
here and there marble tables, fine paintings, and hoA^j 

gilt chairs, but nothing resembling the Parisian salon c 
oudoir, or the English drawing-room. The ground di, - 
is either let as shops or used for coach-houses, stable, k* 
chens or other menial oflSces, and the windowa are gua/d^i 
with a stronff iron grating, without glass behind it, wh:* . 
gives to the lower part of the building the appearance vf 
a prison. Several of the Roman palaces are partly let ij 
loogers, and the owners occupy only one floor or part u: . 
floor ; the building being too large for any single. fiimiJr i 
live in, except such as a baronial family of the feudal tima 
with its numerous dependants. The higher and wealibh.: 
Roman nobles however, the Borghese, Colonna, Doria, R^yi- 
pigliosi, and others, still retain something of that feud^ 
state, although they have lost their feudal jurisdiction. 

The villas of the Roman nobility are more pleasant tk&: 
their palaces. * The modern villas, those splenaid residenvi.> 
of the modem Romans, are like a connecting link betwct- 
them and their proud predecessors of the classical timtt 
The modern Roman palace differs greatly from tbe antics: 
Roman house, but the villa resembles much what we rv^ 
of the country-houses of the wealthy Romans of old. Ti^.-^ 
is in both the same taste of magnificent retirement. 11. 
mansions of these villas have generally their firont towarC: 
Rome, whose splendid horizon harmonises with the pomp ^i 
their architectui-e, and with the display of rich marble, sutuo 
pillars, and vases and fountains with which they are de v- 
rated. The gardens are mostly regularly laid out, thoL.: 
not monotonous ; they are not made, like the English psr^s 
for the effect of scenery within, but to afford quiet «au; 
from which to enjoy the splendid scenery withouL Eveii .s 
its solitary and often-neglected state, the Roman villa retii.i« 
its antient classical character, and its melancholy appearanct 
seems to add to its grandeur.' (Val6ry, Voyaget en Ita*.', 
XV. 1.) Several of the villas are within the walls of Root.. 
such as Medici, Piombino, Mattel, Corsini, and others wfa.*. 
have been mentioned ; others are outside of the walls, su*. 
as the Villa Pamfili, on the Janiculus ; Villa Patrizi, outazdi* ?c' 
Porta Pia; and the \illa Madama, upon Monte Mano, >i 
called fix>m Margaret of Austria, a natural daughter of Cho;' > 
v., who was married to Ottavio Famese, duke of Parma. T: 
house was designed by Raphael, and executed by Giulio Ro- 
mano, who painted the loggia as a hall. The Villa Albanu ^ 
though shamefully plundered by the French republicans i 
1798, on the plea that its then possessor was, naturdii' 
enough, their political enemy, has still retained or recoven^I 
so much of its inexhaustible treasures as to be reckoned i>t 
third museum of antiquities in Rome, and next to the V.- 
tican and the Capitol. In the time of its full splendoui : 
was Winckelman's great study, which he illustrated in hia 
' Storia dell* Arte* and his ' Monumenti Inediti.' Tbe gre^j' 
boast of the Albani museum is that its collection i» ^ 
efaoice, while most other collections contain a great deal ili 
is bad. Cardinal Alessandro Albani, who created this not- 
villa and its still nobler museum towards the middle uf tl; 
last century, made it the business of his life ; he was a m^ 
of taste and an enthusiast for antiquity and the fine act% 
Among the finest sculptures are, the rilievoof AHtinou», irc 
Thetis found in the villa of Antoninus Pius at Lanuviurr, 
the Minerva, the Jupiter, the Apollo Sauroctonoa, Diogcuc^ 
in his tub, the two Caryatides representing Grvc.. 
basket-bearers, the bassi-rilievi of the triumph of M. Aur.*- 
lius, and others. 

The Villa Borghese, on the Pincian Mount, outsido J 
the walls, is well koown for its gardens, which are laid out 




and the whole social system was violently overturned. The 
population then dwinc^led apace, and in 1810 it was 123,000, 
of^wbich no less than 30,000 were on the poor-lists made out 
by the rectors of the respective parishes. (Toumon, vol. 
ii., p. 136.) It was under these circumstances that Chi- 
teauvieux visited Rome a second time in 1813. 'I entered 
the city by the same road as before (by the Corso), but in- 
stead of equipages, I saw it filled with droves of cattle, goats, 
and half'Wila horses, driven along by a number of Tartar- 
looking heidsmen armed with long spears and covered with 
dark capotes. The population is now reduced to 1 00,000, and 
of this number one-tenth part are vine-dressers, herdsmen, or 
gardeners. The city presents everywhere the appearance 
of ruin. As there are more houses than inhabitants (he 
means families), the houses are not repaired ; when thev 
get out of order, the occupiers remove to others. A 
multitude of convents have assumed the appearance of 
ruins ; a number of palaces, no longer inhabited, are left 
without even a porter to take care of tnem.* {Letirei icritei 
d'Jialie.) And yet, though he had the recent history of 
the country before his eyes, Cb&teauvieux attributed this de- 
population and decay to the advance of the malaria. The 
fact is, that wherever the population gets thin and misera- 
ble, the malaria will gain ground ; it will take possession 
of houses and gardens from which the warmth of tne blazing 
hearth, and the cheering breath of human life, and the 
cares of domestic industry "have disappeared. (See on this 
subject an article ' On modern Books of Travels in Italy,' in 
No. VIII. of the ' Quarterly Journal of Education.') The 
population of Rome has rapidly increased since the peace 
of 1814; by the census of Easter, 1838, it amounted to 
148,903 inhabitants, e.<clusive of 4500 Jews. (Serristori, 
Statislica cT Italia.) An account of its distribution, social 
occupations, habits, and other moral features comes under 
another head of this article. 

The temperature of Rome is generally mild and genial ; 
frosts occur in January ; but the thermometer seldom de- 
scends lower than 26* of Fahrenheit, and the midday sun 
generally produces a thaw. The tramontana, or north wind, 
sometimes however blows cold and piercing for days together. 
Snow falls at times, but it seldom remains on the ground for 
more than a day. Orange-trees thrive in the open air, but 
lemon-trees require covering during the winter months. 
Rains are frequent and heavy in November and December, 
but fogs are rare. In the summer months the heat is at 
times oppressive, especially when the scirocco, or south wind, 
blows. The hour which follows sunset is considered the 
most unwholesome in summer, and people avoid exposure 
to the open air. 

The sky of Rome has been admired by most travellers for 
its soft transparent light, its ultramarine blue tinge, and the 
splendid colours of the sunset, which Claude has so well ren- 
dered. The general scenery of the country, the purple hue 
of the mountains, and the long waving lines of the plain of 
the Campagna, are noticed under Alb^ Lonoa. Within the 
wallH of Rome there are many fine points of view. From 
the tower of the Senatorial Palace on the Capitol, there 
is a good panorama of Rome, embracing both the old and 
new towns; from the terrace of La Trinity de' Monti is a 
fine western view of modern Rome; there is another view 
from the Janiculus, in an opposite or eastern direction ; and 
lastly, from the gallery above St. Peter's dome is a splendid 
and extensive panorama, embracing the whole town, the 
Campagna, the distant mountains, and the long line of the 
blue sea. 

For the better understanding of the topography of Rome, 
the large map of NoUi. the atlas which accompanies Bunsen's 
' Beschreibung der Stadt Rom,' or the small map by the 
Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, may be con- 
sulted. The map in Brocchi's work above mentioned gives 
a good idea of the surface of the ground. 


Buildings in Rome. 
[The dates are to be considered only as approximations to 
the time when the resoective atructurcs were either com- 
menced or in proKres8.j 

Date. UiiUiiiut. Aiebitwl. 

1375 Santa Mariasopra la Minerva, 

the only Gothic church in 

Rome • . • • 
1400 Santa Maria dcU' Anima • 

Castel S. Angelo, restored 
1432 Church of Spirito Saoto • 
















S. Stefano Rotondo restored 
S. Franoeioo . • • 
Palazzo di Venezia • • 
Santa Maria del Popolo • 
S. Pietro in Montorio • 

S. Pietro Rotonda in da • 
Hospital S. Spirito . 
Cloister SS. Apostoli • 

8. Marco • • • 

Cancelleria . 
Cloister Santa Maria della 

S. Pietro in Vincoli restored 
Palazzo Sora 
St. Peter's begun 
Palazzo Giraud . 
Palazzo Chigi • 
Palazzo Palma • 
Santa Maria di Loreto 
Famesina . . • 
Palazzo Caffarelli • 
Palazzo Linotti • 
Villa Madama • • 
Palazzo-Strozzi . • 
Palazzo Massimi begun 
Palazzo Cicciaporci • 
Palazzo Cenci • • 
Palazzo Lanti . • 
Madonna dell* Orto • 
Palazzo Serlupi . • 
Palazzo Niccolioi 
8. Spirito, facade 

Palazzo Famese • • 

Villa Giulia begun • 

Palazzo Ruspoli. • 
II Campidoglio • 

Palazzo Lancellotti • 
Palazzo Nari • • 
Palazzo Spada • 
Palazzo Negroni • 
Palazzo Mattel . 
Santa Caterina de' Funari 
Collegio Romano 
CoUegio della Sapienza 
Villa Pia . 

Villa Negroni .. • 
Capella Sestina, in Santa 

Maria Maggiore • . 
Palazzo Al temps • 
Palazzo Giustiniani . 
Obelisk in front of St Peter 

erected by 
S. Andrea della Valle. 
San Michele in Sassia. 
SS. Apostoli rebuilt • 
Collegio Mattel • • 
Palazzo Rospigliosi • 
Villa Borghese . . 
Palazzo Sciarra . . 
Capella Borghese (Sta. Maria 

Aqua Paulina . 
St. Peter's fa9ade completed 
Palazzo Verospi . . 
Palazzo Propag;. Fide • 
Palazzo Altien • • 
Villa Ludovisi . . 
San Carlo • . • 
Collegio Nazareno • 
8. Andrea del Noviziato 
S. Francesco di Paola • 


L. B. Alberts. 
Giul. di Maj 
Baccio PinteilL 


1640 Palaiso Barberini 

Palazzo Mattel • . 
1642 Palazzo Madama (di Governo) 
Palazzo Pamflli . 
Santa Agnese « 

Coria Innoeenziana • 

Giul. di Majano. 


Bald. Peruzzi. 
Ant. Sangallo. 
Ant Sangallo. 
Bald. Peruzzi. 
Bald. Peruzzi. 
Giul. Romano. 

Bald. PeruzzL 
Giul. Romano. 
Giul. Romano. 
Giul. Romano. 
Giul. Romano. 
Giac. della Porta. 

{Ant Sangalla 
M. A. Buonarroti 
M. A. Buonarroti. 
Pirro Ligorio. 
Giac della Porta. 
B. Ammanati. 
Giac. della Porta. 
P. Ligorio. 
Dom. Fontana. 

Dom. Fontana. 
M. LunghL 
Giov. Fontana. 

Dom. Fontana. 




C. Mademo. 
Onorio LunghL 
Dom. Fontana. 
Onor. Lungbk 


< BeminL 
( Borromini. 



G Rainaldu 

G. Rainaldi. 


\H) Sunt 

in; Colo, 

l.ia Pal. Consuiu(nowtMmciu> tuga. 

Tcatro Argentina . . M«rq. Tcoddi. 

T^terui Cbuich, fa;ade . A. Galilei. 

Konuna Trevi . . . N. Salvi. 

Palazzo Conini reslored . Fuga, 

Santa MariB Maggiore, b;ade Fuga. 

Moipjtal S. Spirito enlarged . Fuga. 
Villa Albani 

Palazzo Pelronj . . , Fugft. 

Convent S. Agoatino , .. Vnnviinlli. 
New Sacrijly St. Peter's be- 


Palazzo Bruchi . . 
SO MusuoPioClementino 
•o[ Excavationi of .tho Foruni 

commenced , , . 

Ill Arch of ConstautiiM exca- 

IS Temple of Veniu and Roma 

excavated . . 

13 The Pillar of Pbocaa dU- 

covered .... 

^3 Basilica San Paolo fuor delle 

Mura burnt, reitored by , 

Ij New Buildings of the Piazza 

del Popolo 
la S. Andrea delle Fratte, ra9ade 
VAatxii Ceccapiero 
PiBi-office, Piazza Colonna . 
Musco Gregoriano, Valicau, 


Carlo Harchiooni. 
M. A, SimonettL 


Giui. Valadier. 

Luigi Poletti. 

TriE PRINCIPAL Antibnt Roman Bitildihgs op which 

TUSRB ABB Rbhaini. 


P'tlhi of Titut, haatily cnmlructed near the Flavian 
\ui|)hii1ieBtre, about a.d. BO, on the site of the gardens of 
liu :,'u>liJi.'n houieof Nero. The ruing stand now in a Tins' 
^iiil called in NoUi's map Sinibaldi, on a spot cireum- 
< iiheil by tlie modem street of the Polveriera and the street 
r ihf Colosseum ; they occupied a space of about 400 feet 
y buO. The baths of Titus were howeror absorbed ' 
lii'-c of Trajan. 

//atAjo/Tm/on. partly on the same site, and adjoining 
iiftL- of Titus, were comraeQced by Dorottian and finished 
y Trajan ; they were more estensive than those of Tilus, 
ml extended towards the church of 8. Piotro In Vincoli 
iiirh (hey almost touched. They appear, from an inscrip- 
<>[!. to have been embellishedby Julius Felix Campanianus, 
: ;i.'l'<.'ct uf Rome. llieM are the baths of which Vasari 
<>niions the circumstance, in the Life of Giovanni da 
'line, of excavations being made near S. Pietro, and the 
^•'livery of the pictures and stuccoes, which so much 
iMSt-d both Giovanni and Raphael that they imitated them 

iliG arabesques of the Vatican. Palladio made a plan of 
losv baths. The plan of the baths of Trajan resembles 

r> much those of Diocletian; it occupies an area of about 

The long side opposite the Colosseum 
iitaiiis in (he centra the remains of a graat semicircular 

Th<.'re are &w, and those few are unintelligible, remains 
liic internal part of the building. Fart of the 
Uk'n house of Nero remains under the baths of Trajan. 
tlio passages and chambers of this bonee there are still 
iiiL' elct^ant arabesque decorations, the colours of which in 
" e silll very vivid. 

Palladio restored the plan, and in- the reign of Clement 
XII. an excavation was made on their aiie, when a mag- 
nificent portico, with an ornamented ceiling, and walls 
painted with historical subjects, were discovered. 

Bathi qf Dioeletiaa, situated on the Viminal, and 
erected by Diocletian about a.d. 303. They were of vast 
dimensions. The extensive andcapacloua ruins were adapted 
to the purposes of a monastery, and M, Angela transformed 
the antient tepidarium, the caldarium, and a part of the 
(Kgidariuro into a church with its dependencies. The 
church is called Santa Maria degli Angeli. The rest of 
the ruins consist of large brick masses with arches of 
enormous span ; some of these masses still support parts of 
the vaulted ceiling. On a part of the site of the baths M. 
An gel constructed a spacious and elegant cloister. 

Baiht qf Agrippa, were enclosed within the space cir- 
cumscribed by the square of the Rotunda or Pantheon, the 
street of the theatre called Valle, the street of the Slim- 
male, and that of Gesd. They occupied a space about 500 
feet from east to west, and 700 from norlh to south. Ac- 
cording to Dion Cassius, Ihey were constructed 729. 
The temple called the Pantheon has been sometimes con- 
sidered apart of these baths. 

BcUht qf Nero, situated on tho ground which stretches 
from east to west between the square of the Pantheon and 
the square called Madams, and from norlh to souUi 
between the church of S. Buatachio and the street of 
the Coppelle. Eusebius fixes the dale of their construo- 
tion, A.IX 65. They appear tlterefore to have been coiB- 
menced in the year of Ihe great fire of Rome in the reign 
of Nero, and during the consulate of Quintus or Caius 
Lecanius Bassus and Marcus LiciniusCrassus Frugi. One 
hemicycle aloneof these baths existsin Ihe inn of Ibe Piazza 
I Rondanini. 

Ballit of Alexander. An anonymous author quoted by 
Mabillon states that these baths stood between the Piazza 
Navona, thechurchofS.Eustachio,and the Pantheon. They 
were therefore contiguous to the baths of Agrippa. The hatha 
of Alexander were built, according to Eusebius, in the year 
229, and, according to Cassiodorus, in 227, They appear 
to have been an extension of the baths of Nero, as those at 
Nero probably were an extension of those of Agrippa, 

Baihi qf Caraealla. <^mmenced about a.d. 21!, and 
continued by Elagabalus and Alexander Severua. They are 
situated on a prolongation of the Aventine, not far fi:om the 
gate of S. Sebastian. They are perhaps the most exten- 
sive ruins in Rome; but being stripped of their marbles, 
columns, stuccoes, and paintings, they consist only of vast 
and lufly walls, corbels, and niches of briclc and tile, and for 
the ordinary spectator poseess in this dilapidated slate Itllla 
interest. [Baths.] At the extremity of the great platform 
the conitructions are still tolerably perfect, as well as part of 
the casteltum in a neighbouring vineyard. The ruins stand 
three separate vineyards. 


Ttmr^ of Bnmulut. Erected by Maxentius to the me- 
mory ofhis son Romului. These ruins, which are vulgarly 
called the alnbles of tho Circus of Caracallo, aresitunled in 
a large quadritatenl enclosure forming part of Ihe villa of 
Maxentius on the Appian way, and about o 

.1 1 ill region, Dt ia that of the QuirinaL f 

1 the 

the gale of S. Sebastian. From two medals of Romulus 
we see this building as it appeared at two separate periods : 
one medal represents the building with a dome, and with- 
out a'portico; the other, with the addition of a portico. It 
may have served both for a temple and a tomb. Tlie lower 
part or basement is purely sepulchral, with niches for the 
sepulchral urns. The ceiling is vaulted, and supported by a 
huge central pier. . 

Temple qf Bacehui. At what lime first constructed m 
unoeitkin. The tetiutyle portico of four Corinthian white 




marble columns is an addition, taken from some other 
edifice, probably about the time of the Antonmes. These 
columns have been walled up, and form part of the modern 
church to which the cella has been adapted. In the reign 
of Urban VIII. a circular altar with a Greek inscription 
was found in the subterranean part of this edifice, to the 
left on entering. The internal part of the cell is adorned 
with a stucco fHeze representing military trophies; the 
vaulting is adorned with sunk octagonal pannels; slight 
traces of a bas-relief remain in the centre of the ceilmg. 
These ornaments are in a good style. 

Temple J called that of the Divus Redicuhu* Built in com- 
memoration of Hannibars retreat from Rome, and situated 
in the same valley as the Nymphnum of Sgeria, about a 
mile from Rome, and close to the little brook c^led Al- 
mone. At what time it was constructed is unknown, and 
the name of the temple of Redieolo is probably founded in 
error, as the temple of this name stood two miles from 
Rome on the Via Appia, and to the left on leaving the city. 

It is a most beautiful construction of brick, elegantly 
designed, and executed with great skill. The waUs of the 
cella externally are of yellow brick, the basement and pilas- 
ters of red, and the moulded parts are carved, and the cor- 
nice iff enriched with modillions. On the southern side the 
pilasters are changed for octagonal columns set in a sort of 
niche. It appears that on this side there was a road, which 
was the cause of a greater richness and of variation in the 
design. The portico had originally four peperino columns, 
of which however only part of one on the ground near the 
temple remains. The interior was adorned with stuccoed 

TermpU qf Vesta* — One of the temples to Vesta, situated 
in the Forum Boarium near the banks of the Tiber. Nibby 
' thinks that it was constructed in the time of the Antonines. 
It is of a pure Greek style, and may have been rebuilt by 
Vespasian, who probably commemorated it by striking a 
coin, on the reverse of which this temple is represented. 
Twenty Corinthian columns, of which nineteen remain, sur- 
n>unded the circular cella, which was formed of masonry in 
the Greek taste. These columns are of Parian marble, and 
fluted ; they are raised on a series of steps, most of which 
have been destroyed or removed. The antient entablature 
and roof are wanting, and the latter is supplied by an ugly 
tile covering. 

Temple qf Ceres and iVo^^rpintf.— Rebuilt by Tiberius, 
and now forming part of the church of Santa Maria in Cos- 
medin, called also the Bocca della Verity is situated almost 
opposite the circular temple of Vesta. A part of the cell 
constructed with large masses of travertine, and eight co- 
lumns of the peristyle, remain partly walled up in the church. 
The fluted white marble columns are in a good style, and of 
the Composite order. 

Temple of Fbrhtna Fin7i>.— Originally built by Servius 
Tullius on the banks of the Tiber. It was burnt and re- 
built in the time of the republic. It is of an oblong figure, 
constructed of travertine stone and tufa, and stuccoed with a 
fine and hard marble stucco. The hexastyle portico of the 
Ionic order has been walled' up between the columns, and 
an engaged intercolumniation is continued on the walls of 
the cella. The temple is placed on a high moulded base- 
ment, and was ascended by a flight of steps. The columns 
support an entablature, the cornice is bold, and the frieze is 
decorated with festoons supported by infantine figures, and 
intermixed with skulls of oxen and candelabra. These are 
however ill preserved. The style of the architecture is 
heavy ; still the basement is a grand feature. 

Temple qf Fortune, according to Nibby, but, in the opi- 
nion of Bunsen, the temple of the Vespaeiani, is situated in 
the Forum Romanum, on the Clivus Capitolinua. On the 
entablature is the following inscription : — 


The edifice now consists of a rude Ionic hexastyle portico 
of eranite columns, two of which are returned on the flank, 
and BO badly restored from the ruins of the former temple, 
that in one instance part of the shaft firom the base is placed 
under a capital. The bases, capitals, and the entablatura 
are of white marble. The internal part of the frieze is 
ornaqiented, but this appears to have been some of the old 
masonrr used in the rebuilding. The portico and temple 
were placed on a Ugh basement of travertine, which was 
covered with a Teneer of marble^ and in front there waa a 
flight of steps. 

Temple of Jupiter Tbnonf, according to Nibby; Bu' 
calls it the Temple qf Saturn. It is situated on the 1 . 
Capitolinus. It was built by Augustus, and is 8up|KR^ . 
have been restored by Sept. Severus and Caracalla. V 
fragment of an inscription on the entablature over the : 
columns of the angle, is read .... bstitykr. The pc-r* 
was hexastyle, of the Corinthian order, and of white L. 
marble. The columns are deeply fluted. In order to ^- 
space, the steps are constructed between the columns ir 
basement which supports them. The basement wns :. 
with marble^ and divided at intervals by small pi las': 
Upon the frieze are car /ed instruments of sacrifice, and * 
decorations which remain indicate that the buildin.: r 
highly ornamented. Between this temple and that <i 
the Temple of Concord, are the ruins of a small aediculs. 
which was discovered a votive altar sacred to Faustuu 
Younger. To the left of this temple are some chamb»^ 
front of which was a portico of cipollino marble colun 
of the Corinthian order ; the capitals are however adcr* 
with victories and trophies. From an inscription ou 
entablature of the portico, these chambers appear to : 
contained the statues of the Dii Consentes, replareJ 
Vettius Agorius, praefect of Rome, a.d. 368. Nibby c 
ders this building to have been originally constructet 
Hadrian. It was burnt in the reign of Commoduss ani 
stored by Septimius Severus. Bunsen calls it ' Pori 
Clivi et SchoU Xantha.' (See the Flan qf the Fonm, : 

Temple qf Concord. The site only of this temple rem 
near the temple of Jupiter Tonans. Of this famous bt 
ing there remain only the ruins of the cella, which was • 
ginally covered with giallo antico and pavouazzetto. T 
pavement was formed of slabs of the same material, i: 
numerous fragments discovered in the late excavai 
prove that it was profusely enriched with omamental c:.- 
ings and statues, and that it was also destroyed bv b 
Owmg to the narrow site on which it was placed, the ci 
was wider than the portico. 

Temple qfAntomnus Pius is in the Forum of Anton. r 
now the Piaxsa della Pietra, and at a short distance r. 
the Column of M. Aurelius Antoninus. Eleven It. 
Connthian columns, which are much injured, remain on ' 
nortn side, and support a white marble architrave ; the r- 
of the entablature, being much ruined, was restored » 
stucco. The columns have been walled together, and f. - 
the front of the present Custom-house, in the court of wb 
there are several fragments of vaulting adorned with sl: 
pannels. A representation of the portico with a pedimc:- 
belonging probably to this temple, appears on a large brc-ri 
coin, from which it appears to have been decastyle. i 
octastyle portico with a pediment appears on silver and br*- 
coins of the same emyeior, and most probably repreacL 
another temple belonging to the Antonine Forum. 

Temple qfAntomnus and Faustina, Erected by the ser 
to the emperor and his wife in the Forum Romanum. T: 
two sides of the cella of Peperino, once clothed with ma.i 
remain, as well as the magnificent marble entablatuR> c 
them. The hexastyle portico, with the return columnsoi : 
Corinthian order, each of one single piece of Carybtwr 
cipollino marble, still supports a considerable part of i 
entablature. In the frieze are griffins, candelabra, a 
other ornaments, in a fine style of art The ascent to v. 
temnle was antienlly by a flight of twenty-one steps ; t 
on the entablature of the portico is cut the dedicatur? . 
Bcription to Antoninus and Faustina. The columns, Wh. 
were onoe partly buried, have been cleared of the surrwir . 
ing earth. On the ruins of the cella has been erected r.. 
church of San Lorenzo in Miranda. A representation 
this temple, with its steps, statues, and pediment, is^jn* 
m a coin, published in Bunseu*s * Forum Romanum/ 

Temple qfBomulus and Remus, called by Bunsen, * Jii> 
Penatium.' Acircular temple in the Forum Romanum. n« - 
the temple of Antoninus and Faustina, erected, accordi..- 
to Nibby, at a period when art was in iU decline. Ii -- 
however probable that the circular buUding belongs to an 
earlier period than he would assign to it. In the year yr 
this building was used as a vestibule to the church ol sn 
Cosmo and Damiano, erected by Felix IV. Urban VI 11 
applied the present Etruscan bronze door, found at P« 
rugia, and placed the two antique porphyry columns, ».i 
their entablatures, in their present situations. This in. \ 
of architeetiure stood originally a little to the left J ir, 
praaent entzmnoe. Bunsen takes no notice in his plan '^ 




nay lie leen tbe four aqueducts, Julia, Tepula, Marcia, and 
Aoiene Vetus. 

Ihrta S. Giowsfmu substituted by Gregory XIII. for tbe 
antient Porta Asinaria. 

Ibrta S. PaolOf substituted by Honorius for tbe antient 
gates of Servins called Trigeminal Minuda^ NavaUs, and 
Lavemalis, Being built on tbe Via Ostiensis, it was called 
also OsHerm9. Tbe present gate was rebuilt by Belisarius, 
who constructed it on a new level, tbe antient being 26 
palms lower. Tbe internal gate is older tban ^be time of 
Belisarius, and is formed witb a double arcb. 

F(^ta del Fbpolo, tbe cbief entrance into Rome, tbe 
Flaminian Gate, was built by Honorius on a site a little 
bigber up than tbe present gate, towards tbe Pincian 
bill, on a sligbt elevation; it was removed between tbe 
sixtb and eigbtb centuries to its present situation. Tbe 
name of Porta del Popolo was given to it in the fifteentb 
century. Aided by Vignola, Pius IV. decorated tbe ex- 
ternal front, after tbe design of M. Angelo; notwith- 
standing these great names, tbe fa^de is neither very strik- 
ing nor m very good taste. The internal decoration of this 
gateway is by Biemini. 

Porta Cavalleggieri and Angelica, one on each side of tbe 
Vatican, are of modern construction. The former is con- 
sidered to be of tbe arobitecture of San Grallo ; tbe latter 
was built by Pius IV. 


' Sepulchre qf Eurysacee the Baker. '-The exact date of tbe 
eonstraction of this monument is doubtful; it was most 
probably erected betweeen 580 and 803 a.u.c. It is situated 
at tbe junction in Biviis of tbe Via Lftbicana and the Via 
Praenestina, close to tbe monument of tbe Claudian aque- 
duct, which formed tbe majestic entrance into Rome from 
these two roads. 

This singular monument was imbedded in tbe rude con- 
struction of the gate built by Honorius in front of the Clau- 
dian monument ; and tbe upper part of tbe tomb was in- 
jured by tbe new constructions. The plan of this building 
is an irregular trapezoid, formed by the roads and tbe con- 
tracted site. Tbe elevation is divided into three parts : the 
lower, or basement, of Alban masonry, is divided from the 
second by a band, on which is formed the second division. 
Tbe second division is constructed witb the circular stope- 
mortars (mortarta) for kneading tbe bread, which are placed 
in a perpendicular position, with flat-face piers at tbe angles ; 
above tnese is a continuous band, on each of tbe four faces 
of which is repeated tbe inscription, 


On this is the third story, in which three rows of mortars 
are placed horizontallv, witb their circular mouths towards 
the spectator, having bad originally a ball of stone carved 
in them to represent the dougn. This story is bounded by 
pilasters at the angles witb a capital in the Greek style. 
The pilasters support a frieze, and there was a cornice with 
a blocking course all round, and a pulvinus on two sides: 
above and between tbe extremities of the pulvinus was a 
band carved witb a representation of circular loaves ; from 
this band sprang a pyramidal roof, terminated with the 
representation of a wicker-basket used to carry bread in. In 
tbe principal front was a marble bas-relief representing 
Eurysacesand his wife Atistia, and underneatb a sarcopha- 
gus witb tbe inscription, 






Within this scarcopbagus was a representation of a pana- 

rium, or wicker-basket, in wbicb tbe ashes were deposited. 

Such part of tbe frieze of this singular monument as 

remains has tbe daily employment of the baker and tbe 

•business of tbe bakehouse sculptured upon it 

7bfii6 qf C. Jhblidue Bibului, stood originally without 
the walls of Servius Tullius, at tbe angle formed by two 
streets close to tbe antient Porta Ratumena. 

This ruin, which is small, is of two stories, but tbe lower 
is buried by the accumulation of soil It stands now at tbe 
extremity of tbe Corso and forms part of the external wall 
of a bouse in tbe Via Marforio, and at present appears to 
consist of tbe upper story only» decorated with four oiminish- 
iiig pikatersb two of wbicb an. imperfect, and part of tbe 

architrave and enriched frieze. Two tablets \ritbout 
scriptions are placed in tbe wall between the pilasten« i 
in tbe centre is an antient opening similar to a doortr 
witb moulded architraves. The material is travertine. 

Tbe style of this monument is simple, tbe masonry zl.- 
sive, and it appears to have been erected prior to the Ai;^.- 
tan age. 

Tomb qf the ClaudiU amass of shapeless rubble, iX% . 
in the Via Marforio almost opposite the tomb of Btbula^ 

Tomb qf St, Conetantioj isrected, on tbe Via l^ontr 
tana, probably by Constantino tbe Great, to contain '^ 
body of either his sister or bis daughter, whose renrs 
were placed in a magnificent sarcophagus of porpbyTx, ' 
in the museum of the Vatican. This edifice was tun 
into a church by Alexander IV., when it no doubt ud>: 
went many changes from its original appearance. It \- 
a pure specimen of architecture, and is rather remarLL. 
for its arrangement of double CSorintbian columns k- 
porting a dome, and for its mosaics, than for any purity 

Pyramid qf Caiue [Ceetiue, constructed in the rel^c • 
Augustus, for tbe ^sbes of C Gestius. and situated near > 
Porta S. Paolo, on the Viae Laurentina and Ostiensis. I. 
has the following inscription, from which it appears to !ut! 
been erected in the space of 330 days : 







This almost solid pyramidal mass of masonry is cover 
with slabs of white marble, and is erected on a basement 
travertine. Tbe walls are 36 Roman palms thick. In ii- 
centre is a small vaulted sepulchral chamber, decorai. 
witb arabesques, of which some brilliant]/ coloured \<t 
tions remain. At tbe angles are two Doric fluted colua. 
of white marble placed on pedestals, and on one of tt 
bases which have been discovered, was a bronze foot, wbi . 
from an inscription on the base, appears to have beloc^ . 
to a statue of C. Cestius. Tbe present entrauce is in (l* 
centre of tbe side, wbicb is between tbe two columns. V» 
earth, now excavated, had been considerably raised rcHir 
tbe base of this building. From a fragment of mas: - 
found in 1824 near tbe tomb, it is possible that the area ^ 
which it stood was poved in that style. 

Tomb qf Sdpio is situated on a cross-road cimnecu:; 
the Via Appia and the Via Latina. The chambers are int 
gularlv excavated in tbe tufa rock, and appear to have bcr: 
turned into a tomb, having been originally formed foru* 
purpose of procuring building materials. The antient e^ 
trance consists of a rude arch upon peperino imposts^ a-, 
appears to have been partly covered with stucco and pamir. 
Over tbe arcb is a stout moulding, upon which there n. 
antiently a second storv. Several slabs of marble with :; 
scriptions are attached to the sides of tbe passages o 
chambers cut in the tufa. An elegant sarcopbagv* 
peperino with a bust of the same material were fbua*: * 
one of these chambers, and have been placed in u* 

Tomb qf Caecilia Metella, constructed on an emiMOv 
on the side of the Appian way, a little beyond the Ciicus . 
Romulus, and dedicated to the memory of CflBcilia MrttU 
daughter of Quintus Metellus, and wife of Cnasus. T^r 
inscription, which is on a margined panned ia — 


Round in form, and placed on a square basement, t * 
constructed with magnificent blocks of travertine. It <.' 
surmounted with a beautiful decorated friese and an ek7» 
cornice, from which most probably rose a dome or a coc & 
formed roof, now destroyed. In its place there is a liai:« 
mented wall, built a.d. 1 300. wbicb indicates its rbangi> :r - 
a sepulchre to a fortress. Tbe interior was lined and f : 
bably domed witb brick. In the time of Paul III. a yan 
phagus was found here, which was plaoed in the coitil.* 
the Famese palace in Rome. 

In the decorated friese of this monument, just over !^ 
inscription, is a bas-relief representing a trophy and i : t 
of a figure of Victory in the act of writing upon a shielc. ■- 
if to communicate tbe deeds of tbe father and the hu«U •. 
The Victory on tbe other aide of tbe bas-relief is wanuc ^ 





theatre, at what time erected is unknown, but probably, if 
we may judge frum the style of brickwork, in the first 
century of the Christian sera. It originally stood without 
the walls of Servius Tullius, but during the reign of Ho- 
norius it was employed to form part of the new enclosure, 
and the arches were filled up. On the inside the form of a 
semi-ellipse on its greatest axis is all that can be discerned ; 
but externally the engaged Corinthian columns of the lower 
order, with their brick capitals, are well preserved ; of the 
upper order tliere only remain a pilaster and part of an 
arch. During some excavations made here, an Egyptian 
statue, and some pieces of marble with which the amphi- 
theatre was decorated, were discovered. 

Arch of Titus stands near the ruins of the temple of 
Venus and Rome. On the side facing the Colosseum is a 
Unely cut inscription on the attic : 


Erected by Doroitian, in honour of Titus, and to com- 
memorate the great event of the conquest of Jerusalem. 
It is of Pentelic marble, and of an elegant design, but with 
only one arch. On each side were fluted columns of the 
composite order, of which only two on each side, and these 
imperfect, are antique ; the rest of the arch was restored 
by Pius VII. On the sides of the piers under the arch, 
which is highly decorated, are two very fine bas-reliefs, 
illustrating the victory of Titus over the Jews. In one of 
them is represented the golden table, the trumpets and 
horns of silver, and the golden candlestick with its branches. 
The triumph of Titus is represented also on the frieze on 
the outside of the arch. 

Arch of Septimius Severus, erected a.d. 205, by the se- 
nate and Roman people, in honour of Septimius Severus, 
and his sons Caracalla and Geta, for their victories over the 
Partbians, the Arabs, the Adiabeni, and other oriental na- 
tions. In the long inscription on the attic may be recog- 
nised the erasure made by Caracalla when he changed the 
expression, bt . p . sbptimio . l . f . o^TiE . nob . c^sari, for 
p.p.oPTiMis.FORTissiMis.QVB.PRiNciPiBVs. The arch 
is of Pentelic marble, with archways and transverse arch- 
ways through the piers of the centre arch. Each front is 
decorated with four fluted columns, and a series of bas- 
reliefs, which, though not of a high order, are highly inte- 
resting as a picture of the modes of warfare and the com- 
missariat of a Roman army. From a medal of Severus 
and Caracalla, it appears that the attic of the arch was deco- 
rated with a chariot drawn by six horses, and in the chariot 
was placed the emperor between bis two sons : on each side 
of the car was a soldier on foot and a soldier on horseback. 
The whole of the mouldings and the vaulting are highly 
enriched with carved ornaments. An accumulation of earth 
had half buried this monument when it was first excavated 
by Pius VII., and afterwards by Leo XII., Pius VII., and 
Gregory XIV. 

Arch of Constantine, erected in commemoration of his 
great victory over Maxentius, stands near the Meta Sudans, 
and fronting the Colosseum. Formed with three archways, 
adorned with four beautiful columns of giallo antico on 
each side, and enriched with many fine bas-reliefs and statues, 
as well as with specimens of art of indiiferent workmanship, 
it shows the dcchne of art at that period. The fine parts 
are supposed to have been taken from a triumphal arch 
erected to Trajan, the situation of which is unknown. It is 
also possible that some might have been taken from the forum 
of Trajan. The statues of the Dacian prisoners are probably 
taken from an arch of Trajan. Above the attic was a 
triumphal quadnga. The arch remained partially buried 
until it was excavated by Pius VII., who enclosed the base- 
ment within a circular wall. During the reigns of his sue- 
son the whole of the surrounding earth has been removed, 
so that the roadway now passes under it. 

Arch of Dolabeiia, This single arch of travertine was 
eon>iructod ad. 10. by the consuls Publius Cornelius Uola- 
bella and Caius Junius Silanus. It stands near the church 
of 8. Giovanni and Paolo, and is thought to have been the en- 
trance to the Campus MartiuUs. where the Equina, or eques- 
trian games in honour of Mars, were celebrated, when the 
Campus Martins was inundated by the Tiber. This cam* 

ruftiitands immediately to tlte left after passing theopening. 
t is flanked on the west by a magnificent substruction of 
Ivgo niches belonging to the Nytnphaeum of Nero and 

Temple of CIaudi4is. Nero took advantage of the ar< ' 4 
Dolabella, and passed his aqueduct over it, tbc 9n.^ 4 
which is still extant. 

Arch of Gallienust upon the site of the Raquiline ^..4 
dedicated to Gallienus and Salonina, by Marcus Aui-.. jt 
Victor. The gate is formed of a single arch, mdorued » j 
four pilasters, and flanked with two buttresses* a fiar: i 
one of which remains on the side towards the cbur* ' f 
Santa Maria Maggiore. The structure is formed of \ 
blocks of travertine, and is of a plain and simple but t.. » 
bad style of architecture. 

Arch of Drustu, erected across the Appian way, cU - : 
the gate of St. Sebastian, by the senate, to Claudius > % 
Drusus, father of the emperor Claudius. It cooMbts of w 
arch only, adorned on each side with two marble colum- 
the composite order ; above the entablature are the rcu. . • 
of a pediment, and there was also an attic. Caracal i a . - 
the arch as part of the line of his aqueduct for his The:.. ^ 
All extant coin gives a faithful representation of thi^ 
when perfect. Excavations have lately been made ro . 
this building. The arch appears to have been ^em -  
with marble; but the cornices were fanned of solid b^ < . 
of that material. 

Arch qf Janus Quadrifrons, situated in the VeUbrx - 
the exact date of its erection is unknown, but from lu . 
based style and want of simplicity, it may be aitributtt! i 
period after Septimius Severus. The form is square, ; « 
palms on each &oe, with a large atch in each front, foi c ; 
an open vaulted space. In each of the piers supporting . . 
arch are twelve niches in two rows, between which «.- 
small columns as a decoration forming a double order. 1 
construction is formed of large blocks of white marble. 1 
upper part is ruined, and it was held by the Fraogipani ^-  
fortress during the civil wars. 

Arch of Sevtimius Severus, commonly called the Arcl 
the Goldsmitns, is situated also in the Velabnua. and c 
to the arch of Janus. This small structure^ in a sr 
which shows the decadence of art, is highly enriched, w. 
consists of a single opening, square in form, and sup)»>;' 
on broad pilasters filled with ornament. The follow m^^ - 
scription shows it to have been erected by the banker» . 
dealers of the Forum Boarium, in honour of Sepi.ii. . 
Severus, Julia Domna, his wife, and Caracalla:-^ 







The name of Geta was originally in the dedication. ' • 
his name was erased after his death. 


Column ofM. Aurelius Antoninas, in the Piazsa Col»i  - 
[Antonine Column.] 

Column qf Antoninus Pius was discovered on the M : 
Citorio, in the house of the Mission, in 1709. It «a5«. 
single piece of red granite, and had a white marble peot^ 
now in the Vatican, representing alto*relie£s, with the . 
scription : 




The shaft was 68 Roman palms long, and was u^-i 
restore the obelisks erected by Pius Vl. This cv..- : 
which is I'eprescnted on the coins of Antoninus Piu«, ^ 
enclosed with a fence, and most probably stood vuh in 
forum of Antoninus Pius, adjoining that of Aurelius a> >. 
also the temple called the Temple of Antoninus Pius. 

Column of Trajan, formed of 34 pieces of white marl • 
situated in the forum of Trajan, and erected by thai •- 
peror as a decoration to hts great forum. The height tv • 
sents the height of the Quirinal cut away and removed . . 
the level site of his forum, and is stated iu the fuUov... 
inscription *— 




tn^DB of the fanotis Palatine library, built by Augustus, 
end the magnificent temple of ApoUo connected with it, and 
built after the victory of Aetium. Towards the Circus 
Maximus are the foundations of the theatre built by Cali- 

fnla» in the palace which he joined on to the front of the 
ouse of Augustus. Near the temple of Apollo, but below 
it, there are two small chambers, called the baths of livia, 
which are very well preserved* and the painting and gilding 
■re in good taste. 

FiUa qfthe Quintilii, extensive ruins, at the distance of 
five miles from Rome, on the Via Latins, hitherto called 
* Ruins of the Pagus Lemonius.' This villa was built by 
the Quintilii, who were destroyed by Commodus. The 
inscription on the leaden pipes dug up in the villa contains 
the name of the Quintilii. Among the ruins, which appear 
to have been enlarged or restored about the clo^e of the 
third or beginning of the fourth century, may be distin- 
guished an amphitheatre, two magnificent bathing-halls, an 
aqueduct, and a fountain. 

Fnuntain ofEgeria, erroneously so called, is a chamber, 
situated in a valley about a mile from the Porta Latina, 
and at a short distance from the Via Latina. It appears 
from its construction to be a combination of reticulated with 
lateral work, and to be about the age of Vespasian. It is a 
chamber which contains eleven niches. The pavement was 
of serpentine ; the lower part of the walls was once adorned 
with verde antique, and the niches were lined with white 
marble, with margins of rosso antico. All these embellish- 
ments are gone, and there is only a mutilated recumbent 
statue at the extremity of the chamber. A small spring of 
water still oozes from this building. 

Curia Ho9tili<i, on the southern side of the Forum. 
Three walls only of this building remain ; they were ori- 
ginally covered with marble, and the fagade was probably 
decorated with columns. 

MiUiariwnAureum^ close to the arch of Septimius Seve- 
rus, in the Forum Roman um. 'On the left, looking towards 
the Capitol, is a circular terminal, placed on a circular base- 
ment lined with marble, 

Cireu9 Mttximus, situated in the vall^ at, the south side 
of the Palatine hill, was founded by Tarquinius Prisons, 
and restored and enlarged by Julius Csraar. Augustus 
erected the obelisk of the spina. It was burnt in the great 
fire of Rome under Nero. Vespasian restored and perhaps 
enlarged it. Trajan embellished it, and under Constantino 
the Great it was aeain repaired and beautified, and hii son 
Constantius erected the second obelisk. Of this vast edifice 
the general form only is distinguishable in the vineyard in 
which it now stands. 

Cireui qf Romulus, commonly called the circus of Caracalla 
[Circus], is adjoining to the temple of Romulus, and is of 
the same style of brick construction. This circus was con- 
secrated by Maxentius, a.i>. 311, according to the inscrip- 
tion upon it 

Topography of AirriBMT Romb. 

It is universallv admitted that the part of Rome which 
was said to have been built by Romulus, occupied the Pala- 
tine hill on the eastern side of the Tiber. This town on the 
hill was, according to the custom of the Latins (Gottling, 
CfeMckichte der Rom. Siaatsver/asiung, p. 17), built in a 
square form, whence it is called Roma Quadrata (Fest., s. 
v.; Dionys. Hal., i. 88): it was intersected by two main 
streets, one running from north to south, the other from 
east to west. The point at which these streets intersected 
each other was called gruma, or groma (from which perhaps 
the name Roma was formed), and sometimes munduM, 
This spot, which itself formed a square, existed till a very 
late period, and was surrounded by a wall. This original 
Roma is generally supposed to have had three gates: 1, 
Porta Mucionis, or Mugonia, at the northern extremity of 
the hill, which looked towaids the northern part of the 
Forum Romanum; 2, Porta Romanula, or Romana; and 
3, the Porta Janualis. The Pomerium, that is, the precincts 
within which auguria could be taken, ran, according to 
Gellius (xiii. 14. 2) round the foot of the hill ; but it seems 
to have been extended even before the union of Rome 
with any of the neiKhbonring places, for, according to the 
description of Tacitus {Afinat., xii. 24), the Pomenum em- 
Ofaoea not only the sides of tlie hill, but a considerable por- 
tion of the adjoining plain. It tan from the Forum 
Boarium through the valley of the Circus Maximus, in- 
dttding tiM Ara Maxima, to tan Ara Cons i, along the foot 

of the Palatine as far as the Curi» VetereB* subseqvpr ' 
the ThermsD Trajani. From thence it proceeded alonp 
top of the Velia to the chapel of the Lares, aubaequentli. ' • 
Arch of Titus ; it then crossed the valley between the O 
lius, the CarinsD, and the Velia. The space from this U* 
mentioned place to the point from which it commenced, ^. 
sequently tne Forum Romanum, through which no hs- . 
mentioned, was then a lake or swamp. (Niebuhr, Ht^ ' 
Rome, i. 288.) The town itself, whicn had about the <^'. 
extent as the Pomerium, was probably aurrounded l<i • 
wall and a narrow ditch. Towards the Capitoline and :.* 
Aventine respectively it was surrounded by awamp& i 
ponds. Between the Palatine and Celius the valley wu -* ' 
so deep, and it contained a long tract of elevated gn«« * 
called the Velia, on which side the town, being e»s\ 
access, required fortifications. 

As early as the time of Romulus, Etraaean settleror. 
existed on the delian hill, and extended over Mens C.v . 
and Oppius, which are parts of the Bsquiltne. WIktIl - 
these Etruscans lived in open villages or fortified plan^ 
unknown ; but we learn from Varro that they were c - 
polled by the Romans to abandon their seats on the i « 
and to descend into the plains between the Cslius snd . 
Esquiline, whence the Vicus Tuseus in that district J- 
rived its name. The principal of these Etmscsn fei: 
ments was, according to the well-known hypothesis >' 
Niebuhr, called Luoerum. 

The three hills north of the Pslatine, that is, the Qa 
nal, Vimipal, and Capitoline, were occupied by Sabtr, i 
and the last of these hilU was their citadel. Their town \ 
the Quirinal was, according to Niebuhr, called Quini.'-. 
When the Latin and Sabine towns became united, th« r.!. 
leys between the hills must have been drained, and >: 
cloac« by which this was effected belong to the esrl it- 
architectural remains of Rome. (Niebuhr, i. 391, et se- 
The valley between the Palatine and O^iitoltoe was y 
apart as the place of meeting for the two nations (Con 
tium and Forum Romanum), and the boundary betwei 
the territories of the two towns was probably manted by it 
Via Sacra* which came down firom the top of the Velii^ r:- 
between the Quirinal and the Pslatine, and then makm^^ < 
bend proceeded between the latter hill and the Capitui. . 
as far as the temple of Vesta, whence it turned right sir- 
the Comitium towards the gate of the Palatine. 

The Seven Hills inhabited by these three different nati -^ 
were united into one town, and sdrrounded by s vtii 
king Servius Tullius. The Pomerium had been exter ^ . 
with the increase of the ci<y, but the Aventine, tho.: 
included in the new wall, did not lie within the Pomer .:i 
and it continued to be chiefly inhabited by plebeians Hi:/- 
it is not mentioned among the districts of tlie city by Vrr . 
who calls them Palatium, Velia, Cermalus, C»lius« ^ 

futal, Oppius, and Cispius. All these were within ih« r< • 
pomerium. Cermalus was the spot at the foot of the ?•> > 
tine, where the Luperoal and the Ficus Ruminalis «c - 
and where in early times, when the waters were biL'li. t 
ground was flooded from the Velabrum. The Fagutal ^1% 
according to Niebuhr, the wide plain between the Psila 
and the CeDlius-Septizonium and the Colosseum. Tbci* 
fortification consisted in some places of a wall, probably « 
towers at certain intervals; in other places the steep sidt- 
the hills rendered artificial fortifications unnecessary, t 
instance, on the western side of the Capitoline. The iki- 
eastern part from the Colline to the Esquiline gate, sc^^ 
eighths of a mile in length, was fortified by a wall, or lat.' 
mound. From the border of a moat 1 00 feet broed an . 
feet deep, was raised a wall 50 feet wide and above 6u iiu 
faced towards the moat with flagstones, and flanked « 
towers. (Niebuhr, i., p. 394, &c.) Traces of this %%^ 
work are still visible. From the Colline gate the wall " ' 
in a south-west direction along the skirts of the Quir 
then turned off to the western side of the Capitoline. a* 
proceeded along this hill through the low grounds bft«c 
the Palatine and the river towards the northern poi.^t < 
the Aventine. It then ran along the western and souii) ' 
sides of the Aventine, crossed the valley between this ' 
and Monte San Balbina, part of which was enclosed tom-a . 
the 'southern skirts of Caelius, and after running al ' 
them, it proceeded in a northern direction towards the h 
quiline gate at the southern extremity of the great nn 
The gates of this wall, as far as they can be asceria 
were :— 1 , Porta Salutaris. 2, Porta Sangualis : both led I 
the Campus Martina to the Quirinal. On the aame 





and theatres, vhich were raised during his long and peace- 
ta\ reign, were almost innumerable. The vbole plam be- 
tween the Quirinal and the river became a new town, which 
in splendour and magnificence far surpassed the city of the 
bills: this new town was one mass of temples, arcades, 
theatres, and public places of amusement, not interrupted 
by any private habitations. Aqueducts for the purpose of 
supplying the city with water had been built as early as the 
year 313 B.C., and the first (Aqua Claudia) was begun by 
Appius Claudius. It ran almost entirely under ground, and 
conveyed the water from a distance of about eight miles in 
the direction of the Porta Capena into the city. Other 
aqueducts {Anio vetus, 273 b.c. ; Aqua Mareia^''M5 B.C.; 
Tepula^ 127 B.C. ; Julia^ 35 B.C.) were constructed, but it 
was not until the Imperial period that this kind of architec- 
ture reached perfection, ana most of the remains which are 
still extant belong to the period of the Empire. They were 
mostly built upon arches, which had an easy inclination, so 
that the water ran gently from its source towards the city. 
Augustus built two new aqueducts {Aqua AMeiina or 
Auguata, and Aqua J^rga), and' increased the Marcia. 
Subsequent emperors added the Aqua Claudia, Anio 
nnvu8 (both in a.d, 50) ; Aqua Trajana, a.d. Ill); Antoni- 
niana (a.d. 212); Alexandrina (a.d. 230) ; and Jovia (a.d. 
300). (Frontinus, De Aquepductibus Urbis RomcB : Platner, 
Beschreibung der Stadt /?om, i., p. 195, &c.) The division 
into four regions, made by ServiusTullius, had remained un- 
altered ; but Augustus, for the convei^ience of administration, 
divided the whole city, both within and without the walls of 
Servius, into fourteen new regions, a division which continued 
to the eighth century, when it began gradually to give way to 
the Ecclesiastical division into seven regions. Each of the 
Augustan regions, according to a survey taken in the reign 
of Vespasian, contained nineteen, or, according to a later 
account, twenty-two vici, with as many sacella in places 
where two streets crossed each other (in compitis). Each 
TJcus seems, on an average, to have contained about 230 
dwelling-houses, so that every region contained rather more 
than 3000. About one twenty-fifth part of this number of 
houses were domus, that is, habitations of the rich (palazzi), 
with a portico in front and an extensive inner court (atrium). 
The remaining twenty-four twenty-fifths consisted of in- 
suite, that is, habitations for citizens of the middle and 
lower classes ; they had no portico in front, bat mostly an 
open space which served as a shop or workshop. In the in- 
terior they may have had a court, but of smaller extent 
than the atrium of a domun. The number of these insulae 
was about 44,000. All Roman houses were very high. 
Augustus fixed 70, and Trajan 60 feet as the height, above 
which none were allowed to be built ; and the upper story 
was generally of wood. It was a law of the Twelve Tables 
which also occurs in the Roman legislation of later times, that 
no two houses, whether domus or insulss, should be built 
closely together ; but that an open space of five feet should 
be left between them. The fourteen regions of Augustus are : 
^1, Porta Capena, to the south of the gate of this name. 
2, Cflslimontium, which embraced the whole of llu^ C»lian 
hill. 3, Isis et Serapis, the valley between tli vJaelius, 
I^latine, and Esquiline. 4, Via Sacra, or Templum Pacis. 
5, Regio Esquilina. 6, Alta Semita. 7, Via Lata. 8, Fo- 
rum Romanum. 9, Circus Flaminius. 10, Palatium. 11, 
Circus Maximus. 12, Piscina Publica. 13, Aventinus. 
14, Regio Transtiberina. 

Tiberius, besides completing many of the buildings of his 
]>redeoe88or, began the JPrsetorian camp on the north-east 
side of the city, in the Campus Viminalis, and surrounded 
it with high walls. The wealthy Romans at this time had 
their palaces principally in the district from the Porta 
Collina to the Porta Cselimontana; they did however not 
form streets, but lay in gardens within the fields between 
the high roads which issued from the city ; and hence they 
are generally called Horti, as Horti Maecenatis, Pallantiani, 
Epaphroditi, &c. All that had been done for the embel- 
lishment of the city previous to the reign of Nero was 
eclipsed by the magnificent buildings of this emperor; but 
the greater part of these works, together with those of 
former days, perished iu the conflagralion which took place 
in his reign. His plan of restoring Rome was gigantic, and 
proved to be impracticable ; he proposed to make Rome a 
port, and to connect it with the sea by long walls from the 
Cnpitol to Ostia. But all that he could do, notwithstanding 
hi« profusion, was to restore those parts of the city which 
bad been destroyed. The &oe of the new city however I 

assumed a totally different aspect. On the ruins • r 
temples and the imperiat palace on the Palatine ro<<- ):. 
called Golden House of Nero, which occupied a space 
to a large town. The greatest care was taken to nuK 
new streets wide and straight, and that the buildings 5- 
not exceed a reasonable height In order to render p<^ 
the execution of the regular plan, the several qu:.r • 
the city were measured, and the heaps of ruins were re' 
and conveyed in ships to Ostia to fill up the markbo . 
vic^iitty. All the new buildings were massive, onri r 
structed of the fire-proof peperino, withoat the old « • 
upper story. The width of the new streets render^ 
cessary to extend the city beyond its former limits. "^ 
time siterwards, in the reign of Vespasian, a me&^urt^' 
of the circumference of Rome was taken, according to ^ 
it amounted to 13} Roman miles. The subeequent em^> 
continued to increase and embellish the city; but * 
Commodus a great part was again consumed by a firv. • 
destroyed all the buildings on the Palatine. Sep' 
Severus exerted himself to restore the parts which hm 
burnt, and to ornament the city, and some of his bu 
are still extant. But the grandeur and magniflceoce - 
thermae of Caracalla, south of the Porta Capena, surr. 
all the works of his predecessors. Almost all the .- 
buildings, or their remains, which still exist at Rome, I • 
to the period between Nero and Constantino. 

The most extensive work of this latter period is th " 
mense wall, with its numerous towers, with which Au; 
surrounded the city. The work, which was com pic t 
the reign of Probus (a.d. 276), does not however enable . 
form a correct estimate of the real extent of the city. ;- 
objects of the fortification may have rendered itneces--.''- 
enclose parts which were not covered with buildings. . 
Janiculus, which seems to have been fortified fion: 
earliest times of the republic, was now for the first iiru. 
eluded within the city walls, together with fbeKegtoTr> 
tiberina. On the north it embraced thewholeof the Can*- 
Martins, together with a considerable part of the i.' 
Hortulorum; or Mens Pincius; and on the south, the M 
Testaceus and a considerable portion of the Via App:.i 
Latin a. On the eastern side it enclosed the Amphiiht..', 
Castrense, and then proceeded northward to the Prse 
camp. Most of the gates in this new wall were det(>nn 
by and named after the great roads which commctir>. ; 
the g&tes in the Servian wall. The walls of modern R 
as well as the ^tes, differ in many parts from thi k ' 
by Aurelian. The names of the gates of the Aureiiun ' 
beginning on the north and proceeding to the east and - 
are : Porta Flaminia, Pinciana, Salaria, Nomentana. 1 
tina, Collatina, PrsBnestina, Labieana, Asinaria, Mt t' ' 
Latina, Appia, and Ostiensis. Seven bridges conncr :• 
eastern and western sides of the river. The whole <-! 
ference of these new fortifications was about 2 1 niiU$ ' 
the time of Honorius some parts of this vrall were (!<.& 
and others bad become useless on account of the .: 
quantity of rubbish which had accumulated near t 
but they were restored by this emperor. (Plainer. / 
reibung der Stadt Rom, i., p. 618.) Though the y'- 
walls, as already observed (p. 87), do not much exctt 
height of fiAeen or twenty feet on the hiside, owini^ t 
accumulation of rubbish, they are in many places a^ i: 
as fifty feet hi^h on the outside. 

The PrcDtorian camp, south of the Porta Nomentur/. 
tersected the Aurelian wall; but Constantine destroy • '- 
western side of the camp, which faced the city, and ' 
the three remaining siaes serve as continuations c! 
Aurelian wall. Some remains of these fortificatlo^.^ 
still visible. 

After the time of Constantine, when the emperor* : 
the Roman nobles had adopted the Christian religi t. 
decay and destruction of the antient edifices comrr' 
The building of numerous churches was the imin^ 
cause of this destruction. Neither the court nor priTat. 
dividuals possessed sufficient wealth to raise buildinc^' * 
in form or material to those of their ancestors, and as Iio' 
temples could not always be converted into Chr^ 
churches, they were generally pulled down and the niaU ' 
used for other purposes. Numerous columns were thus n; 
fironi their places, and the remaining parts of the edifia*^ " ' 
carried away and used by any person who chose to take' 
During the fifth century of our cora great calamities wr 
tlicted upon Rome by the ravages of the northern barba. • 
though it is a mistake to suppose that thebuildings of K^ ' 




ment it called Quirium by Niebubr), appear to bave been 
hostile to the Latin colony, and to have taken fVom them 
the Capitoline. A short time afterwards however the three 
different cities or tribes appear reconciled to one another, 
and united into one state, with a new pomerium, which in- 
cluded the three original cities. The Latin and Sabine 
parts of the new state enjoyed equal rights, and each of 
them was at first governed by its own king and senate of 
one hundred members. The gods of these two were the 
Dii Majorum Grentium. The Etruscans, on the other hand, 
were in a state of dependence, had no king of their own, 
and did not obtain eauality of rights until the time of 
Tarquinius Prisctu. Their gods were the Dii Minorum 

Rome was thus, in its origin, a state consisting of three 
distinct elements, which together formed the Populus Ro- 
manus, and each of which exercised a certain influence 
upon the whole, an influence which is discernible in various 
ways down to the end of the republic. Each of them also 
seems in some particular departments to have given the tone 
to the rest. The Latins appear to have had the superiority 
in political wisdom, and accordingly their influence in this 
respect prevailed over the two other tribes, while all those 
political institutions, the introduction of which is ascribed 
to the Etruscans, consist of little more than mere ceremo- 
nies and formalities. As regards religion, each of the three 
tribes retained its own peculiar worsnip and rites, though 
the influence of the Sabines seems to have prevailed in 
many points. In aU matters relating to the military con- 
stitution, the influence of the Etruscans and Sabines appears 
to have predominated ; and the Roman armies, down to the 
time of Camillus, were drawn up in the Etruscan manner. 
This orieinal diversity however was, in the course of time, 
elfoced by the overwhelming influence of the Latins, and 
the various elements of the Roman state appear united into 
one organised body, the constittttion and vital energy of 
which have attracted the attention of political inquirers in 
all ages and countries. 

Alter the death of T. Tatius, the king of the Sabines, 
Romulus governed alone, and it was determined that in 
future there should only be one king, chosen alternately 
from the Latins and Sabines. Romulus is said to have 
now divided each of the three tribes, Ramnes (the Latins), 
Titles (the Sabines), and Luceres (the Etruscans), into ten 
curisB, and each curia into ten decuries, so that each tribe 
contained lOU decuries, whence they were sometimes also 
called oenturin. The decuries were not identical with the 
gentes, but were a subdivision made for the purpose of re- 
presenting the curiflB, as each decury in early times had to 
appoint one senator and one eques. (Gottling, p. 62, &c. ; 
Li v., i. 36; Festus» v. Centuriaia Comitia,) Tribunes, 
curtoncs, and deeuriones were at the head of these respec- 
tive divisions^ which they represented in political, religious, 
and military affairs. Each tribe also consisted of 100 
gentes or houses, so that on the whole there were 300 
gentes. These gentes did not necessarily indeed consist of 
fomilies oonnected b^ blood, but their relation was such 
that the members of each gens had one common name, 
generally ending in iu9 (nomen gentilicium), had the 
right to inherit the property of a gentilis who died without 
agnati, and had their common sacred rites (sacra gentilicia) 
and sacred places (sacella). Each gens contained a number 
of fkmiliei. To belong to a gens was a characteristic inse- 
parable (h>m a Roman eittien. Hence every citizen had, 
Desides his personal name, another which was derived firom 
that of his gens, of which Caios Julius CsBsar is an example, 
Caius being the name of the individual, and Julius that of 
his gens. 

Besides the Roman eitixens, or burghers, contained in the 
tribes, curice, and gentes, we find from the earliest times a 
class of dependents called clients (clientes), who were 
under the patronage of the burghers. What they originally 
were is not quite certain, though it seems probable that they 
partly consisted of poor emigrants who had accompanied the 
first settlers on these hills, and partly of other poor and 
oppressed strangers who flocked to Rome as an asylum from 
Tarious neighbouring places, and settled there under the 
protection of the established colonies. In subsequent times 
their number was increased by freedmen, who, on being 
nanumitled, had a relation to their former masters similar 
to that of the clients. The relation of clients to their patrons 
ia one of the noblest features in the history of the Romans. 
The clients were indeed citizens, but they could not vote in 

the comitia curiata,or receive thehonores; tbey either i 
the lands or tended the flocks of their patrons, or foil 
the various trades which the burghers were not alluwf 
carry on. Numa Pompilius is said to have divitk^j 
clients into two classes, those of the ci^ and those of 
country. The former were again subdivided into nine ' 
leges or crafts, while the latter were subdivided into p^ 
husbandmen. Servius Tullius gave to some clieoti 
right of voting in the comitia centuriata, and inoorpnTa 
them into his four city tribes (tribus urbaniD). though 
continued in the same relation to their patrons as U : 
By the legislation of the Decemvirs the clientela was U-. 
abolished, and the clients appear almost on a foot:.: 
equality with the plebeians, and consequently tbey vuu-. 
the comitia tributa. But practically the clientela cont.: . 
to exist. 

A new element was introduced into the t>opulat: . 
Rome by the third king, Tullus Hostilius, which va> . 
Urged by his successor Ancus Marcius. This was the - 
of plebeians. Under Tullus Hostilius, Alba Long.i *. 
destroyed by the Romans, and the greater part of the .. 
bitants were transplanted to Rome, where tbey settlta 
the Cselius, as far as this hill was not ooeupied b) 
Luoeres. In the reign of Ancus Marcius many other b 
towns were conquered, and the inhabitants, bemg reiii> 
to Rome, had the Aventine and the valley between it . 
the Palatine assigned for their residence. (Gottling, 0" 
<L Rom. Staaitver/, p. 221. &c.) Some of these new«ei' • 
were probably incorporated into the existing tribes, bu' 
bulk of them formed the class which is henceforth en. > 
Plebes, and which in numbers far exceeded the Romar.^ 
eluded in the tribes, who are from this time distinguish^, 
the name of patricians (patricii or patres). As the pic be > 
were not included either in the tribes, curia, or gentes, i > 
did not enjoy the full rights of citizens (non optimo j are c. \ - 
They had also no connubium with the patricians, thai 
a marriage between patricians and plebeians was not a lii 
Roman marriage, and consequently the children of hi 
marriage had not the privileges of those children who ^ 
sprung from persons who could contract a legal RvU 
marriage, or, to use the legal phrase, had connubium. . 
was a consequence of a marriage where there wasconnul. 
that the children were in the power of their father, tud v- 
Roman citizens. This restriction as to marriage wis sut « 
quently sanctioned by the laws of the Twelve Tablei, i 
was strictly observed till the year 445 B.C., when it va« < 
away with by the Lex CSanuleia. The plebeians did' ' 
from the clients, inasmuch as they had their own sacra, « ' 
were regulated by the pontiffs, their own auspicia, sotnt^ . 
their own gentes, the independent possession of landcu * 
perty, and did not require the protection of a patron. 1 
old burghers, in contradistinction to the plebeians, a: 
their relations to them, formed a real aristocracy, or 
of nobiles, a character which they had not possessed bci 
unless we apply that name to the relation in which ' 
stood to their clients. In the armies the plebeians f.r.. 
a distinct body, and in the infantry they always fortnti . 
majority. Hence Tullus Hostilius increased the or^ 
number of three centuries of equites, each decur}* bi 
formerly appointed one eques, to six, so that each <xi ' 
now appointed two equites instead of one. The ttro ou 
patricians and plebeians, stood opposed to each other, « • 
out their mutual relations being accurately defined; n : 
the plebeians themselves appear to have formed a con i- 
body with a regular internal organization. This « a. 
evil, which Tarquinius Priscus first endeavoured to ren- 
in some measure by admitting the noblest plebeian h^ 
into the old tribes, each of which thus consisted of a ^  
jority of the old burghers and a number of noble pleb< - 
(mca'oret gentes, and minores gentes : Cic, De Bep^ n. > 
The number of the equestrian centuries was now:^. 
doubled, and the six new centuries were formed of the ^'^ * 
minores, so that out of the 1200 equites. 600 were c^ 
seeundi or posteriores, to distinguish them from the 6< ' 
patrician equites. (Grottling, I.e., p. 229.) It was prut, 
owing to the opposition of the patrician gentes that T~ 
quinius Priscus did not place the plebeians on a footir. 
equality with the patricians, at least in the main p • 
and it was reserved to his successor, Servius Tullm> 
organise the body of the plebeians and to fix their r 
tions to the patricians. This kin^ divided the plcbe^ '  
thirty local tribes^ four for the city (tribus urbano**. • 
twenty-six for the oountrv (tribus rustics)). For foi^^^' 




HKming before their own cotnitia (comitia Iributa) any one 
who violated the rights of their order. (Gofctling, p. 300.) 

The year after the secession of the plebeians to tne Mens 
Saoer (493 b.c.)i the consul Spurius Cassias renewed the 
•ffenaive and defensive alliance with the Latins, by which 
both nations seem to havePbeen placed on a footing of 
equality: conquered lands were to be divided, the chief com- 
mander of the allied army was to be alternately a Roman 
and a Latin, and the laws made on the days of meeting were binding on both states. Rome however gradually be- 
came more assuming and arrogant, until, in 388 b.c., the 
Latin league was dissolved. But soon after the renewal of 
the alliance with the Latins (489 b.c.), both nations had 
hard struggles with the Volscians and Aequians, who pro- 
bably took possession of some of the Latin towns. [Ck)Rio- 
LANUs.] In 486 B.C. the Romans admitted the Hemicans 
as a third party to the Latin league, in order to strengthen 
themselves. In the same year the first attempt was made 
by Sp. Cassius Viscellinus to assign to the plebeians in 
full ownership a portion of the public lands [Agrarian 
Laws] ; but the attempt cost him nis life. 

For a series of years (485-479 B.C.) one of the consuls 
was always a member of the Fabian house, a circumstance 
which at last raised a suspicion that the Fabii secretly aimed 
at subverting the republican institutions. The Fabii emi- 
grated with 4000 clients toEtruria, where a few years after- 
wards they were all cut to pieces by the Etruscans. 

The three allied nations, the Romans, Latins, and Her- 
nicans, now carried on a series of wars against the Etruscans, 
Volscians, and Aequians, in which the allies, especially the 
Romans, were oAen near the verge of destruction. The 
Etruscans made peace in 474 b.c, while the Volscians and 
Aequians continued their hostilities, and would in the end 
have probably destroyed the whole Roman army, if the dic- 
tator L. Quinctius Cincinnatus had not delivered the consul 
L. Minucius and his forces at the moment when they were 
surrounded by the enemy (458 b.c.). The Aequians how- 
ever still continued to infest the Roman and Latin terri- 
tories, until 446 B.C., when they were defeated near Corbio, 
and remained quiet for a long time. 

Until the year 472 b.c. the plebeian magistrates, the tri- 
bunes, and the plebeian aediles had been elected by the 
oomitia tributa and- confirmed by the curiae ; but in the 
year 471 B.C. the tribune Publilius Volero succeeded in 
procuring for the plebeians the right to elect their own 
magistrates without any interference on the part of the 
patricians, to deliberate and make laws in their own 
comitia (plebiscita), which indeed were not binding as 
leges, but still must have had a considerable influence, being 
the declared will of the commonalty. From this time the 
Romun republic was divided into two opposite classes or 
parties. On the one hand there were purely patrician assem- 
blies (comitia curiata), i;i which all the patrician magistrates 
and certain classes of priests were appointed, and which 
were the supreme court of justice for tne patrician order; 
the comitia tributa on the other hand were purely plebeian 
assemblies, with the right of appointing the plebeian magi- 
strates, of making plebiscita, and of summoning before 
their tribunal those who infringed the rights of the ple- 
beians. The tribunes and the senate were in a kind of 
opposition to one another, similar to that of the patricians 
and plebeians. The comitia centuriata, in which both orders 
met, were a feeble bond of union. This anomalous condi- 
tion of the state, and the constant disturbances arising from 
it, necessarily produced a conviction that a reform in the 
constitution could not be avoided. The tribune C. Teren- 
tillus Arsa therefore, in 462 B.C., proposed that ten men 
should be appointed to make a code of laws, by which it 
Was chiefly intended to limit the power of the consuls. But 
this proposal met with the strongest opposition from the 
patricians, and it was not carried into effect for a number 
of years, during which the commonalty continually gained 
strength, especially by the increase Of the number of tri- 
bunes to ten, 457 B.C., and by the assignment of the Aven- 
tine to the plebeians (45G B.C.)* At length preparations for 
a new code of laws were made, and in 451 b.c. ten patricians 
were appointed for the purpose ; all other magistrates were 
suspended until the business should be completed. The 
result was that in the first year ten tables were produced, 
with which both parties were satisfied. In the second year, 
when the patricians had secure<l the de<-emviral power to 
themselves, two other tables were added. When the 
talk wu oomploted, the decemvirs were unwilling to 


<•! c" 


lay down their power, to which however they were - 
compelled by the people. The usual magistrates v*:. 
again elected, both orders became reconciled, atu! 
B.C. the laws of Valerius and Horatius declared thy 
biscita should be leges and binding on the whole 
(Liv., iii. 55) ; and that there should be no magiHrat- 
whose sentence an appeal might not be made to the (< 
Various other measures were at the same time ' 
to secure the plebeians in the possession of their ) 
acauired rights. But they still continued to be a t^* ; 
boay, for the whole administration remained in thi : 
of the patricians, and no connubium yet existed bet>%i'^ 
two estates. The connubium however was obtainetl :• 
B.C., by the tribune Canuleius (rogationes Canulru\ 
also made an attempt to divide the consulship beiwo 
two estates. But tne latter of these rogations was 
by the patricians, who agreed that, instead of two f> 
six military tribunes with consular power should be • 
indifferently from both orders. (Niebuhr, iL, p. 3* ^ 
Gottling, p. 326, &c.) This evasive conoessiou wu^ 
because the patricians were determined not to gi%<> 
plebeians the censorial power with which the oon-^ .' 
been invested; and in order to retain this, the pa'' 
created two censors, a new curule dignity, which l> ) 
to their order exclusively, until the year 351 B.C., v>\.^. 
plebeians participated in this dignity also. 

After tnese arrangements, though frequently y\o\ 
the patricians, Rome enjoyed a short period of intcrrja. 
quiliity ; but abroad her arms were kept in constant .. 
by the wars with Fidenae, which was destroyed in 4.  
with the Aequians, who were defeated, in 41 8 b.c, at tli > 
of Mouni Al^idus, by the dictator A. Servilius Prt>cu% 
with the Veil. The war with Veii lasted for several v 
and in 396 b.c. this wealthy city was taken by M. Fur. 
millus. Two years after, the Faliscans surrendered to \\ 
This success of the Roman arms was partly owin^ to ti.c 
vasion of Etruria by the Gauls, who however, in '39 {^ n 
completely defeated a Roman army on the small river A'. 
The Grauls then advanced towards Rome, took and \)u 
the city, and laid siege to the Capitol. The whole Tiar*^. 
of this event in the antient historians is distorted by (\r\. 
The simple truth is related by Polybius (ii. 18), whu • 
that after the Gauls had taken possession of Romtr. : 
were induced, by an inroad of the Veneti into th^.: • 
territory, to quit Rome and return home; though \'^. 
was indeed soon rebuilt, its weakness encoura.:<u 
Aequians, Volscians, and Etruscans to renew their I: 
ties ; but they were conauered by Camillus, and t^o K 
colonies, Sutrium and Nepete, were founded in Efri^: 
a barrier against the enemies. The Hemicans ani I - 
also endeavoured to shake off the yoke of their alliunt 
Rome, and renewed the contest for their liberty, i 
former, after a series of campaigns and reverses, «er>- 
pletely subdued in 30C b.c. ; while the Latins, induct i 
repeated incursions of the Gauls, soon renewed their al. 
with Rome. 

The oppression of the patricians, together with the . 
rous and wearisome campaigns, and the invasion ><: 
Grauls, had reduced the plebeians to a condition \«h'..l 
little better than it was before ihe first secession. - 
noble plebeians, L. Licinius Stole and I*. Sexiius 
determmed to keep the oligarchical party in bouodv y^ 
procure for their own order a share in the consukl. ; 
376 B.C. both of them were tribunes, and in this < •>: - 
proposed four rogations to the following effect: — 1. 1 
more consular tribunes should be appointed, but tv^ 
suls instead, one of whom should always be a pUUn • 
that no citizen should possess above 500 jugera of the : 
domain, and should not keep above a certain nuu) ' 
cattle upon them ; 3, that the amount of interest ] ^ 
debtors to that day, should be deducted from the c<>; 
which waa to be paid off in three annual instalment 
that instead of the duumvirs who kept the Sibylline 1< 
decemvirs should be elected, five of whom should It 
beians. The ensuing contest was carried on mt'. 
greatest determination and bitterness. The patricuii> 
trived to get the veto of the other tribunes, but Licur.-> 
Sextius prevented the elections of the higher magistral - 
that from 375 till 371 b.c. Rome was in a state of con 
anarchy. The two tribunes Licinius and Sextius b' 
retained their office from year to year; and in ibeir  
tribuneship, they first carried their foimh rogatio.i. . 
soon after the senate felt obliged to a^ee to Ihc ui- 




eonsuU L. Aemilius and C. Atilius (225 B.C.). The Romans 
now advanced towanls the north, gained a second victory 
over the Gauls at Clastidiuni, and took possession of Me- 
diolanum (222 n.c.). The Gauls in Gallia Cisalpina, despair- 
ing of success, submitted to Rome, which strengthened its 
power in these parts by two new colonies, Cremona and 
Placentia. A year after this event Istria was added to the 
Roman republic. While the Gallic war was carried on, II- 
lyrian pirates gave rise to the first war with Illy ricum, which 
lasted from 23U till 228 bc. The Illyrian queen Teuta was 
compelled to give a part of her dominions to Rome, to pay 
tribute, and to stop the piracy of her subjects ; some Greek 
towns, which had been subject to her, were declared free. 
The Romans thus came in contact with Greece. (Polyb. ap. 
Zonaras, viii. 9.) A second war with the Iliyrians, in 219 
B.C., made the Romans masters of the whole coast of Illy- 

While Rome was thus engaged, the second Punic war was 
caused by the operations of the Carthaginians in Spain. It 
lasted from 218 till 202 b.c. [Punic Wars.] Great as the* 
sufferings were to which Italy was exposed during the pre- 
sence of the Carthaginian armies, and although the majority 
of the Italians had sided wit h the enemy, still the Romans soon 
recovered their losses, and established their power more firmly 
by new colonies in Italy. Spain was added to their former pos- 
sessions, and when the navy of Carthage was destroyed, 
Rome was mistress of the sea. But the republic had gone be- 
yond its natural limits, and with their extensive conquests the 
Romans lost the simple and manly character for which their 
forefathers had been distinguished : demoralization and cor- 
ruption i)egan to manifest themselves in their public as well 
as in their private life. 

Philip III., king of Afaeedonia, after the battle of Cannae, 
had concluded a treatv with Hannibal. The Romans, into 
whose hands the treaty fell, sent a fleet to Illyricum, which 
compelled the king to a shameful flight. This was the 
prelude to the first Macedonian war, which lasted from 214 
till 205 B.C., and was carried on with little vigour. A peace 
was at last concluded, which was not honestly meant by 
either party. Accordingly, five years later, when Athens 
implored the assistance of Rome against Philip and the 
Acarnanians, a second war with Macedonia commenced, 
which lasted from 200 till 197 b.c., and was terminated by the 
battle of Cynosoephalae, gained by Quinctius Flamininus, 
by which the power of Macedonia was broken. Philip was 
confined to his own kingdom, and became a vassal of Rome. 
Flamininus proclaimed the liberty of Greece, but neverthe- 
less he remained several years in Peloponnesus to watch the 
movements of Antiochusthe Great and the Aetolians, to ar- 
range the affairs of Greece, and to foster dissension among the 
Greeks. There were many occasions on which the Romans 
might have attacked Autiochus, but their wars in Spain 
and the north of Italy caused the outbreak of the war to be 
deferred until 192 B.C. Antiochus, invited by the Aetolians, 
landed in Greece. The Aetolians obtained a truce for 
themselves, but the war against Antiochus, who fled to 
Asia, was continued ; the battle of Magnesia decided the vic- 
tory, and the power of Syria was broken. Eumcnes of 
Pergamus and the Rhodians were richly rewarded for their 
servility towards Rome, and acted the same part towards 
Antiochus as Massinissa acted towards Carthage. The 
Aetolians afterwards concluded a peace with Rome, but on 
very hard conditions. Tlie Galatians in Asia, and Ariarathes, 
both allies of Antiochus, sued for peace and obtained it. 
Asia was now reduced to such a state that it only required 
one more blow to eflTect its complete submission. 

But the Romans had to contend in northern Italy, from 
200 till 191 B.C.. and in Spain from 197 B.C., with more de- 
termined enemies. In Spain, peace was not restored until 
179 B.C., when Tib. Sempronius Gracchus, the father of the 
celebrated tribunes, by his humanity conciliated the Celti- 
berians. The Istrians, Sardinians, and Corsicans likewise 
made a fruitless attenipt to shake off the Roman yoke. 
The corruption of the Romans, after they had become ac- 
quainted with the luxuries of Greece and Asia, had rapidly 
increased. As one instance out of many, we many mention 
the manner in which the Bacchanalia were celebrated at 
Rome. (Livy, xxxix. 8-17.) 

Perseus, the successor of Philip III. m Macedonia, who 
had inherited his father's hatred of the Romans, decloicd war ' 
against them in 171 bc This war was at first very un- ' 
late for the Romans, but in 168 b.c L. Aemilius i 
% decided iho fate of Macedonia in the battle of 

Pydna. Gentius, king of the Ulyrians, had beon * 
ally of Perseus, and this circumstance led to th^ t 
Illyric war, which ended in a division of the count. . 
that of Macedonia. In Epirus, Aemilius Paulas a:>d 
soldiers behaved with a cruelty which has perhaps t< 
been equalled in the history of the Roman republic. < I. 
xlv. 34.) Kumenes and the Rhodians, who had drawn •. 
themselves the suspicions of the Romans in the war a;: - 
Perseus, were now humbled. Othera, such aa the ^. 
Prusias of Bithynia, Massinissa in Numidia, Seleucu» ) 
lopator of Syria, and the kings of Egypt acknowled. . 
supremacy of Rome, which by cunning and fraud gra'i'. 
acquired the means of completely reducing them wia:. 
inclination prompted. 

The first blow was directed against Carthage, vfhkh \ 
long endured the insults of Massinissa, the ally oi 
Romans; and when at last she attempted to maintain 
rights, the Romans razed Carthage to the ground ( 1 40 j 
and her territory became a Roman province under th<> . 
of Africa. [Punic Wars.] In Macedonia two pret^r 
had risen against Rome, the consequence of which ^a^ ' 
Macedonia was reduced to the form of a province, 
same was the fate of Greece after the fall of Cv.r 
(146 B.C.). 

Some years before these events (153 b.c.) a new war ': 
broken out in Spain, as the inhabitants of Segeda d. . 
strictly observe the conditions on which peace had > 
granted to them. The war was carried on for man\ >• 
with varying success, and the cruelty of the Romur.<« 
contributed to make the exasperation of the Span. 
more general. Viriathus [Viriathus], who had placed I: 
self at their head, carried on the war from 148 till 14 o 
After his death, Brutus penetrated indeed as far n^ 
western coast, and in 132 b.c returned to Rome iii * 
umph; but the natives nevertheless did not submit 
mantia offered the most determined resistance, anl • 
totally destroyed, 133 B.C. After these bloody wai-s. S 
was apparently quiet, and Roman commissioners arra... 
the affairs of the country. 

During this neriod Italy appears to have enjoyed ]ii 
tranquillity, ana its wealth and population increased (\ . 
Max., iv. 1, 11), but a formidable insurrection broke .t 
Sicily. In this island the extensive estates of wealth) R m. 
were cultivated by numerous slaves, who, being iil Ut. 
by their masters, rose under Eunus and Cleon, and -\ 
destruction all over the island. In 131 b.c., thcv ^ 
defeated by P. Rupilius at Enna. Attains, the la^t i. . 
Pergamus, leA, in 133 b c, his kingdom as an inlic: .. 
to Rome; the disputes arising out of this gift led tn •'.. 
duction of Asia into the form of a province (12'i 
Phrygia was given to Mithridates V. as a reward f •. 
assistance to the Romans. 

How completely the old distinction between patr. 
and plebeians had now disappeared, may be in for re ! i 
the fact, that in 172 B.C. both consuls, and in 131 h c 
cen.sors, were plebeians. Ever since the wars of Hi .;. 
the number of plebeian senators had exceeded tliut i 
patricians. The only distinction which now had an) • 
was that between nobiles or illuntres, and ohscurt . 
laws which were made during this period had little • 
relation to fhe constitution, but were for the most [o ' 
tended to counteract the growing love of luxuries iie^ ^ 
iuari^)t to fix the age at which persons might uitu  
different offices of the state {feges annales), to prc^i ni 
extortion of the governors of provinces {de pecunits • 
tundis), &C. After the reduction of Macedonia (it]> . 
the ti-casury (aerarium) of the Roman republic was s • • 
stocked, that the head-tax (tributum) which the R 
citizens had hitherto paid, was abolished. But duru . 
apparent indifference in regard to constitutional u* 
a state of things had gradually been developed, whirl i : 
out like a volcano, ana gave the first example of ci\.. • - 
An active and thriving middle class did not exist at R 
The citizens were either exorbitantly rich or in al- . 
poverty. The illustrious families had almost mon.M 
the lucrative ofllces of the republic, and the sniaii 
owners, on account of tlie constant wars, had been • 
pelled to neglect their fields, and in numerous cases h:t 
them to the nobles. Such reduced persons wandentl 
homeless, with their wives and children, and live<l ir 
treme poverty. (Plat., Tib, Gracchus, a 9.) Tl:c 
remedy was to provide this multitude of destitute r.\ . 
with lands, and to raise them to the station of an indepi 





was the only remedy for the publio evils. A longer con- 
tinuation of that state of affairs which had existed for the 
last 50 years, would probably have broken up the Roman 
empire, and made Italy a scene of bloodshed and misery. 

The Roman republic, at the time of its dissolution, com- 
prehended the following countries, which were for the most 
part administered as Roman provinces:— Italy and all the 
islands by which it was surrounded ; all Gaul as far as the 
Rhine, nearly all Spain, Illyricum, Pannonia, Dalmatia, 
Greece with all the islands of the ^Egean, Thrace, McBsia 
(the Danube here formed the boundary) ; in Asia all the 
countries between the Caspian Sea, the Parthian empire, the 
Persian and Arabian gulfs, the Mediterranean and the 
Caucasus, that is, Colchis, Iberia, Armenia, Syria, Palestine, 
PhoBnicia, nearly the whole of Asia Minor, the whole of 
the northern coast of Africa, Mauritania, Numidia, the 
territory of Carthage, Cyrenaica, and Egypt. In some of 
these countries however the power of Rome was not firmly 
established until the Imperial period. 

Period IV. : — The Empire to its Doian/all, from 30 b.c. 
till 476 A.D. — The spirit of antient Rome and its moral 
greatness were' gone, and freedom, which can only be based 
on virtue, had perished. The wise therefore, as well as the 
many who loved peace as the means of securing sensual 
enjoyments, and who were unconcerned about the conse- 
quences to future generations, preferred the mild rule of 
one man to the late turbulent and convulsed condition of 
the republic. 

As the history of all the Roman emperors is given in 
separate articles, we shall only nlake a few general obser- 
vations on the administration of the empire, and subjoin a 
chronoloi^ical list of the Roman emperors down to the time 
of Justinian. 

Augustus gradually concentrated in his own person all 
the great offices of the republic, though the officers them- 
selves, mere shadows of former days, still continued to be 
appointed. He thus in effect acquired the sovereign power, 
being free from all responsibility. He had the right to raise 
armies, to impose taxes, to decide on peace and war; he had 
the command of all the leo:ions, and the power of life and 
death over all Roman citizens, both within and without 
the city. The senate, after the removal of those whom 
Augustus had reason to fear, was filled up with individuals 
who were his mere creatures. Tiberius indeed restored to 
the senate part of its former power, but the more the in- 
fluence of the suliliers increased, the more that of the senate 
declined, which body, as a compensation for this loss, was 
made a high court of justice, which took cognizance of 
olTences committed by senators, crimes against the state or 
the person of the emperor, and of the maladministration of 
provincial magistrates. Tlie relation between the emperors 
and the senate was very indefinite, and it varied according 
to the more or less despotic disposition of the head of the 
state. No provision was made for a rep;ular succession ; the 
first five emperors all belonged to the Julian and Claudian 
families. (Tacit., Hist., i, 17.) The succession depended 
ui)on the will of the actual imperator, who appointed his 
successor, either by adoption, or by giving him one of the 
titles, CsDsar, and Princeps Juventutis; or by making him 
his colleague in the quality of tribune or proconsul. In 
cases where no person was designated, the senate exercised 
the right of election. But this privilege was soon assumed 
by the soldiers, who proclaimed the emperors, and the sanc- 
tion of the senate became a mere form. The numerous 
body-guards of the emperors (prsDtorians), who, in their 
stronghold (prsotorian camp) formed as it were a new Capitol, 
in effect possessed the sovereign power ; and on some occa- 
sions they sold the empire to tne best bidder. The nu- 
merous legions in the provinces however soon became 
acquainted with this secret of despotism, and availed them- 
selves of it. 

The election of magistrates was restored to the people 
by Augustus, but in most cases he recommended or even 
elected the candidates. Tiberius invested the senate with 
the power of election, still resen'ing a preference to those 
candidates who were recommended by himself, and the 
comitia merely received information of the election when 
it had taken place. In the third century however we find 
that the emperor alone exercised the right of election. 
The aerarium was at first nominally under the control of 
the senate. Aut^ustus formed a separate aerarium for mili- 
tary purposes. The fiscus was the name for the property of 
the emperor as such, wliich must be distinguished both from 

< t 


the aerariom and the private property of the emper 
gradually the emperora took the whole admini>:r< 
the finances to themselves, and the term fiscus : 
came equivalent to aerarium in the republican pen- 
order to keep the magistratea both of the city and i. 
yinoes in better auboniiiiation, they were |mia by sal. 

With respect to legislation, we find that in the r- 
Augustus yarioos lesrea were passed iLex Julia et Pa; 
paea, De Adulteriis, kc.), bnt after his death we scur'N- 
of any leges, and senatus oonaulta were now made <.- 
proposition or the recommendation of the empemr 
Edicta of the prtttors gradually lost their importar 
their place was supplied by the Constitutionas pnr 
The emperor himself of course possessed supreme j 
tion, and for the decision of extraordtnary matters, a^ . 
of appeal, he appointed an especial counciU which v 
have been distinct from his privy council for the a.. 
tration of the empire. (Spart Hadr., 18.) 

The Judicia Publica were usually held hj the ser- 
civil causes were, as before, tried by judices whom tb^ 
tor appointed. The administration of the city cnr l 
great deal of the attention of Augustus and his si><-.>> 
as the monarchy depended much more on the pi- •. 
order of the capital than the republic. Respecti:.. 
division and administration of the provinces, see tht- •'- 
Provincia. In the reign of Garacalla all aubjects ' 
empire were made Roman citixens by a constitution v.' 

In this state the government of the Roman empr*' 
mained, with a few and not very important alterations . 
to the time of Diocletian. The measures of this cr.. 
and Constantino produced a complete chan^ in the t 
government. [Diocletian; Constantikb.] Tbedt^i' 
of the prsetorian soldiers ceased, and to it succee'^ <! 
government of the court, with its ministers and innunu' 
officers. The maintenance of these functioaaries anil o: 
numerous armies rendered heaiy taxes necessary, and 
misery, wretchedness, and degradation of the nations sui- 
te the empire, which had been increasing during the 
two centuries previous to its overthrow, at last leacL 
pilch which it is almost impossible to dncribe. 

The Roman empire, notwithstanding its vast extr- 
the end of the republic, still continued to increase. ^ > 
licia, Rbstia, Noricum, Pannonia, and MoKsia were < 
pletely subdued and made parts of the empire. Tlie Dj' 
was made the boundary in these parts, to secure the « z\ 
against the incursions of the barbarians. The subju.. 
of Spain was completed by the submission of the v: 
Cantabrians. In Germany conquests were also mft^v. 
more with a view to secure Gaul than to acquire ai ^ ' 
possessions in that country, and the Rhine may W ^ 
sidered as the frontier on toat side of the empire. I- 
reign of Trajan the empire attained its greate?! c\ 
Dacia, Assyria, Mesopotamia, Armenia, and Arab.i • 
made Ronuin provinces ; but some of these conquer *• 
soon given up, and the Danube and the Euphrates l< 
the boundaries of the empire. Britain and the i»o ' 
nart of Scotland had been made a province in tbeu . 
Nero. But the internal weakness, resulting from i> ' 
perfect union of so many countries and nations^ remUr 
impossible to repel the incursions of the barbarui> 
whom the empure was harassed from about the close (>: 
fourth century. During this period one country' «3^ 
after another, and Italy itself was invaded by tl.e ii 
under Attila (452 A.D.). In the year 476 aj>. Odoacer. 
of the Scvrri and Heruli, at thenead of a number of ' 
manic tribes, invaded Italy, dethroned the last empeK' - 
mulus Augustulus» and was saluted by his army vw : 
Rome. The Roman senate implored his protecii^>i^ 
Zeno, the emperor of the East, raised him to the nr.-^ 
Roman patricius. Thus ended the Roman empire >n 

Long before this event the necessity of dividm: 
unwieldy mass of the empire had been felt, and. ^ 
the time of Diocletian, had frequently been made f 

Eurpose of facilitating the administration. Constant 
ad become the capital of the Eastern part of the eropir 
it was not until after the death of the elder Tht** . ^ 
(395 A.n.) that the division into the Eastern and Wc* • 
empires became permanent : the two parts however ' • 
intended to form one whole. The line of demirr ' 
between the two empires was the Danube^ from s • 
a^ove Pesth, down to where it receives the Drau, - 




losopliische UntcrsuchuDgen Cber die R5mer,' 3 vols., Ber- 
lin, 1819; K. L. Blum, 'Einleitung in Roms alte Ge- 
Bchichte,' Berlin, 1828 ; Eisendecber, * Ueber die Entstehung, 
Entwickelung, und Ausbildung des Biirgerrechts im alten 
Rom,' Hamburg, 1829 ; K. D. Uiillmann, * Romiscbe Grund- 
verfassung,' Bonn, 1832; and by tbe same author, 'Ur- 
spriinge der Rbmischen Verfassung, durch Vergleichungen 
erlautert,' Bonn, 1835; W. Drumann, 'Geschichte Roms in 
seinem Uebergange Ton der Republikanischen zur Monar- 
chisclien Verfassung,' &c.,.4 vols. 8vo., Konigsberg, 1834- 
38 ; H. Maiden, * History of Rome,' vol. i., London, 1830 ; H. 
C. Reiff, 'Greschichte der Rom.Burgerkriege/ &c., Berlin, 
1825, 4 vols. 8vo. ; Dr. Th. Arnold, * History of Rome.* 2 
vols., London, 1838-1840; J. Rubino, ' Untersuchungen 
liber Romiscbe Verfassung und Geschichte,' vol. i., Cassel, 
1839 ; Dr. Fr. Fiedler, 'Geschichte des Romischen Staates 
und Vol kes,' Leipzig, 1839; C. Gbttling, 'Gescbicbte der 
Rumischen Staats verfassung,* Halle, 1840. 

The history of the Empire has been written by Tillemont, 
' Histoire des Empereurs et des autres Princes qui ont 
regnd dans les Six Premiers Si^cles de TEglise,' Paris, 
1700, 4 vols. 4to., reprinted at Brussels, in 1707, 5 vols. 
8vo. ; Crevier*s continuation of Rollin, mentioned above ; 
' Les Femmes de Douze C6sars, avec des Notes Hist, et Grit.,' 
par M. de Servies, Amsterdam, 1722, 2 vols. 8vo. ; Gibbon, 
* The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Em- 
pire,' London, 1776-82, 4 vols. 4 to. ; this masterly work has 
often been reprinted. D. G. H. Hiibler, ' Geschichte der 
Rbroer unter den Imperatoren, wie auch der Gleichzeitigen 
Volker.* 3 vols., Freiberg. 1803. 

The 'Thesauri' of Graevius and Sallengre contain many 
good works on Roman antiquities; but, besides these, we 
may mention, Job. Rosini, ' Romanarum Antiquitatum Cor- 

Sus absolutissimum, cum Notis Dempsteri,* Traject. ad 
then., 1701 ; Samuel Pitiscus, 'Lexicon Antiquitatum 
Romanarum,' 2 vols, fol., Leovardiae, 1713 ; Dr. A. Adams, 
' Roman Antiquities,' London, 1791, often reprinted; Friedr. 
Crouzer. *Abriss der Romischen Antiquitaten,' Leipzig 
und Darmstadt, 1824. 

The private life and manners of the Romans are described 
in C. Meiners, 'Geschichte des Verfalls der Sitten und der 
Staatsverfassung der Romer,' I^eipzig. 1782; J. H. L. 
Meierotto, ' Ueber Sitten und Lebensart der Romer in ver- 
schiedenen Zeiten der Republik.* second edition. Berlin. 1 802. 
2 vols. 8vo. ; W. A. Becker, * Gallus, oder Romiscbe Scenen 
aus der Zeit des Augustus,' Leipzig, 1838, 2 vols. 8vo. ; Otto 
von Mirbach, ' Romiscbe Briefe aus den letzten Zeiten der 
Republik,' 2 vols., Mitau, 1835 ; M. Roulez, 'Observations 
aur divers points obscurs de THistoire de la Civilisation de 
Ancienne Rome,' Bruxclles, 1836. 

Works on the Roman finances: P. Bnrmann, ' Vectigalia 
populi Romani,' Lugd. Bat., 1 734, 4to. ; D. H. Hegewisch, 
* Versuch liber die Romischen Finanzen,* Altona, 1804, 
8vo. ; R. Bosse, ' Grundkiige dbs Finanzwesens im Rbmi- 
schen Staat,' Braunschweig. 1803, 2 vols. 8vo. 

Works on military affairs: Guiscbard, ' M6moires Mili- 
taircs dci Grecs et des Romains,* La Haye, 1758, 2 vols. 
4lo., and Rast, ' Romiscbe Kriegsalterthiimer.' 

As chronological tables of the history of Rome: C. J. 
Zumpt, 'Annales veterum Rcgnorum et Populorum, in- 
primis Romanorum,* Berolini, 1819. 4to. ; a second edition 
appeared in 1838. Zander. 'Tabellen der Romischen 
Geschichte.* second edition, Guttingen, 1829, 4to. ; F. Fied- 
ler, 'Zeitlafeln der Rbmisch. Gesch.,' &c., Wesel, 1827. 
4 to. ; Fischer, * Griechische und Romiscbe Zeittafeln,* Al- 
tona, 1840, 4to. ; Clinton's ' Fasti Hellenici.' 

The works on particular points of the Roman constitution 
or particular events in Roman history, are too numerous to 
be mentioned here. 

Roman Language and Literature. 

It is intended in the followmg paragraphs to present merely 
an outline of the history of the language and literature of 
antient Rome, as a separate notice is given in this work to 
every writer of importance. 

The language of the Romans is usually called Latin ; for 
though Rome and Laiium were originally distinct commu- 
nities, their language appears to have been always the same. 
Any inquiry into the origin of the Latin language must in- 
volve an inquiry into the languages spoken by tho antient 
iuliabilants of Italy ; and our information on this subject, 
noiMnhstandmg tlio investigations of Micali,. Grotefend, 
K.0 Miilltsr, and other distinguished scholars, is at present 

. [. 

very imperfect. So much however appear^ccrtain, t* 
Latin language was different from the Etruscan ar.J > 
of which the former waa spoken by the inhabitant, 
northern and the latter by those of the central ami - i 
parts of Italy. Tbe Latins appear to have original!} ' 
part of that great race which overspread both Gi*.\ 
Italy under the name of Pelasgiana. Their languai:t> : 
a branch of that extensive family of languages vi<: 
known to modern scholars by the name of Indu-Gtr.n 
and it is probable that the Pelasgiana who settled .. 
originally spoke the same language as the Pelax^u- 
settled in Greece. There is consequently a gre^t r 
blance between the Latin and Greek languages; '. 
each possesses an element which the other doei^ n<)t. 
only does the Latin language possess many word> v ' 
has not in common with the Greek, but also in $>nrc- 
of its grammatical inflection, as for instance in tb<; 
passive voice it differs considerably from the Greek Li; 
It therefore becomes a question, what that element u, ^ 
the Latin language has not in common with the Ciio.-. 
here we must attam some further knowledge of the ] a '^. 
of antient Italy before we can answer this question ^ . 
torily. The Etruscan, so far as our imj>erfect kno^.i . 
it will enable us to form an opinion on the subject, .i 
to have exercised little influence upon the format -n 
Latin language ; but the Oscan or Opican language, 
contrary, seems to have united with the Pelas£cian m : 
ing the Latin language. Niebuhr (Hist, qf Bnv.r, -. 
p. 82) has remarked that the words which relate : 
culture and domestic life agree in Greek and Lat.n. v 
mus, ager, aratrun^, vinum, oleum, 'lac, bos, sn^ 
&c. ; while those relating to arms a'nd war, as u .' 
ensis, basta, sagitta, &c., are different from the (' 
But this remark is to be taken with considerable Imuia. 
for there are many exceptions both ways; indeed v 
as to render the position itself at least doubtful, and 
ferences derived from it consequently inconclusive 
words relating to arms and war may have been O^can 
it has thererore been supposed by Dr. Aroo\d UA 
Rome, vol. i., p. 22) not only that the Latins were a 
people, partly Pelasgian and partly Oscan. but aU) ii.: 
arose out of a conquest of the Pelasgiana by the O^c. .. 
that the latter were the ruling class of the uniiea ;i 
and the former its subjects. 

We have very few specimens of the Latin lan-iu: 
vious to the time of Ennius and Plautus, when ii \- 
come nearly developed and was substantiallv the ^ 
in the later times of the republic The specimen 
antient language which have comedown to us jn 
consist of fragments of antient laws preserved h\ Y 
Cicero, and other writers, and of a few inscniiti :»'. 
former, as might have been expected, appear to I..' 
considerably altered ; and the latter are unfoitu:.. 
few to give us much assistance in tracing the ri*e . • 
gross of the language. Of these however one of s: 
important was the antient song of the Fralrcs A 
which was discovered in the year 1777, and uhuii • 
to have been the same as was sung in the most i;.!  
though the inscription was not cut till a.d. 2\^. N\ 
join a copy of it with a few remarks on some of the * 
forms which it contains: — 

1. £ nos, Lases. iuvate. 

2. Neve luerve, Marmar, sins incurrere in ple.r.s. 

3. Satur furere. Mars, limen sali, sta berber : 

4. Semunis alternei advocapit conctos. 

5. E nos, Marmor. juvato: 

6. Triumpe, triumpe. triumpe, triumpe. triump*- 

1. Lases is instead o{ Lares. All Latin wi>rdi w . 
now written with r, had an * originally, Tluis gu. 
says ilnst Orat, i. 4, J 13; that Valerius, Funu^, 
labor, vapor, clamor, and lares were original'v • 
Valesius, Fusius, arbos, vapos, clamos^ and /c/Ar.r. * A 
mg to Pomponius the letter r was invented by A pp. ^  
dius. {Dig., I, tit. 2, s. 2. } 36.) 

2. Luerve is instead o( luervem or luerem, which * 
valent to luem. The omission of m at the end of » 
common in Latin. Thus all the adverbs endin*; ni 
to have lost an m, as quo, eo, &c. [See the article M 
is also omitted in the same way in the accusative > 
of most nouns of the third declension in Greek, . t 
not appear, if we may judge from tbe elision in | 
all syllables ending in m before words beginning 
vowel, to have been usually pronounced in Latin. I 

!»r 1 





writers of this period. We especially see it in the '^neid' 
of Virgil, and in the histories of Sallust and Livy. 

Second Period: — fVow the death of Aus;u9tus to the 
death qf Marcus Aureliw, a.d. 180. — In this period the 
decay of the Latin literature commenced. By the overthrow 
of the republic, oratory was confined almost entirely to private 
causes, and soon degenerated into the art of the rhetorician. 
Quintilian made a noble hut unsuccessful attempt to recall 
his contemporaries fVom the empty declamations of the 
schools to the true subjects of oratory ; but a false taste had al- 
ready vitiated the great bulk of the community. Oratory how- 
ever still continued to form, as it had done under the repub- 
lic, the chief study in the education of the higher classes ; and 
consequently the faUe principles of taste on which it was 
taught may be traced in all the writings of that period. 
"We see it in the works of Seneca, the younger Ptiny, Vel- 
leius Paterculus, and even to some extent in those of 
Tacitus. In the poems of Lucan, Valerius Flaccus, and 
Silius Italicus, the art of the rhetorician is still more con- 
spicuous; they abandoned the study of nature^ and were 
constantly striving after effect ; in addition to which, they 
were all close imitators of the 'i£neid/ wAich, from its defi- 
ciency in truth to nature, must have produced a most inju- 
rious effect upon subsequent poets, who made it their model. 
Under the Antonines the deterioration in the character of 
the literature became still more apparent, as we see in the 
writings of Solinus, Petronius, and Appuleius, though even 
durinji^ this period Gains and other jurists continued to 
write Latin worthy of the age of Cicero. 

Third Period :^Prom the death of Marcus Aurelius to 
the time of Cassiodorus, a.d. 539. — The civil commotions 
which prevailed during the early part of this period, and 
the subsequent removal of the seat of empira to Constan- 
tinople, almost extinguished all literary pursuits. The 
great mass of the Roman people had never been able to 
enjoy or appreciate the works of their counti^men; and 
when the patronage of the great and the wealthy was with- 
drawn, there was no encouragement to any literary exer- 
tions. The poets of this age, with the exception of Claudian, 
who was superior to most of the poets of the preceding 
period, were mere versifiers, as Olympius Nemesianus and 
Julius Calpurnius ; the historians, if they may be dignified 
with the title, only composed the most barren epitomes of 
Roman history, or of the reigns of the emperors. All kinds 
of barbarisms and corruptions began to creep into the lan- 
|;uage ; but even at the commencement of this period the 
jurists Ulpian, Papinian, PauUus, and Modestinus still 
continued to write in pure Latin, which forms a striking 
contrast with that of their contemporaries. The only lite- 
rature of this age, besides the juristical, which desenes 
special mention, is that of the Christian church; in which 
the works of Lactantius are particularly distinguished by 
the purity of their style and the elegance of their diction. 

The following is a list of the l^tin writers, with their 
several epochs, as nearly as they can be ascertained: — 

Livius Andronicus. 

Cn. Neevius. 

Q. Fabius Pictor. 

L. Cincius Alimentus. 

M. Porcius Cato. 

Q. Ennius. 

M. Accius Plautus. 

CflDcilius Statius. 

M. Pacuvius. 

P. Terentius. 

A. Postumius Albinus. 

L. Attius. 

L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi. 

C. Fannius. 

C. Ccelius Antipaten 

Sempronius AscUio. 

C. Lucilius. 

S. Turpilius. 

L. Licinius Crassus. 

M. Antonius. 

L. i£lius Stilo. 

Claudius Quadrtgariua. 

Valerius Antias. 

L. Cornelius Sisenna. 

L. Pomponius Bononiensis. 

P. Rutilius. 

T. Quintius Atla. 


• B.C. 


















































767-790 14-37 

794-807 41-54 

807-821 54-68 

822-832 69-79 

834-849 81-96 


Plotius Gallus. 
Valerius Cato. 
L. Cornelius Sulla. 
T. Lucretius Carni. 
Q. Hortensius. 
M. Tullius Cieera 
M. Terentius Varro. 
T. Pomponius Attieus. 
Q. .£lius Tubero. 
L. Lucceius. 
C. Julius CflBsar. 
Atteius Philologus. 

C. Valerius Catullus. 

D. Laberius. 
Cornelius Nepos. 
C. Asinius Pollio. 
A. Hirtius. 

C. SallustiuB Crispus. 

C. CflBsar Octavianus Auguslci 

M. Agrippa. 

C. Cilnius Mseeenas. 

CTrebatius Testa. 

Q. Horatius Flaccus. 

P. VirgiliusMaro. 

Cornelius Gallus. 

Albius TibuUns. 

M. Valerius Messalla Corrinus. 

S. Aurelius Propertius. 

Domitius Marsus. 

C. Pedo Albinovanus. 

M. Porcius Latro. 

Verrius Flaccus. ^ 

Titus Livius. 

Trogus Pompeius. 

Q. Antistius Labeo. 

C. Ateius Canito. 

P. Ovidius Naso. 

^milius Macer. 

C. Rabin us. 

Cornelius Severus. 

Gratius Faliscus. 



C. Asinius Gallus. 

Massurius Sabinus. 

Cocceius Nerva. 

C. Velleius Paterculus. 

Valerius Maxim us. 

M. Annteus Seneca. 

Arellius Fuscus. 

Albucius Siius. 

Cestius Pius. 

Q. Haterius. 

L. Arruntius. 

Rutilius Lupus. 

Crispus Passienus. 

Domitius Afer. 

Julius Africanus. 

A. Cornelius Celsus. 

Pomponius Mela. 

L. Junius Moderatus ColumeV.i 

Scribonius Largus. 

Q. Asconius Pedianas. 


L. Annaaus Seneca. 

M. Annseus Lucanus. 

Annsens Cornutus. 

A. Persius Flaccus. 

C. Silius Italicus. 

Aufidius Bassus. 

Valerius Probus. 

C. Plinius Secundus (the elder w 

V. Messalla. 

Fabius Rustiens. 

Vibius Prisons. 

Julius Secundus. 

Saleius Bassus. 

C. Valerius Flaccus. 

M. Fabius Quintilianus. 

M. Valerius Martialis, 


P. Apinius Stfttius. 

juiiut Ubsequens. 
Veliua Loogug. 
TerentianuB Maunu. 
D. Junius J uvenftlit. 
131 Salvius Julianus. 
CoMiitiui Africaaiu. 
138-161 S. Pumpooiui. 

Voluiiiu Mbcwdui. 

Cervidiu* Sceevola. 

UlpiuB Harcellus. 

Aulus Gellius. 

CalpurDiua Flacciu. 


Q. Curlius ? 
iei-180 M. Aureliui Antonious (Greek). 

Cornelius Fronto. 

L. AppuleiuH. 

Julius Salinus. 

Nonius Marcellus. 



Dionysius Cato. 
300-250 Papinianus. 


Gargiliua Martialis. 

Censor iaus. 



s Felix 

M. Aurelius Olytnpius NomesiuiUB. 

Julius Calpurnius. 

Modus M animus. 

CiBcilius Cvprisnus. 


Julius Capitolinus. 

Flavius Vopiscus. . 

Julius RuAuianus. 



Finnic us Matemui. 

^lius Oonatus. 


Aurelius Victor. 




L. Ampellus. 



Anicius Fabliau*. 


Ammianus Uaroellmaa. 



M BTcal lusEmpiiicus. 

FalloDia Proba. 

Aurelius Symmochus. 


Pumpeius Fes 1 us. 

Secvius Maurus. 

/Smilius Probus. 

Aurelius Prudentius. 

Sulpicius Sever us. 


Cliiuilius Rutin us Numalianui. 

Rufus Fuslus AvicDua, 



Cteliiu Aurctianus. 

Paiilui Oroaius. 


ApuUinaris Sidoniu*. 


In 111* preceding list llie principal Komon jurists are in- 
serted, but a cotnplete list of tbem, wilb Iba relative pro- 
portions, wbich they have conCribuled to tbe'Dige&l,' is given 
under Justinian's Legislation, p. 164. 

Workt on the Soman Language and LileTaturt.~~T\ia 
foUowiug list of works, tliuugli lar from coiQplcte, may ha 
useful lo those who are studying the language and litera- 
ture of salient Rome. It is Wdly necessary to premise 
Ibat Ibe works here enumerated have very different degree* 
of merit, and that some are merely mentioned as the best 
or only works of the kind, or as the best known to Iba 

Xtfwadwe,— Fabric i us, 'Bibliotbeca lalina,' edited by 
Ernesti, 3 vols. 8to., Lips., 1773-1774: Harles, 'Iniroductio 
in Natit. Lilt. Romans,' 2 vols. Sro., Nurimb., 1794; 'Bre- 
vior Notitia Lilt. Romance,' with supplements, 5 vols, 8vo., 
I?a9-I819; Dunlop, 'History of Roman Literature's vole. 
8vo., Load.; Biihr, ' Geschieble der Romiscben Litera- 
tur,' 8vo., Carls., 183-2, &c.; 'Abiiss der Riimiscbeu Lite- 
rs turgeschichl«,' Svo., Heidelb., 1833 ; Bernhardy. ' Grun- 
driss der Kiimischen Lileiatur,' Svo., Halle, ie3U, a use- 
ful work ; F. A. Wolf, ' Vorlesungen iiber die Guschicbte 
der RomisRben Literatur,' Bvo.. LeipK., 1831; F. Passov, 
' Uebersicht der Rbmiicben und Griecbiscben Literalur, 
410., Berlin, ISiS; ' Grundiuge der Griecb. und Riim. Lii- 
teratur und Kuustgeschichte,' 4:a., Berlin, 1629; Gyral- 
dus, 'Historia Poetarum lam Grscoium quam Lalinuruin,' 
Basel. 1545;Crinitus, 'De Poelis Lalinia,' Flor, lSD5;Vos- 
■iuBi'De Vet. Poetarum Temporibus,'AinsI,, 1654; Crusius, 
■Lives of the lAtin Poets,' Lond., 1726; Rambach, 'Do 
Poetarum Lyricorum inter Romanos Faucitale,' 4tD., Qued- 
linb,, 1789; L4vie, 'ThMlra complet des Latins,' Paris, 
1823, Sec; Donstua, 'De Tragccdia etComcBdia;' J. C. Sca- 
liger,'DeComaBdiaetTragi£QiB,'in Gronovius's 'Thesaurus 
mit. Gr.,' vol. viii. ; Sagiliarius, ' De Vila et Srripiis Livii 
Andronici, Nevii, Enoii, Cncilii, Statii, Pacuvii. &c.' Svo., 
Allenb., 1672; A, W. Schlegel, 'Vorlesungen iiber Dra- 
malischs Kuost und Litleralur,' 3 vols. Bvo., Heidelb., 181 7, 
translated into French, 3 vols. Svo., Paris, 1814, and into 
English, 2 vols. Bvo.; the article Draka in this work; 
Casaubon, ' De Satjrica Graec. Poesi et Romanorum Salira,' 
Par,, 16(IS, Hal., 1774, ed. Rambach; Konig;. >Do Salira 
Romana,' Oldenb., Svo., 1796; Msnso, 'Uebcr die Romis- 
cben Saliriker,' in Suiter's ' Allg'eR). Tlicocie der Schiinen 
Kiinsle,' vol. 4; Ruperti, 'De Satira RomiLDoruuet de Sa- 
liricis Romanorum Poetis,' pretixod to bii edition of Ju- 
venal; Vossius, 'De HistoriciB Lftiinis,' Lugd. Bat., 16S1. 

A lu>t of the principal editions of the Latin writers, with 
the best modern works upon each writer, is given in Wag- 
ner's 'Orundriss der Classichen Bibliograpbie,' Breslau, 

Langtiage. — Folieta, ' De Ling. Lat Usu ct PiEe^tnnlia,* 
ed. Moaheim, Hamb., 1723, Svo. ; Facciolati, ' De Ortu, 
Inleritu, et Inslauratione Lingus lAtinm,* reprmted at 
Lips., 1 72 j ; Turaelliuus, ' De Particulis Latins Oralionis,' 
often reprinted; Allen, 'Doctrina Copularum Linguce La- 
tine,' 12mo., Lund., 1S30, wilh a notice of the satnu wurk in 
the ' Journal of Education,* No, 8 ; Diiderlein, ' Laleinische 
Synonyme und Eiymologieen,' 6 vols. Svo., Leipz., 1826- 
183S ; Struve, 'Ueber die Lateinisohe Declination und Con- 
jugation,' Svo., Kiinigs., 1823; Schneider, ' Element arlehre 
der Lateiniscben Spracbe,' and ' Formenlchre der Laleinis- 
chen Sprache,' Borhn, 1819, lg'2l, a valuable work fur the 
archffiology of the language ; Allen, ' Etymological Analysis 
of Latin Verbs.' 12mo. I^nd., 1836;Seheller, > Ausliirhliche 
Lateiniicbe Spracblehre,' Bvo., Leipz., ISU3, translated inlo 
English by Walker; Grolefend, ' Auafurhliche Grammatik 
der Lateiniscben SprachB,' 2 vols. 8vo., Hannov., 1829-30; 
Zumpt, ' Laleinische Grammatik,' Svo., BerUn, filh edition, 
1828. und fre<iuenlly reprinted, translated into Eni>lish by 
Kenrick, wilh a notice of the same work in tbo ' (Junrteily 
Journal of Education,' No. 1 : this giaromar is fur superior 
in tbo syntactical part lo any other. Tiie student will also 
durivo oonswierable information from those works wliicn 
treat of the comparative grammar of tbo I ndo- Germanic 
Languages, asBopp's ' VerB'sichende Grammatik des Sans- 




krir, Zend, GriecbiscUen, Lateinischen, &c.,' of vbich the 
first part was published at Berlin. 1833, with a notice of the 
same work in the * Journal of Education/ No. 16, by the 
late Dr. Rosen ; and Pott's * Etymologische Forscbungen 
auf dem Gebiete der Indo- German ichen Sprmchen,' 2 vols. 
8vo., Lemgo, 1833-36, with two notices of the same in the 
'Journal of Education,' Nob. 18, 20, also by Dr. Rosen. 

Dictionaries, — Stephani, ' Thesaurus Lingun Latinn ;* 
Facciolati and Forcellini, 'Totius Latinitatis Lexicon,' 
4 vols, fol., Padua, 1771, which is superior to all other Latin 
dictionaries, and the recent edition of the same work en- 
larged by Furlanetto. 4 vols. 4to., Padua; Adam, 'Dic- 
tionary of the Latin Tongue,' 3vo., Edinburgh, 1814, 2nd 
edition, a superior work to that of Ainsworth ; Scheller, 
* Ausfiibrliches und Moglicbst VoUstandiges Lateiniach- 
Deut8cl)es und Deutsch-Lateinisches Lexicon,' 5 vols. 8va, 
Leipz., 1 804-6, translated into English by Riddle, who has 
also published a Latin dictionary in one volume, 8vo.; 
Freund, * Worterbuch der Lateinischen Sprache,' which is to 
be completed in 4 vols. 8vo., but three only have yet ap- 
peared ; Schwenck, ' Etymolo^^sehes Worterbuch der Latein. 
Sprache mit Vergleichung der Griechischen und Deuts- 
chen,' 8vo., Francf., 1827 ; Nizolii, * Lexicon Ciceronianum,* 
edited by Facciolati, reprinted in London, 3 vols. 8vo., 

Roman Law. 

The historical origin of the Rom&n Law is unknown, and 
its fundamental principles, some of which even survived 
the legislation of Justinian, are older than the oldest 
records of Italian history. The foundation of the strict 
rules of the Roman law as to familia, agnatio, marriage, 
testaments, succession to intestates, and ownership, was 
no doubt custom, which, being recognised by the sovereign 
power, became law. As in many other states of antiquity, 
the connection of the civil with the ecclesiastical or sacred 
law was most intimate ; or rather, we may consider the 
law of religion as originally comprehending all other law, 
and its interpretation as belonging to the priests and the 
king exclusively. There was however direct legislation 
even in the period of the kings. These hiws, which are 
mentioned under the name of Leges Regiae, were propsed 
by the king, with the approbation of the senate, and, con- 
firmed by the populus in the Comitia Curiata, and, after the 
constitution of Servius Tullius, in the Comitia Centuriata. 
That there were remains of this antient legislation existing 
even in the Imperial period, is certain, as appears from the 
notice of the Jus Civile Papirianum or Papisianum, which 
the Pontifex Maximus Papirius is said to have compiled 
frotn these sources, about or immediately after the expulsion 
of Tarquinius Superbus CDig,, i., tit. 2), and from the dis- 
tinct references to these Leges made by late writers. Still 
there is great uncertainty as to the exact date of the com- 
pilation of Papirius, and its real character. Even his name 
is not quite certain, as he is variously called Caius, Sextus, 
and Publius, (Dion. Hal., iii. 36 ; Dig., i., lit. 2.) 

But the earliest legislation of which we have any important 
remains is the compilation of the code called the Twelve 
Tables. The original bronze tables indeed are said to have 
jperished in the conflagration of the city after its capture 
by the Gauls, but thev were satisfactorily restoied from copies 
and from memory, for no antient writer who cites them 
wer expresses a doubt as to the genuineness of their con- 
tents. It is the tradition that a commission was sent to 
Athens and the Greek states of Italy, for the purpose of 
examining into and collecting what was most useful in their 
codes; and it is also said that Hermodorus of Ephesus, 
then an exile in Rome, ^ve his assistance in the compila- 
tion of the code. There is nothing improbable in this story, 
and vet it is undeniable that the laws of the Tables 
were based on Roman and not on Greek or Athenian law. 
Their object was to confirm and define perhaps rather 
than to enlarge or alter the Roman law, and it is pro- 
bable that the laws of Solon and those of other Greek 
•tales, if they had any effect on ths legislation of the De- 
oemviri, served rather as models of form than aa aouroes 
of positive rules. 

Ten Ubles were completed and made public by the De- 
cemviri, in B.C. 451, and in the following year two other 
tables were added. This compilation is quoted by the 
antient writers by various titles: Lex XIL Tabularum, 
l«ge» XIL, sometimes XIL simply (Cic, I^grg., ii. 23), Lex 
l>uc0mviralis, and others, Jhe rules contained iu vliv^c 

tables long con tinned to be the foundation of Roman h* 
and they' were never formally repealed. The laws tkf 
selves were considered as a text-book, and tbey were c 
mented on by the Jurists as late as the age of the A: 
nines, when Gains wrote a commentary on them m * 
books ('Ad Legem XII. Tabularuin'). The actions of tbr 
Roman law, called Legitimae, or Legi« Actiones. « 
founded on the provisions of tha Twelve Tables, and • 
demand of the complainant could only be made in 
precise terms which were used in the Tables. (Gaici. 
11.) The rights of action were consequently very lim* 
and they were oiily subsequentlv extended by the E-. 
of the Piaetors. Tne brevity and obseunty of this mii: t 
legislation rendered interpretation necessary in order to ^ 
the laws any application ; and both the interpretation of t. 
laws and the framing of the proper forms of action belor.. 
to the College of Pontiflces, who yearly appointed a men ^• 
of their own body to decide in all doubtful cases. 7. 
civil law was thus still inseparably connected with thai ' 
religion (Jus Pontificium), and its interpretation and t*. 
knowledge of the forms of procedure were still the exdu.- 
possession of the patricians. 

The scanty fragments of the Twelve Tables hardly en;^ - 
us to form a judgment of their character or a proper estiis t 
of the commendation bestowed on them by Uicero (De '•■ 
i. 43). It seems to have been the object of Uie comp.: • 
to make a complete set of rules both as to religious and • . 
matters; and they did not confine themselves to what ' 
Romans called private law, but they comprised also ptl 
law. (' Pons publici privatique juris,' Li v., iii. 34.) 1 . « | 
contained provuions as to testaments, successions to iw.^ i 
tales, the care of persons of unsound mind, theft, bc/n 
cide, interments, &a 

They also comprised enactments which affected a ms - 
status, as for instance the law contained in one of the :■ 
last Tables, which did not allow to a marriage rontra^: 
between a patrician and a plebeian the character of a Wi , 
Roman marriage, or, in other words, declared that betw«* 
patricians and plebeians there could be no Clonnubi. 
Though great changes were made in the Jus Publ:.- 
by the various enactments which gave to the plebeian^ . 
same rights as the patricians, and by those which cunxi:' 
public administration, the fundamental principles of iLt . 
Privatum, which were contained in the Tables, rcma 
unohanged, and are referred to by jurists as late as the i. 
of Ulpian. 

The old Leges Regiae, which were collected into one V 
by Papirius, were commented on by Granius Flaccus it 
time of Julius Cspsar (Z>r^., 50, tit. 16, s. 144), and :: 
they were probably preserved. The fragments of thr-i- .  
have been often collected, but the best essay upon tl.tri 
by Dirksen, * Versuchen xur Kritik und Auslegung 
Quellen des Romischen Rechts,' Leipzig, 1823. Ibr i . 
ments of the Twelve Tables also have iMen often collet 
The best work on the subject is that by James Godefio) i J- 
Gothofredus), which, with the more recent work of D: • 
sen, * Uebersicht der bisherigen Versuche sur Kritik 
Herstellung desTextes der Zwolf-Tafel-Fragmente,* Le.: • . 
1824, seems to have exhausted the subject 

For about one hundred years after the Legidation mT ' 
Decemviri, the patricians retained their exduaive po>M^^ 
of the forms of procedure. Appius Claudius Casrus J* • 
up a book of the forms of actions, which it is mkI : 
his clerk Cnaeus Flavins stole and pubUsbed ; the f*: 
the theft may be doubted, though that of the publirat.K 
the forms of procedure, and of a list of the Dies Fastt 2 
Nefasti, rests on sufficient evidence. The book thus la 
public by FUivius was called Jus Civile Flavianum ; 
like that of Papirius it was only a compilation. The i > 
lication of these forms must have had a great effect oc '  
practice of the law: it was in reality equivalent to an e\:r 
sion of the privileges of the plebeians. Subsequentlv >: 
tus Aelius published another work, called ' Jus Aelum. . 
which was more complete than that of Flavins. This « ^. 
which was extant in the time of Pomponius {Dt^., u <it - 
s. 2, ^ 39), was also called * Tripertita,' fh>m the cixcumi^ta: :t 
of its containing the laws of the Twelve Tables, a couilc. 
Ury upon them (interpretatio), and the Legia Actn ^ 
This work of Aelius appears to have been considereii ■• 
later times as one of the chief sources of the cnU '.« 
(veluti cunabula juris) ; and he received from his coowa- 
porary Ennius the name of * wise :' 

' Kiji^o Conlat'ii liomo Cattu Aelius StttttL,* 




making new laws by Senatiu ConfluUa prevailed under tbe 
CesarB after the lime of Augustus, and the Imperial Con- 
stitutions are mentioned as one of the reoognisea sources of 
law ia the time of the Autonines. (Gaius, i. 5.) 

With the establishment of the Imperial Constitution 
begins a new epoch in the Roman law. The leges of 
Augustus and those of his predecessor had some influence 
on the Jus Privatum, though they did not affect the 
fundamental principles of the Roman law. A Lex Julia 
came into operation, B.C. 13, but it is better known as 
the Lex Julia et Papia Poppaea, owing to the circumstance 
of another lex of the same import, but less severe in its 
provisions, being passed as a kind of supplement to it in the 
consulship of M. Papius Mutilus and Q. Poppaeus Secun- 
dus, A.D. 9. This law had for its object the encouragement 
of marriage, but it contained a great variety of provisions: 
it is not known whether it was passed at theComitiaCeniu- 
riata or Tributa. A Lex Julia de Adulteriis, which also 
contained a chapter on the dos, is of uncertain date, but was 
probably passed before the former Lex Julia came into 
operation. Several Leges Juliae Judiciariae are also men- 
tioned, which rdated both to Judicia Publioa and Privata, 
and some of which may probably belong to the time of the 
dictator Caesar. 

The development of the Roman law in the Imperial 
period was little affected by direct legislation. New laws 
were made by Senatus Consulta, and subsequently by the 
Constitutiones Principum ; but that which gives to this 
period its striking characteristic is the effect produced by 
tbe Respoosa and the writings of the Roman jurists. 

So long as the law of religion or the Jus Pontificiura was 
blended with the Jus Civile, and the knowledge of both was 
confined to the oatricians, jurisprudence was not a profes- 
sion. But with the gradual separation of the Jus Civile and 
Pontiftcium, which was partly owing to the political changes 
by which the estate of tbe plebeians was put on a level with 
that of the patricians, there arose a class of persons who 
are designated as Jurisperiti, Jurisconsulti, Prudentes, and 
by other 'equivalent names. Of these jurisconsult! tbe ear- 
liest on record is Tiberius Coruncanius, a plebeian pontifex 
maximus, and consul b.c. 281 : he is said to have been the 
first who professed to expound the law to any person who 
wanted his assistance (publiceprofiteri) ; he left no writings, 
but many of bis Responsa were recorded. Tiberius Corun- 
canius had a long series of successors who cultivated the 
law, and whose responsa and writings were acknowledged 
and received as a part of the Jus Civile. The opinions of 
the jurisconsulti, whether given upon questions referred 
to them at their own houses, or with reference to matters in 
litigation, were accepted as the safest rule by which a judex 
or an arbiter could be guided. Accordingly, the mode of 
proceeding, as it is described by Pomponitis, is perfectly 
simple ; the judices in difficult cases took the opinion of 
the jurisconsulti, who gave it either orally or in writing. 
Augustus, it is said, gave the responsa of the jurists a dif- 
ferent character. Before his time, their response, as such, 
could have no binding force, and they only indirectly ob- 
tained the character of law by being adopted by those who 
were empowered to pronounce a sentence. Augustus gave 
to certain jurists the respondendi jus, and declared that 
they should give their responsa 'ex ejus auctoritate.' In 
the time of Gaius (i., 7) the Responsa Prudentium had be- 
come a recognised source of law ; but he observes that the 
responsa of those only were to be so considered who had 
received permission to make law (jura condere) ; and he adds 
that if tney all agreed, their opinion was to be considered 
as law ; if they disagreed, the judex might follow which 
opinion he pleased. The matter is thus left in some ob- 
scurity, and, for want of more precise information, we can 
only conjecture what was the precise way in which these 
licensed jurists under the empire were empowered to de- 
clare the law. It is however clear, both from the nature of 
the case and the statement of Gaius, that their functions 
were limited to exposition, or to the declaration of what was 
law in a given case, and that they had no power to make 
new rule^iof law as such ; further, the liceused jurists must 
have formed a body or college, for otherwise it is not possi- 
ble to conceive how the opinions of the majority could be 
ascertained on any given occasion, 

Tbe commencement of a more systematic exposition of 
law under the empire is indicated by tbe fact of tlie exist- 
ence of two distinct sects or schooU (scholae) of jurists. 

*\ese seboola origintted uadar Aogustas, and the beads of 

each were respectively two distinguished jurists, Atitistiui 
Labeo and Ateius Capito. But the schools took tbcir iiani**^ 
from other jurists. The followers of Capito*a school, call . •! 
Sabiniani, derived their name from Massurius Sabinu^. x 
pupil of Capito, who lived under Tiberius and as late j« 
the time of Nero: sometimes they were called Caspian. 
from C. Cassius Longinus, another distinguished pupil . ' 
Capito. The other school was called Proculiani, from Procu- 
lus, a follower of Labeo. If we may take the authunt\ ' 
Pomponius, the characteristic difference of the two schjcU 
was this : Capito adhered to what was transmitted, that ;•, 
he looked out for positive rules sanctioned by time ; Labeo h- i 
more learning and a greater variety of knowledge, and ;. 
cordingly he was ready to make innovations, for he Li: 
more confidence in himself; in other words, he tvas a ph.- 
losophical more than an historical jurist. Gaius, «;. 
was himself a Sabinian, ofien refers to discrepancy i.' 
opinion between the two schools, but it is not easy to coliert 
from the instances which he mentions, what ought to Ik 
considered as their characteristic differences. 

The jurisprudentes were not only authorised expounders 
of law, but they were most voluminous writers. Ma^ouj^ 
Sabinus wrote three books Juris Civilis, which formed ii.e 
model of subsequent writers. The commentators on i:.e 
£dict were also very numerous, and amonz them are iIl 
names of Pomponius, Gaius, Ulpian, and Paulus. Ga.L% 
wrote an elementary work, which furnished the model a 
the Institutes of Justinian. Commentaries were also writte'j 
on various Leges, and on the Senatus Consul ta of the Im 
perial period ; and finally, tbe writings of the earlier jur>*> 
themselves were commented on by their successors. Th« 
long series of writers to whom the name of classical juri»i» 
has been given, ends, about the time of Alexander Scverus 
with Modestinus, who was a pupil of Ulpian. Some idtA 

from the 
and fruu 
the frag- 
ments which were selected by the compilers of that work, tL.« 
great mass of juristical literature is nearly lost. [Justin i an ' 

Among the sources of law in tbe Imperial period arc tbJ 
Imperial Constitutiones. A Constitutio Principis is dcfii:t i 
by Gaius (i. 5) to be ' that which tbe imperator has coQ>it- 
tuted by Decretum, Edictum, or Epistola ; nor has it e\e7 
been doubted that such constitutio has the force of lav/ 
As the emperor ultimately possessed all the sovereign puvcr. 
he became the sole source of law. Under Augustus son:« 
Leges were passed, as already observed ; and under bis t>u<-- 
cessors there were numerous Senatus Consulta. lu the time 
of the Antonines there were both Senatus Cousulta and l-ji- 
perial constitutions, and the latter are referred to by G*.u^ 
as being of equally binding force with Senatus Coosulu 
After the time of Gaius, Constitutiones became more cu'ji- 
mon, and few Senatus Consulta were passed. The Decrvtua 
of the emperor was a decision made m a matter of diapuU 
which came before him either originally or by way of appeal 
The Edict, or Leges Edictales, were formed by analog 
to the Ediota of the magistrates, and were in effect Legc» 
Rescriptum was a general term which compreheuded Ep ^ 
toln and Subscriptiones. The Rescripta were the answers « : 
the emperor, made either to public functionaries or to u. l- 
viduals who consulted him. Sometimes Constitutio u. 
Rescriptum are used as equivalent. (Gaius. iL 120, 12; 
Decreta and Rescripta, being decisions in particular caa«^ 
could not by their form have the force of leges; thoiu 
when the dietermi nation made in a particulu- ca&e ai> 
capable of a general application, it gradually obtained ti- 
force of law. 

With the decline of Roman jurisprudence beean t:. 
period of compilations, or codes, as they were termed. T. 
earliest were the Codex Gregorian us and Hermogenianu: 
which are only known from fragments. The Code\ Ga 
gorianus, so far as we know it, began with constitutio na • ' 
Sept. Severus, and ended with those of Diocletian a=! 
Maximian. The Codex Hermogenianus, so far as n .* 
known, contained constitutions also of Diocletian and M i\. 
mian, and perhaps some of a later date. Though iho 
codes were mere private collections, they apparently cjhp 
to be considered as authority, and the codes of Thi:Jdo>. i 
and J ustinian were formed on their model. 

Tbe code of Theodosius was compiled under the autl.%u:iv 
of Theodosius II., eoiperor of the East. It was prozuL: 
gated as law in the Eastern empire, A.a 436 ; and in \\^ 
same year it was oonfirmed as law in the Western empux: l>- 




excited the jemlonsy and emulation of tbe Eastern court, 
and when, two years after (a.d. 521), Justinian was made 
consul in tbe Ettrt, he strove to rival Eutaric in the splen- 
dour of the public games^ and th&sums which he distributed 
among the people of Constantinople. 

Under Thxodoeic more particulars are given of bis long 
and important reign ; here we confine ourselves to those 
which oonoem more especially the city of Rome. That pru- 
dent king strove to win the affection of tlie people of Rome 
br his liberality, his respect for their municipal customs and 
privileges, his deference towards the senat^ which was tbe 
supreme eourt of justice in his dominions, and his protee- 
lion of the Roman church and clerey. The works of Cas- 
siodorus, and the panegyric of Tneodoric by Ennodius, 
bishop of Pavia, are evidence of this. Illiterate hinkself. 
Tbeodoric encouraged literature and science, and it appears, 
from one of the leuers written in his name by Gassiodorus, 
tint a great number of studenti from distant countries 
repaired to Rome. Tbeodoric enacted that the students 
should not leave Rome till ibey had completed a certain 
ttfurse of studies according to their respective pursuits, 
which was probably ascertained by an examination, and 
this may have led« in course of time, to the establishment of 
academical degrees. Towards the end of his life Tbeodoric 
became suspicious, because he perceived, that notwithstand> 
ni^ all he had done for Italy, there was still in tbe hearts of 
the native Italians a dislike of foreign domination. It was 
then that the patrician Severinus Boetbius, being accused of 
treason, was tried and condemned to death by 4he senate of 
Rome, a sentence vhich was at first commuted by Tbeo- 
doric into perpetual imprisonment, but after a time Bdethius 
was put to death, and shortly after Tbeodoric put to death 
also the patrician Symmarhus, tbe fitther in-law of Boetbius. 
John I., bishop of Rome, on his return from Constanti- 
nople, whither Tbeodoric had sent him on a misaon to 
Juslinus, was imprisoned by bis order, probably on sus- 
picion of treasonable intelligence with the Bysantine court, 
and he died in prison at Ravenna, a.d. 526. The clergy of 
Rome having assembled to elect a successor, dissensions 
arose which threatened a renewal of the disorders that had 
taken place at the former election of Symmachus. Tbeodoric 
wrote to the senate of Rome suggesting Felix, a man of great 
merit, as a fit candidate, and his suggestion, which was like 
a command, was complied with. This was one of the last 
acts of Theodoric. He died at Ravenna, of a violent dysen- 
tery, in August of the same year. Before he died, he sent 
for his grandson Athalaric, then 10 years of age (Eutbaric 
had died before him), and causing bis chief officers, both 
civil and military, to swear allegiance to him, he exhorted 
them to maintain a good understanding with the emperor 
of the East, and to cherish the Roman senate and the Ro- 
man people. 

One of the first acts of Athalaric, or rather of his mother, 
Amalasontu, and her minister Gassiodorus in his name, was 
to signify his accession to the senate and the people of Rome. 
A letter was afterwards written to the senate expressing 
satisfaction that in choosing Felix for their bishop tbe Ro- 
mans had conformed to the desire of his grandfather, which 
had been expressed with a view to tbe public good by recom- 
mending to them a person well deserving of the pastoral 
dignity. Some years after, when Boniface II. died, he in- 
dicated in his will a certain Vigilius as his successor in the 
see of Rome. This however was resented by the clergy 
and people as an improper interference, and being set aside, 
John II. was elected, a.d. 532. But as much bribery and cor- 
ruption had been employe'l by tbe rival parties at the elec- 
tion, the senate passed a consultum forbidding under severe 
penalties any bribe or promi^e for the purpose of obtaining 
a nee, which was declared to be a sacrilegious offence. All 
such promi&es were alio declared to be void. Election 
disputes were to be decided by the senate or other judi- 
cial courts, but tbe expenses of tbe suit were not to exceed 
the sum of three thousand solid i« if it concerned tbe see of 
Rome, and of two thousand if it concerned other metropoli- 
tan aecs. This decree, with the sanction of Athalaric. was 
engraved on marble and placed in tbe front of the Vatican 
B.««ilica« Atlialarie left to the clergy and tbe people of 
R'tme the right of electing their bishop, but reserved to 
himself I hat of confirming the election. 

Amalasonta had bc^u her regency with great wisdom ; 
she had been carefully brought up, by her father's directions, 
and she cassed htrr son to be educated, after tbe manner o( 
tbe Romans^ in the liberal arts. It aeema howerer that tbe 

Gothic officers, who had not received a Roman educatioo, i: 
rather despised it as tending, as they thought, to make }-l 
weak and effeminate, remonstrated with the queen, ^% .. 
that thev wanted a warlike king and not a clerk ; tl««t l), 
doric, who could not write, bad governed bis stales with $'» * 
aikd that instead of surrounding Athalaric with pedants • 
ought to keep company with young men of his age > 
exercise himself in manly sports. Amalasonta was ob. .- 
to gire way, and the consequence was that Athalanc ^1 
himself up to drinking and debauehery, of which he '1.. . 
▲.D. 434 or 435. Amahiaonta named as her cdlea^e T'*- 
datus, a nephew of Tbeodoric, with the title of king. T I ^ 
datua had been guilty of extortion in Tuscany, for wbic'. 
had been tried at Ravenna and condemned to refund i 
ill-acquired riches. But he was tbe last lemnaot of t- 
fiunily of Tbeodoric, and Amalasonta had no choic*^. H 
showed himself ungrateful, joined a party against A at 
sonta, arrested her, and confined her in an itdand in * 
lake of Bolsena, where she was soon after straDgle«l. 1 trt 
datus did not long enjoy the fruits of bis guilL Just;.. - . 
seeing a frvourable opportunity for recovering Italy tu : 
empire, ordered Belisarius to occupy Sicily, sent v:r'. 
troops to occupy Palmatia, and concluded an alltance « ' 
the Franks •gmnst the Goths. Belisarius. bavinf; ta«' 
possession of Sicily, landed at Rhegium in Southern Ita > 
and advanced towards Naples. Theodatua at first m^ 
secret proposals to Justinian to give up tbe kingdom f - ; 
pension, but he afterwards altered his mind, and sent \ .. 
ges, one of the veteran officers of Theodorie, into Cam pal*. 
to oppose Belisarius. The Gothic troops, who despised ll:r > 
datus, proclaimed Vitiges their king, ajk 536. Theodat> 
was put to death, and Viliges married Matasunta, dausb.i 
of Amalasonta, and was acknowledged kine by the Gotb^ 

In the mean time Belisarius attacked Staples, took it . 
surprise, and gave it up to indiscriminate plunder ; he il.f 
advanced towards Rome. [Belisarius.] Tbe Gothic ^* 
risen eonsisted of only 4000 men, and the citixens, alarm 
at thA fate of Naples, offered to surrender. Tbe Got - . 
troops, unable to prevent this, evacuated the dty, wbtch S- I 
lisarius entered. He quickly set about repairing the wal.« 
dug a ditch round, and made every preparation for defenr-. 
Vitigea, who was at Ravenna, collected a large army, «.< 
which he marched against Rome in the following year. 1 ^ 
Goths battered tbe walls with engines in various places, b . 
they could not, says Procopius. completely surround the c::^ 
owing to its vast circuit. They cut off the aqueducts i- . 
stopped the mills outside of the walls ; but they allowed : 
rine lervice to be performed as usual in the churches of N . 
Peter and St. Paul outride the gates. Scarcity hem? :« 
within Rome, Belisarius embarked the women, cbiU!:'' 
and other helpless persons on the Tiber, and sent tht-ra * 
Naples and Sicily, without any impediment being offere<. 
the besiqpers, as it appears. Belisarius committed an aci 
violeneeagainstSylverius,bishop of Rome, whom he anv«- 
on pretenee of a conspiracy, stripped him of his epi«r r 
robes, and banished him to ^atara in Lycia. This n as «i 
at the desire of the empress Theodora, who favoure«l ' • 
natriarch of Constantinople, Anthemus, and others who ri. 
been condemned as heretics by Sylveriua Belisarius r. 
voked tbe council of the clergy of Rome for tbe purpo»r 
electing a new bishop, and suggested the deacon V ig U lus, « ) 
bad been intriguing at the court of Constantinople, as a pn > 
penoiL This suggestion was equivalent to a command, s' 
Vigilius was elected in November of that year. Surb . 
act of violence had not been perpetrated before, althoi:«< 
the Gothic kings were Arians. The siege of Rome still n '• 
tinned, and the citizens were afflicted both by famine i' 
pestilence ; but reinforcements being on their way to j 
Belisarius, Vitiges thought it prudent to conclude a tr.^ 
A supply of provisions came up the Tiber to Rcme, togct'k* 
with a reinforcement of a few thousand men. In the ' 
lowing n^ar, 536, Justinian ordered Sylverius to be m: 
back to Rome, and his case to undergo a fresh inwestigat. 
But Theodora and Vigilius prevailed upon Belisarius to S. 
nt»h him again to tbe island of Pontia, some say Palmar .. 
where be died of starvation in June of that year. \'tg.l ^ 
was now universally acknowledged bishop of Rome. .\ 
lieutenant of Belisarius having effected a diversion aga.r«- 
the Goths in Picenum, and taken Ariminum and other plan-^ 
Viliges raised the siege of Rome, and moved to the north 
Italy, where the war was carried on for some time lon^c 
Milan, having revolted against the Goths, was retaken : ^ 
the iieph«w of Vitiges^aad given up toindiscrtminau 




ft monk in order to jave his lifo. The 'Bxarch tent troo|>t 
from Ravenna againit Rgpe, but thej were met on their 
way by the Longobardt oRie duchy of SpoletOt and obliged 
to retire. Luitprand, king of the Longobardt, thought of 
availing himself of theie distentions to extend bis own 
dominion and drive the Byzantines from Italy, and he took 
the part of the pope. The pope however does not teem, as 
Theophanes iByxani, Hut.) has insinuated, to have ^' 
couraged any open revolt against the emperor, and he is 
said even to have prevented the imperial troops, which were 
stationed at Ravenna and in the Venetia, from pioclaiminff 
another emperor. (Paulas Diaconuii, vi. 49.) Luitprand 
however besieged Ravenna, and took it, but it was soon 
after retaken by the Byzantines, with the assistance of a 
Venetian squadron (a.d. 729). Peace being concluded be- 
tween Luitprand and the Exarch Eutychiut, they both pro- 
ceeded to Rome, in order to restore that city and duchy, 
which were in a ttate of revolt, to the imperial allegiance, 
which was effected without much opposition, the pope acting 
as mediator. 

Gregory III., who succeeded Gregorjr II* in 731, con- 
tinued to maintain the use of images, in opposition to the 
emperor, who teems not to have nad the means of en- 
ibrcing his orders in Italy, as he had done in the East. 
The dispute therefore became merely one of words, and 
Rome remained quiet, and owned, at least nominally, the 
emperor as her sovereign. About the year 739, Trasimund, 
duke of Spoleto, having revolted against king Luitprand, 
the latter marched to SpoIeCo, and Trasimund escaped to 
Rome. Luitprand demanded the person of the fug^itive, 
but the pope and the imperial ^vernor, according to Ana- 
stasius, in his ' Historia Ecclesiastica,' refused to give him 
np, and, some time after, Trasimund, with the assistance of 
the duke of Benevento and of the Romans, recovered his 
duchy. This brought on a rupture between Luitprand and 
the Romans, and the devastation by the Longobards of part 
of the Roman duchy, which induced pope Gregory to think 
of applying for support to Charles Martel, whose fame was 
great in the West, especially after his defeat of the Sara- 
cens at Poictiers. Gregory sent an embassy to Charles 
• Martel, about the year 740, with presents and the keys 
of the sepulchre of St. Peter, and with an offer of irans- 
fbrring the allegiance of the duchy of Rome from the em- 
peror to him, provided Charles would protect Rome against 
the Longobaros. It does not appear that Charies inter- 
fered actively in this business, but he sent an embassy to 
the pope with rich presents. This however was the beginning 
of the connection of the popes with the kings of France. On 
the death of Gregory, his successor, Zacharias, adopted a 
different course of policy, and, instead of applying ibr assist- 
ance from beyond the Alps, sent an embassy to king Luit- 
prand, to beg of him to let the duchy of Rome have peace, 
and to propose at the same time to unite the forces of the 
Romans with his against tl\e duke of Spoleto. It appears 
that the citizens of Rome, independently of the imperial 
garrison sent from Ravenna, had their own militia, 
which must have been of some importance, as we hear 
repeatedly of its acting in the field, either apinst or 
with both Longobards and Greeks. Much confusion how- 
ever arises through Faulus Diaconus and other old 
chroniclers applying indiscriminately the word Romans to 
all the subjects of the emperor in Italy, as well as to his 
soldiers, for the Eastern empire was still called Roman. 
Thus we hear of the Romans defeating the soldiers of 
Luitprand near Ariminum and Fanum, which probably re- 
fers to the imperial troops under the exarchs of Ravenna. 
Luitprand accepted the offer of Zacharias, and the united 
Longobard and Roman fbrces compelled Trasimund to sub- 
mit Luitprand obliged him 'to take clerical orders, and 
appointed his nephew duke of Spoleto. 

rope Zacharias had an interview with Luitprand at Orta, 
when the king received him with great honours, and restored 
all the prisoners made in the preceding war, not only those 
belonging to the duchy of Rome, but also those belonging 
to Ravenna and its territory. At the same time Luit- 
prand restored several towns and domains belonging to the 
duchy of Rome, which he had occupied, but he gave them 
in writing as a donation to St Peter, and not to the 
duchy or the empire. The duke of Chiusi and other 
personages of his court were sent to escort the pope back to 

In the following year, 742, the Exarch of Ravenna, with 
whom Luitprand waa ttUI at war, unable to resist the 

Losigobarda, appealed to the pope to mediate between tl* " 
and Zacharias repaired with tome difficulty to Pa^ia, *i - 
he prevailed on Luitprand to make a truce with * 
Exarrh, and to rettore tome dittriets belonging to R 
venna, and two^thirds of the territory of Cetena ; the ; 
wat to retain the other third until the rat am of the .. 
baatadon whom he had tent to Constantinople. 

Luitprand died about 743. He was one of the ablest r 
wisest kings that the Lonjmbardt ever had. Hie aucrt- . 
Ratchit,' at the recommendation of the pope, concluded 
744, a truoeof twenty yeart with the Eattem emperor, f . 
yeart afterwardt however Ratchit, for reasons which i 
not known, broke the truce, invaded the Pentapohs, ^ 
besieged Perutia. Zachariat with part of his clerg> ^- 
paired to hit camp, and there prevailed on the king to res* ^ 
peace. Soon after Ratchit abdicated the crown, and re; r. 
to Monte Cassino, where he became a monk. His \>tv\ 
Astolphus succeeded him, and peace waa maintained ss ) ' . 
at Pope Zachariat lived. His tuecessor Stephen III. «^ 
either not so conciliating or not to tuccettful, for aoou r: 
his accession (a.d. 753, according to others 752), war br -f 
out again in Italy, Astolphus became master of Raver.i 
and threatened Rome, demanding her submission a:.. . 
capitation tax from all the inhabitants of the duchy. Ar * 
some fruitless ne|;ociations. Pope Stephen repaired to Pz^  
with John Silentiarius, an imperial commissioner, but A*t 
pbus was deaf to their remonstrances. The pope theri w. 
to France, where he crowned Pepin, the son of Cha: •> 
Martel, king, declaring him and his two sons Charlo i: 
Carloman patricians of Rome. (Pspm lb Bksf.] P- 
Stephen at the same time pleaded his canse with Pt . . 
agamst the Longobards, and it was resolved in a count .'. 
the Prankish ncmlet to make war againtt Astolphus IV^ 
entered Italy with a large arm^, and Astolphus shut biia^ 
up in Pavia. After a wort siege, a treaty was conclu 'i>. 
by which Astolphus promised to leave Rome in peace, a: 
to restore the towns of the duchy which he had seised. Pey - 
whose forces were led by turbulent nobles, waa obliged to * 
cross the Alps, and Astolphus broke his promise, anrl - 
the year 755 he besieged Rome and devastated ita temti>'> 
The pone despatched by sea messengers with an auiogr:; 
letter aadressed to Pepin, hit sons, and the whole Fnink.> 
nation, reouesting them in the name of St. Peter to de{e . 
Rome ana the oburcb. Pepin again crossed the A/ 
Astolphus retired to Pavia, and soon after concluded a i c 
treaty, by which he engaged to pay a large sum of id*:' ^ 
and not only to restore all that belonged to the dud-. 
Rome, but also Ravenna and the Kxarchate to the »< 
St Peter. In the mean time Constantino, emperor uf '• \ 
East, had sent ambassadors to the Franks, who, on ar/. . 
at Marseille, were surprised and grieved to find that Pc^ 
had already crossed the Alps. One of them, called Grir^ ^ 
overtook Pepin near Pavia, and urged the restoration u' 
Exarchate to his matter. Pepin replied that he had alrtr. 
given It to St. Peter, and dismissed the ambassador. Tbr .. 
of donation of the Exarchate, the Pentapolis, and the : • 
of Comacchio was made by Pepin. [Papal State.] I.. '- 
following year, 757, Astolphus died, and Desiderius, Juk 
Istria, was proclaimed king of the Longobards. De^siV.: 
reAised to observe the stipulations of Astolphus, and rcta 
several towns of the Exarchate; he also refused to re< - 
the domaiira of the church situated in his kingdom, v. « 
went by the name of ' Justitiee beati Petri.* A convex 
however was entered into between Desideriua and the \ • 
about the year 760, and a letter of thanks was sent to ?" • 
in the name of the senate and the people of Rome fo; -  
effectual protection. 

In the year 767, after the death of Pope Paul U a v 
graceful scene took place in Rome. Toto, duke or gou-: 
of Nepi, entering Rome with a body of men, coiopc - 
several bishops to ordain and consecrate his brother L • - 
stantine, a layman, and he put him in possession of ihi I-- 
teran. Others of the clergy escaped, and applied lo - 
Longobard duke of Spoleto, who in the next year >e. '< • 
party of armed men, who defeated and killed Toto. I • 
clergy then elected Stephen IV., and tUo mob tore to p * ^* 
Constantino and his adherents. 

In the year 768 Pepin died, and wat tucceeded by bi> *' 
sons, Charlemagne and Carloman, but the latter >- • 
after dying, Charlemagne remained sole king of the Fra:u ^ 
monarchy. A fresh quarrel broke out between DeM«le: * 
and Pope Adrian I^ and Desiderius advanced with an a •* 
as far as Oiriculum. The pope tent three bishops to thrta: 


U O M 



tr As crowned king of Italy, at Pavia, by a council of bishops, 
and afterwards repaired to Rome, where he was crowned 
emperor by pope Stephen VI., in February, 891. Pope 
Sieplien soon died, and a double election followed, one part 
of ihe clergy and people of Rome choosing a deacon named 
Sergiua, and another electing Formosus, bishop of Porto. 
Formosus remained master of the field, and Sergius fled to 
Tuscany. In 894 Arnulfus came to Italy from Germany 
wiih a large army, being invited both by pope Formosus 
and by Berengarius. He took Brescia and Ber^^mo, the 
latter by storm: his German soldiers committed the greatest 
atrocities, which so frightened the other towns of Lombardy, 
that they opened their gates. On the death of Guy, his son 
Lambert remained to dispute the crown against both Be- 
rengarius and Arnulf. In 895 Amulf repaired to Rome, 
drove away the partisans of Lambert, who had occupied 
the Leonine or Vatican suburb, and was received at the 
Milvian bridge with great honour by pope Formosus and 
the Roman senate. He was crowned emperor by Formosus, 
and received the oath of allegiance of the city of Rome. 
Retreating to the north, he crossed the Alps into Germany, 
his troops being harassed on their march by the revolted 
population of Lombardy. The history of Italy during the 
falter part of the ninth and the first part of the tenth cen- 
turies is extremely obscure and oonfUsed, and it is hardly 
possible to ascertain dates and facts accurately. In the year 
697, pope Stephen VIL, who had disinterred the body of 
his predecessor Formosus, and thrown it into the Tiber, 
was seised by the revolted Romans, cast into prison, and 
strangled. [FoRirosu<3-] John IX., in a council held at 
Rome, annulled the election of Amulf, and confirmed that 
of Lambert as lawfiil emperor. In the same council it was 
again decreed that no pope elect should be consecrated with- 
out the Imperial sanction ; and it was likewise forbidden, 
under pain of canonical censure, and of the Imperial dis- 
pleasure, to strip the pontifical palace at the death of a pope, 
a practice whicn was become customaryon the part of the 
relatives of the deceased, not only in Rome, but in other 
Italian sees. 

Pope John then proceeded to Ravenna, where he met 
Lambert, and held another council of seventy-four bishops, 
in which, among other things, it was decreed that every 
Roman should be at lilierty to appeal to the Imperial court. 
Lambert, on his part, confirmed the pope in the possession 
of the lordship or Rome, the Exarchate, and the Pentapolis. 
In the following year Lambert was killed while hunting, and 
Berangarius was acknowledged by most towns as sovereign 
of Italy. 

In the year 899 the Hungarians entered Northern Italy, 
committed dreadful ravages, and defeated Berengarius. In 
the same year Ludovic, or Louis, king of Provence, came 
into Italy, was proclaimed king at Pkvia, and in the ibllow- 
ing year was crowned emperor at Rome by Benedict IV., 
where he also administered justice to those who resorted to 

In the year 902 Berengarius re-appeared in the field, de- 
feated Ludovic at Verona, and 'took him prisoner, but 
allowed him to return to Provence. After the death of 
Benedict IV., at Rome, the usual disorders took place on 
the election of his successor Leo V., who, after two months, 
was deposed and imprisoned by Christopher, his chaplain, 
who, in 904, was also driven away by another feotion, and 
Sergius lU. was elected pope. Sergius completely restored 
the Basilica of the Lateran, which had fallen to ruin. The 
Saracens fi«m Sicily were now devastating Southern Italy ; 
the Spanish Moors, having formed a settlement at Frassi- 
neto on the coast of Liguria, overran the neighbouring 
▼alleys of Piedmont ; and the Hungarians also crossed the 
Alps to devastate the plains of Lombardy. It was then that 
Berengarius permitted the towns to fortifV themselves with 
walls, ramparts, and ditches. At Rome, Theodora, a woman 
oC loose eharsoter, and her daughter Marosia, wife of Alberic, 
patrician, wero exercising considerable influence in municipal I 
and also in ecclesiastical affairs, and they brought about 
the election of John X., said to be Theodora s lover. [John 
X 1 Tliis pope crowned Berengarius emperor in the Va- 
tican with great pomp, ad. 916. About the same time the 
Saracens were completely routed and destroyed on the 
banks of the Liris, by the united troops of Berengarius, and 
of the dukes of Benevento, of Naples, and of Gaeta. 

In the year 921 several Italian nobles and the archbishop 

f Milan conspired against Berengarius. and called to the 

throne Rudolf IL, king of Burgundy. After much fighting. 

Berengarius was assassinated at Verona, in Iffarrh. s-; 
He was by all accounts a good, just, and humane princv. 
an age of barbarism. Hugh, duke of Provence, being cai. 
by a strong party, came into Italy, drove away Rudolt &• 
was crowned king at Milan, a-d. 926. During this pencil 
confusion Rome was left to itsdf and its fections. Man : 
and her second husband, Guy, duke of Tuscany, auppor . 
by armed partisans, and having possession of the castle of «« 
Angelo, ruled by force. The po|)e, John X., who had j 
ready quarrelled with the mait)uis Alberie, Mmrosia^s i • 
husband, was also in opposition to Guy. A party of V. 
rosia's satellites entered the Lateran palace, murdered P^ir 
the pope's brother, and dragged the pope to a duo jr.-. 
where ne soon after died ; it was said that he was smothej^i 
His successor Leo VI. died in a few months, and be a% 
was murdered, according to report. , Of Leo's succcKr 
Stephen VIL, nothing is known. To Stephen snccerii 
John XI., son of Marosia. Duke Guy being now dead« i 
brother Lambert succeeded him as duke of Tuscany ; \ .: 
king Hugh, his half-brother, being j«Uous of him, seo/i 
him, deprived him of his sight, and substituted his hrtntr 
Boson in the duchy. Hugh, who wished to have Roise i. 
his possession and to be crowned emperor, proposed i* 
marry Marosia, who aceepted the offer. Hugh caoe '* 
Rome, A.D. 931, was received by his bride in the castlt "^^ 
Angelo, having left his armed bands outside of the V3i:« 
He is said, by Luitprand, to have behaved insolently towards 
the Roman nobles, and to have given a blow in the face t 
Alberic, Maroxia's son, while the latter, by his mother** 
desire, was handing him a ewer and basin to wash h^ 
hands. Alberic conspired with the nobles against Hugh. 
and besieged him in the castle, from which Hugh esopeff 
by being lowered down the wall by a rope, and repairinj ;. 
his camp, quitted the duehy of Rome. Alberie placed Y * 
mother m confinement, and let his half-brother John \l 
attend to his duties as pope, but he allowed him no ^hare A 
temnoral power, and watched him closely. 

AJberic assumed the title of prinoe and senator of all xl* 
Romans, ' Dei gratia humilis princeps atque omnium R - 
manorum senator.' It is conjectured by some, that the 
senate of Rome consisted at that time of a certain number 
of counts, each of whom presided over a region, and xiat 
the ' princeps senatus,' or president, was alao the head D^ 

S 'strata of the whole city. (Conrigius Curtltis» De SeniOJ 
omano po9i TempuM Reipubliem Liberee,) Alberie tirwi 
money in his name, with the legend ' Albericus P.* He 
governed Rome till his death, which happened about x)t 
year 954, and he appears to have administered it wisely; h 
reformed many abuses, and above all ehecked thelieta* 
tiousness of the clergy and convents. King Hugh xnxt 
marohed against Rome, and devastated iu territory, but !k 
could not enter the city. At last Hugh, through h.« 
tyranny and debauchery, became odious to the Italians, viw 
called to their deliverance Berengarius, marquis of hrct. 
who had take» reftige in Germany. Berengarius %YT\\ti 
with some troops, and entered Milan, where many Italic 
nobles and prelates joined him. Hugh, who bad retired d 
Piavia, sent his son Lotharius to Milan, proposing to tismfcr 
the crown to that youth. The modest demeanour of L^ 
tharius so pleased the assembled people, that they unai .* 
mously proclaimed him king, but Berennrius exereised i1 
the authoritv in his name, a.d. 946. Hugh returned u 
Provence, where he died. In the year 949 or 950 LoibinM» 
died, not without suspicion of poison administered bj Be 
rengarius, who was proclaimed king, with hia son Adalbcr. 
as his colleague, and both where crowned at Pavia. Betcr- 
garius wished his son to marry Adelaide, the widow of U 
tharius, who was only twenty years of age. and on her refu>-fi 
he shut her up in prison. Her suflerings have been su: 
in Latin verse by a contemporary nun called Rosvida. A 

Sriest found access to Adelaide's prison, and led her out - 
isguise to Adhelard, bishop of Reggio, who gave her 
chaige to Asso, lord of Canossa, the great>grand&tb«r .. 
the famous Countess Matilda. Otho of Saxony, lung of i^e 
Germans, being informed of all this, came to Italy with -s 
armed force, in the year 951, defeated Berengarius, aiJ 
married Adelaide at Pavia, and in the following yesr re- 
turned to Germanv. He however allowed Berengariui t. 
retain the crown of Italy as his vassal, after swearing 
to Otho in the presence of the court and army, excepiu ; 
Friuli and the March of Treviso, which were kept bv 01' 
under his immediate dominion, -^tho himself bsniir*! 
to Berengaritts a sceptre of gold, wtoken of inrestiiure. 


I t 




in 1014. The ebnmieler IXtm&r mft that imknrwamtan^ f 
six of whom wore their beirds and the other six were iheven, 
escorted the emperor to ditireh with wandi in their bands. 
At the gate of the Vatican Basiliea,' Henry waa aaked whe- 
ther he would be the defender of the Roman ebureb, to 
which he replied in the affirmative. An affray howeTor 
took place between the populace of TUmm and the Gennan 
aoldiers, excited* it is said, by John, the son of Craseentius, 
in which many were killed. Henry returned to the North, 
Hardouin having withdrawn to a eonTcnt, where he died. 

In Rome idl civil affain were decided by the senate, but 
the more important poUtieal questions were referred to the 
pope or his vicar, and to the emperor, or his Ticar the prefect 
of the city (the ofBce having been restored by Otho l.)> who 
acted also as supreme judge in criminal matters, having re- 
ceived the investiture of the sword from the emperor for 
that purpose. 

Conrad II. of Germany, Henry's suece88or» was crowned 
king at Milan and emperor at Rome in 1027. On this oe- 
casion another affray took place between the Romans and 
the German soldiers, and many were killed on both sides. 
The Romans however were obliged on ^e following day to 
send to the emperor to beg his pardon : the members of the 
deputation were barefooted, the freemen with swords hang- 
ing at their neck, the serfe with halters. Conrad forgaxe 
them. In 1038 Conrad came again to Rome to restore pope 
Benedict IX., who had been driven away by a fiietion. 

Henry III., Conrad's sueoessor in Germany, was acknow- 
ledged king of Italy, but did not come to be crowned in the 
latter country for some years. In the mean time pope Be- 
nedict IX. had become so odious through his misconduct, and 
the robberies and cruelties committed by bis adherents, that 
the people of Rome drove him away, and elected for his sne- 
eessor John, bishop of Sabina, who styled himself Sylvester 
III. After six months Benedict returned with a strong 
snpport, and expelled his rival. But continuing in his evU 
courses, and seeing the general indignation roused against 
him, he sold the papal chair to John, or Gratianus, who as- 
sumed the name of Grec^ory VI., A.a 1044. [Bsnxdict IX.1 
Gregory, who is reckoned among the lawful popes, found 
Rome, on his accession, in a deplorable state. jThe property 
of the see of Rome had been plundered and alienated, so that 
he had hardly enough left for mere subsistence ; the roads 
were infested by robbers, and no one eould travel to Rome 
except with a large armed party, and the oflbrings made to 
the churches were seized by the factions. Gregory, after 
trying exhortations and excommunicatkms without any effeet, 
collected a force of both foot and horse, with which he 
hunted down the robbers. The people of Rome, accustomed 
to anarchy, called the pope a sanguinary man, and unfit to 
celebrate the sacred offices. At last Henry HI. came to 
Italy in 1047, was crowned at Milan, and then proceeding 
southwardii arrived at Sntri, where he convoked a council, to 
which Gregory VI. was invited. There were then no less 
than three popes ; Benedict IX., Sylvester IL, and Gregory 
VL The council deposed them all, and Gregory VI., on 
rising from his chair, laid aside of his own accord the pon- 
tifical robes. Henry entered Rome, and the clergy and the 
fkthers of the council chose Suidger, bishop of Bamberg, who 
assumed the name of Clement 1 1« and was consecrated on 
Chrbtmas-day : at the same time Henr}* was proclaimed em- 
peror, after which great feasts were given in the Lateran palace. 
I>uring the remainder of Henry's reign Rome enjoved com- 
parative trananillity. His son, Henry IV., yet an infant, suc- 
ceeded his fbtner in 1056, under the guardianship of his mo- 
ther Agnes. His minority was a troubled period for Rome. 
After the death of pope Stephen IX., in 1058, John, bishop of 
Velletri, an illiterate man, was tomultuously elected by the* 
name of Benedict X. Pietro Damiano, bishop of Ostia, and 
other cardinals, protested against the election as illegal, but 
they were obliged to run away for their Uvea. The empress 
Agnes sent to Italy the monk Hildebrand, whose reputation 
for learning and piety stood verybigb, charging him to act 
in concert with Godfi^y, duke of Tuscany, in order to adjust 
the controversy. A council was held at Siena, in which 
Gherardus, bishop of Florence, was elected pope under the 
name of Nicholas H. In the following year Nicholas pro- 
eeeded to Rome, and Benedict of his own accord resigned 
his claim. Shortly alter besan at Milan the schism con- 
eeming the marriage of the clergy « those of Milan followed 
the example of the Eastern church, which does not require 
eelSbacy of its presbyten. A deacon of the name at Arialdns 
formed a party agimst tht mumd cleigy, and eadted the 


people afpsinst then. Gnido^arclibiBiumoriftlnn,^^ nJ 
themairiedpfiest8,andeseommunieateaArialdiis» Ni«* « 
sent two legatee to Milan, who iiidocod the arehblabop :. ^j 
aist, and the nainageof the priesta waa forbidden. Bu: -. 
arrangement was only preeahoua, and thes^iam Inslec l ^ \ 
longer. Amnlphns SLnd Landnlphns Senior hnve gix-^ : 
aeeount of this ikmoua eontioveisv. fMnmton, A^-r. . « 
Senjploret, vol. iv.) In 1059 pope Nieholaa iaaued a d- - 
limiting the right of election to the eardinala. lenTinir  r 
evertotheiestof the dergjf of Rome the right of apf- • 
of the election. For the origin of and attentions ellet :r 
this institution see CAUxirAL. 

Nidiolas died in 1061. and much eontentiofi : . 
about the election of a saceessor. One party, with H 
brand at their head, eootended for a free eleetion. « 
waiting for the empeiDr^s consent ; another partv »-• 
Gemanv to aak Henry's Miprobation. At last H'dde 
pievailed, and Ansdmns, bishop of Lueea, wats electe. 
oonaeerated pope, under the name of Alexamler IL I 
the Romans asserted the right of free etoetioii, end . 
imperial eonflimataon waa no longer conssdered nert-s- 
for the eonseeration of the pope elect. The miz > 
of Henry, irritated at the conduct of the Romana, r*:.* 
to acknowledge Alexander, and at the sane tio:e 
Lombard bishops, especially those who irere fovour:. 
to the mairiage of the priests, had, with the aupport ci - 
imperial court, elected Cadalous, bishop of Puma, s pr^. . 
wealthy, but of loose principles, who assumed the nzm - 
Honorius IL Cadalous, having raiaed vrith his nocev :- 
armed force, marched in the following year to Rome. vl. 
he had many partisans, among others a eertain Pietr. . 
Leone, or Pierleone, a converted Jew, .very wealthy, bat > 
liked by the people as a usurer. Cbdalous delbated the :. 
tizans of Alexander, but Godfirey, duke of Tuscany, ba\ 
come to his assistance, Cadalous was obliged to retire, 
returned the following year, entered the Leonine town * 
suburb, and took possession of the caslle of 8. Ange/o. ' 
the people rising in arms, he was unable to enter the V a> :. 
Basilica, and he shut himself up in the castle, where bt^ * 
mained blockaded for neariy two yeaim. and at last e»cr 
by paying a large ransom. Alexander waa then nnn e 
acknowledged pope. He died in 1073» and was suci«^ 
by Hildebrand, who assumed the name of Gregory \ ' 
by which he is known in history. Soon after the fa: 
quarrel of the investitures broke out between the r i. .- 
and the empire. The events of Gregory's busy pent f . 
are related under Gksgort VII. Rome was e:<r. 
by force by the emperor Henry, in the year 10«'4, .' 
Guibert, archbishop of Ravenna, was eonsecrated ^ 
by the name of Clement III., and he afterwards ctq^ 
Henry emperor in the Vatican. On the appiDao-. 
Robert Guiscard, with his Normans, Henry withdiev :• 
Robert entered the city, but it seems that his soldien. :- 
especially the Saracen bands in his serviee^ oommttiri . 
sorts of atrocities, and that a part of Ilome extending ' 
the Lateran to the Colosseum was set on fire. When R 
retired from Rome to his dominions, Gregorr, not ihir -. 
himself safe, withdrew to Salerno, where he aied, a.o i* 
His successor. Victor III., was opposed by the ant.: 
Guibert, and the imperial party, who had posaession of ' 
Vatican and of the Capitol, until the countesa Matilda n: 
with her troops,when Victor entered Rome and took poss^ -^ 
of the city, which however he was soon after olsliged tu ! . 
again. He died at Monte Cassino, and his sueeessor. Vn 
IL, finally drove away Guibert Urban died in 10-9. : 
was succeeded by Paschal H. During his pontificate Ht. 
V. visited Rome to be crowned. aj>. II 10, and a srtcv 
outrage followed, which is related under PasChal II. 

In 11 16 we find Pietro di Leone applying to Pascl 
use his influence to have one of his sons appointed pret 
Rome. The people of Rome, who disliked Fierleooe 
his family, elected the son of the late prefect* a mere \ 
and presented him to the pope for his oonfirnoation. 1'- 
chal refused, and an affray followed during the hoN «• 
between the populace, led by Tolomeoi brother of tlW 
prefect, and the pope*s armed men. The country aiour. «i r 
in arms, and Pascfaal withdrew to Sesse. The mob »a » 
and destroyed the houses of Pierleone and his fomily. 

In the following year Henry V. came again to Rome 
was crowned by the archbishop of Braga, Paschal lu. 
fled to Benevento, which had become a fovourite pla^f 
residence of the popes. Henry won the hearts of the cl . 
Roman nobles by gUls and promisesi and eren g»v« one v: a > 



t «f 

i\ - 




itroyadthmn. Th&j >bolkhed tfie ofliee of prefea of Bom» 
and obligtd all the ooblei to swoar allegiance to the patrieian 
Giordano. Eugeniua exeommunieated Oiordano^ and in tkm 
following yoar, being lupported by Ibe people of Hbor, lie 
returned to Rome oy virtue of a convention in which he 
recognised the senate as a Ic^gislative body, and the Romans 
agreed to dismiss the patrician, restore the jpiefSKtship, and 
acknowledge the pope as their sovereign. But this concord 
was precarious, and in 1146 Eugenius was obliged to quit 
Rome. He returned again in 1149, but was soon obliged 
to leave it, and take refuge in Campania. St Bernard, in 
his book ' De Consideratione,' which he addressed to Eu- 

Enius in his exile, observed that the perverseness of the 
imans had been notorious for centuries, that they were * a 
people unused to peace, fond of tumults, intractable and 
remorseless, not knowing how to obey unless they could no 
longer oppose resistance.' In 11^2 Eugenius returned to 
Rome under a convention, the terms of which are not 
known ; and he applied himself to gain the affection of the 
lower orders by his liberality, and ' he would have succeeded,' 
says a contemporary chronicler, * in upsetting the senate, 
had not death cut him short in the same year.' Before his 
death he is said to have concluded a convention with the 
new king of the Germans, Frederic I., by which the latter 
bound himself not to enter into any agreement with the 
people or senate of Rome, nor with Roger of Sicily, with- 
out the participation of Eugenius or his successors, and to 
defend the rigbta of St. Peter ; and the pope on his part 
promised to crown him emperor. (Vitale, Sloria Diploma- 
tica dei Senatori di Roma.) Of Anastasius IV., who suc- 
ceeded Eugenius, little or nothing is known. He died in 
1154, and was succeeded by Nicholas Breakspeare^ bishop 
of Albano, an Englishman, who assumed the name of 
Adrian IV. The senate was then in the plenitude of its 
power ; money was struck with the beads of St. Peter and 
St. Pkttl on one side, and the legend ' Senat. P. Q. R.' on the 
other ; all acts wore done in its name, and the years were dated 
from the restoration of the senate, ' Anno . . . Seuatus.' 
It appears that the senators were fifty-six in number, an- 
nually renewed or confirmed, they were elected by a body 
composed of delegates, ten from each region of the city. 
The president of the senate was styled ' Dei Gratia Summus 
Senator ;' it appears also that there were consuls chosen from 
among the senators. 

An affray which took place in Rome soon after Adrian's 
election, and in which a cardinal was mortally wounded, in- 
duced the new pope to leave Rome, which city he placed 
under an interdict, forbidding divine service to be celebrated 
within its walls. This novelty, which had never occurred 
at Rome, made a great impression on the minds of the peo- 
ple, who sent away Amaldo, and invited the pope to return 
and remove the interdict. In 1155 Frederic I. came to 
Rome to be crowned, accompanied by an army. Before he 
entered the city, he gave orders that Arnaido» who had 
taken refuge in Campania, should be tried as a heretic. 
The count of Campania gave him up to the prefect of 
Rume, by whose sentence he was hanged, his body burnt, 
and the ashes scattered to the wind. The circumstances 
attending Frederic's coronation are given under Adrian 
IV. Frederic spoke to the Romans as their master, but he 
could not subdue them ; his soldiers took possession of the 
Vatican, but the people of Rome kept aloof from the 
ceremony of his coronation: they even assailed and killed 
a great number of the German soldieiii and both Frederic 
and the pope hastened away to Tibur. 

The wan of Lombardy prevented Frederic from attending 
to the aflkirs of Rome, and Adrian, having quarrelled with 
him on some points of jurisdiction, had no support to 
expect from him. Adrian durine the rest of his pontifi; 
cate was generally absent from Home, where probably his 
temporal authority was not great He died at Anagni in 
1159. His successor Alexander III., although duly dected 
by the majoritv, found a competitor in cardinal Octavianus, 
who, having bad some votes in his favour, and being 
secretly encouraged by Frederic's missi at Rome, assumed 
the pontifical robes, and took the name of Victor IV. The 
Frangipani and the people took the part of Alexander, who 
however was obliged to quit Rome, and was consecrated at 
Ntnfe. The anlipope was consecrated by some bishops 
of his party at Farfa in Sabina. Alexander returned to 
Rome in 1161, but finding that the antipope, supported 
by the emperor and bv manv of the Roman nobles and 
•emtflc% was matter or Ihfi Md, be went to Fn&ce. He 

left hoiwig f r a eaidinal na hia near at lloia, wbo took y*- 
session of the Vatkan. The antipoM died ml Laccs s 
1164, but a sueosMor waa appointed throwgh thw iaflncsce 
of Frederic, by the name of PSaaehal HI. In 1165 pop 
Alexander letomed to Roncb and was leea i Ted by ta 

_ and people with areit appbior 
Alexander was then at open vaiiaaee witS Predcrie, xk 
the Romans^ who disliked thai emperar ever aiiMe his lie 
visit, made comoMn cause with the pope. In 1 167 Fredcr> 
marched aptinst RoiBe» hut on his way he laid siejee -. 
Ancona, which had joined the league of the Loabard eta 
agpunst him» and which made a longresistaneeL The Ronai. 
attacked Tasenlnm and Alba, whidi towns were in hix-r 
of the Imperial perty. The count of Tusculam applied '< 
Raynaldus, aichbiahop of Cologne^ and Chraatian, trr • 
bishop of Maini, who eommanded the cmpeior'a forces - 
central Italy, and a battle took place near Ttaaeulom, - 
which the Roman militia, to the number, it is said, c»f 3o.i> 
were completely rooted bjy the Imperial troops and tbos . 
Tusculum, and their fess has been, by the exaggeration of :.  
contemporary chroniclers, compared with that of CsLca 
Soon alter, Frederic came in person, aooompanied \ 
the antipope Paschal; he forced the walls of tbe Vaiia^ 
hut found the Basilica strongly defended by the ' masiu^ 
of St. Peter's, that is to say, a hody of militia raittd ci 
the domains of the Roman see. After a week*a sicg«; tW 
German soldiers set fire to a tower cloae to the Pm'W. m 
the little garrison capitulated. Frederic bqginning to ii 
trigue with the leaders of the Romans. Alexander thoof » 
it prudent to quit the city. The Pisan gaUeya also sti^. 
up the Tiber as auxiliaries to Frederic, and the Roou'j 
then came to terms. Frederic confirmed the aenate u 
the municipal franchises of the city, and the Romam • t 
their part, with the exception of the Frangipani, the Pa- 
leoni, and some other nobles, acknowledged Frederic » 
emperor and king of the Romans. In the oalh teodocd > 
the occasion no mention appears of either pope or antipoi- 
The summer brought disnse into the empem'a camp, t: 
he withdrew to the north, leaving a prefect at Rome. I* 
the following year the Romans dMtroyed Alba; and in I : ' 
attacked Tusculum, which, in order to save itaelf, sorm 
dered to the pope, who waa then at Benevento. In IIT' 
pope Alexander made his peace with the emperor, and ac(^ ! 
as mediator at Venice between him and the JLonbard oin 
A truce for six years was agreed npon, which led aftcrrao 
to the femous peace of Constance (1183). The peopk .' 
Rome, seeing a good understanding restored hetween lie 
pope and the emperor, thought it prudent to come to a de> 
finitive arrangement with the finrmer, and sent a depotatr- 
to invite him to return to Rome. Alexander sent three txA- 
nals to confer with the senators on the subject, when it vat 
agreed, after long debate, that the senate should exist, b. 
that on the renewal of that bodv, at the next Sepleabr 
kalends, they should take the oath of allegianee to the p^< 
and the Roman church, and should swear to do nothing C90> 
trary to the papal dignity. The Vatican was restored to i^ 
pope, with all the righu of St. Peter. Alexander made .^» 
entrance into Rome, a.d. 1179, amidst popular aedamaUDs. 
In the year 1161, Alexanderdied; a pontiff distinguishrd*- 
his great qualities, and the events and length of his pooi> 
cate. He was succeeded by Lucius III., a weak man, w 
whose accession the Romans proposed to re-establish the off -t 
of Patrician as head of the senate, and as the first m^.* 
trate and chief of the administration of the city, indepeodi'S 
of the pope. Lucius opposed this measure, and was obl*«ri 
to leave Rome, and the Patrician was appointed. Luc .> 
died at Verona, in 1185. His successor. Urban IIL, vx* 
elected and consecrated at Verona, and he died in 1 167. i- 
Ferrara, without, it seems, having visited Rome. His ^.^ 
cesser, Gregory VIII., died at Pisa in the following v«s% 
and the auccessor of Gregory was styled Clement III. ' Us 
came to an arrangement with the Romans; one of the ac- 
ditions of which was that the senate should be oonfircKi, 
but that the senators elect were to receive the invc«tituM 
' per mantum* from the hands of the pone. Vitali gives t->i 
text of this convention, which is stylea 'Concordia,* da!ri 
the year 44 of the senate, with the names of all the seoatiCii, 
who signed it. The number of senators having ben^a 
much increased bv the ambition of belonging to that hc«2v« 
Celestine III., who succeeded Clement in 1191, decrrHl 
that in future they should not exceed fifky-aix. He at tb« 
same time solemnly confirmed and determined the pv^ro^^^ 
tivw of the aenate by a charter whioh ia found in MuiaiMf 





1304. however, finding that the fikctioni were still aetiye in 
Borne, and many crimee were oommiUed with impunity, he 
repaired to Perugia, where he died, and, as it was reported, 
hy poison. The interregnum lasted eleven months, the 
eardinals being divided l^tween those who wished for an 
Italian pope, and those who^ being in ikvour oi Philip of 
Franoe and Charles oi NaplM, wished for a French pope. 

The people of Femgia, tired of delay, kept the cardinals 
in arrest in the Gondave Hall* and threatened to stanre 
them if they did not come to a decision. The French party 
fievailed, and Bertrand, archbishop of Bordeaux, was 
elected. It is said Uiat he had promised to Philip le Bel to 
restore the Colonna cardinals to their dignities and posses- 
sions, to allow the kin^^ to dispose of the tithes ror five 
Years, to appoint a certain number of cardinals according to 
his pleasure, and, lastly, to remove the papal residence to 
France. Bertrand, who assumed the name of Clement V., 
dki net go to Rome ; he was consecrated at Lyon, and, 
having summoned the cardinals to France, fixed his resi- 
dcmoe at Avignon, aj>. 1805. For seventy years afker this 
the popes resided at Avignon ; and this pmriod was styled 
by some Italian writers tne Babylonian ei^tivity. 

JMod VII.j^The Bapal S90 at Aoignon, 1305*1376.— 
During this period Rome and its territory were administered, 
in quiet times, by the popes' legates: Uie great families Co- 
lonna, Orsini, and others held the chief authority in their 
hands, and the city was often a prey to &ctions and civil war. 
Two senators were elected anrraallyby the pope from among 
the great fiatmiiies, but in turbulent times they were chosen 
bv the people. In 1311, Henry of Luxemburg, king <^ 
Ciermany, commissioned Ste&no Colonna to uphold the 
Imperial or Guibeline party at Rome, preparatory to his 

foing there to be crowned emperor. The opposite party, or 
ruelphs, led bv the Orsini, aiid supported by Robert, king 
of Naples, had taken possession of S. Angelo, Borgo, the 
Vatican, and all Tranatevere, and also of the Capitol, and 
of the tower of the market, which was then at the foot 
of the Capitol. [Ossini.] The Colonna party fortified the 
Pantheon, the Colosseum, the Aventine, and the tower of 
MiUsia, which was afterwards enclosed within the monas- 
tery of Santa Catarina da Siena. 

The streets were bairicaded, and the whole town was in 
arms. At last Henry came, with a considerable force of 
men and horse, and partial combats took place between 
his troops and those of king Robert, but Henry, being 
unable to take the Vatican, was crowned emperor in the 
Latoran, by the papal legate, soon after which he left 

When Louis of Bavaria came to be crowned at Rome, 
accompanied by Castmocio Castracani, in January, 1328, 
the ceremony passed off more ()uietly. Louis, supported 
bv Sciarra CJolonna, took possession of the Vatican. From 
the Capitol he harangued the people, who elected him sena- 
tor and captain of the dty fbr one year. Louis was crowned 
in the Vatican by two bishops, who however had no papal 
commission for the purpose, and one of whom was even 
under an interdict The emperor appointed Castruecio 
senator and imperial vicar, and afterwards convoked a 
' parlamento,' or assembly of the people, in the square 
befbre 8l Peter's, in which he summoned John XXII., who 
was at Avignon, by the name of Jean do Cahors, or any one 
to answer for him ; but no one appearing, a syndic of the 
deigy demanded that the accused should be tried en eon- 
immaee^ as guiltv of heresy and high treason, and the em- 
penur pronounced him guilty, and a new pope or antipope was 
elected by the name of Nicholas V. [John XXII.1 It was 
also decreed by the emperor,with the hearty approbation of the 
peonle, that every future pope should reside at Rome ; and 
if absent fbr more than three months, should be considered 
as deposed. Louis however left Rome, Castruecio died, 
Nicholas renounced his daim to4he papacy, and pope John 
lecovered the aseendanev at Rome, altnou^ he continued 
to reside at Avignon. It was soon after this that the elec- 
tors (^Germany passed a resolution declaring that in future 
the king of Germany elect shottld be considered emperor 
and king of the Romans, without the sanction or consecra- 
tion of the pope. 

When Peter of Limoges was elected pope by the name of 
Clement VI., in 1342, we Romans sent him ambassadors, 
one of whom was Cola di Rienso, or Nicolas, the son of Lo- 
renso, a tavern-keeper, to beg the restoration of the papal see 
to Rome. Petrarca, who was at that time residing at Rome, 
whase he had received the poetical crown in the Capitol 


from the hands of one of the senators, also unaaoees^ 
exerted himself to induce the pope to return to that c:)i 


In 1347 began the insurrection of Cola di Rienso. R 
in the protracted absence of the popes, was left a pr 
its Actions, each of whom chose one of the two sena!< 
and it may be easily imagined that little harmotiy 8ub< > 
between those two head magistrates. Cola wraa a mx- 
warm imagination, imbued with vague and confused ni>; 
of the fbnner glory of Rome, and endovrad with na: 
eloquence. He began to declaim in public agminst the ' 
orders of the nobles and the tyranny of fSictions. The p<r : 
named him by acclamation their tribune. He went t. 
Capitol, drove away the senators, and assumed the ti: t 
' Nicholas, severe and clement, liberator of Rome, i<ai 
fbr the weal of Italy, fWend of the world, tribune ao^'u< 
He appointed various magistrates, mostly deserving l • 
and put to death several factious leaders who were coot ; 
of heinous crimes, and obliged the rest to swear obedit 
to him, under pain of banishment. He also aent aniba» 
dors to various towns and princes, for the purpoee of fore.. . 
a union of all Italy. Perugia, Aresio, aiid other r: 
submitted to him ; and he threatened with war \uc .- 
which refused allegiance. He summoned Gemeot V.' 
with the cardinals to return to Rome ; and he also s :. 
moned Louis of Bavaria, Charles, king of Bohemia, sou ' 
electors of Germany, to state their reasons fbr pretcD-i .. 
to elect the emperor. To the papal vicar at Rome, whv \- 
monstrated with Cola upon his presumption, he answr 
that he was inspired by the Holy Ghost, and that he :' 
lowed its dictates. He arrested the heads of the fkxDL 
Savelli, Orsini, Colonna, and others, and threatened tl.z 
with death ; but he only banished them. The exile« r - 
looted and armed their feudal dependanta, and marc:, 
against Rome ; but the people, led by Cola, issued out 
Porta S. Lorenzo, defeated them, and killed sereral of > 
Colonna. In the following year however. Cola having c- 
with a check at the siege of the castle of Marino, vrh.- 
belonged to the Colonna, his enemies, stirred by Ibe p- 
legate, excited a revolt against him. Cola's soldiers «*. 
overcome, and he withdrew into the castle 8. Angelo. f > 
which he escaped, disguised as a monk, into the Abixiz 
The Colonna re-entered Rome ; and Stefanuceio, or Stc. 
nello Colonna, restored the city to the papal aUegit^-> 
annulled all the acts of the tribune, and appointed two sk-^- 
tors, one of the Orsini and one of the Colonna. C^'j 
Rienzo, being taken, was confined in a prison at Ati^* . 
In 1348 Queen Joan I. of Naples sold Avignon and its icr 
torv to the papal see for 30,000 golden florins. 

In 1353 a tumult broke out at Rome, in conaequenoe /* 
scarcity ; and one of the two senators, Bertoldo degli On: 
was killed by the mob. Stefanello Colonna escaped. I 
the same year Pope Innocent VI. sent Cardinal Gil A>b . 
noz, his legate, to Italy, to restore the papal authority. H 
took with him Cola di Rienzo, to assist him in (\w.e: . 
Rome. Cola repaired to Rome in 1354, being appot/-> 
senator by the pope. Cola took possession of Rome. .- 
put to death Fra Moriale, a famous condottiere, who ' 
oeen guilty of much violence and extortion. The 0>! . 
however were still his inveterate enemies, and Cols l^ 
rashness ruined himself. He laid a fresh duty upon v 
he caused Pandolfuccio di Guide, a man much belovcc ' 
the people, to be beheaded on slight grounds ; he ber^ 
suspicious and cruel ; and the people, disgusted with '. 
rose in September, 1354, burnt his boose, attacked h:T£ 
the Capitol, and having caught him as he was escaping 
disguise, stabbed him to death. The acts of Cola di Itr 
constitute a very interesting episode in the history of m<y.  
Rome. His life, written in the Romanesco, or dialect of 
lower classes of Rome, is inserted in Muratori's great ~ 

The papal authority was now re-established in R< : 
and in 1358 it was decided that there should be onb 
senator yearly appointed by the pope, and that he wa* t 
a stranger, and unconnected with any of the patrician ' i 
lies of Rome. But fbr many years after, Rome beini: 
quently disturbed by insurrections, the pope had seld^s 
opportunity of appointinj^ the senator, and the people •■ 
the appointment in their own bands. In 1367 Urbar '• 
came to Rome, where Albornos had prepared erepv 
for his reception. [Albornoz.I The pope found Ron. 
a sad state, full of ruins, half deserted, and exhibiting 
the traces of half a century of anarchy. In 13*0 L* - 




tive8» having collected their feudal retainers, assailed the 
city ; hut they could not enter it, and all their houses and 
those of their friends in the town were plundered by the mob. 
In 1433, Fortehraccio, a captain of the pope, revolted, seized 
Tivoli, and threatened Rome ; and in the following year 
Francesco Sforza, the son of Attendolo, pretending to act in 
the name of the council of Basl^ which was at open va- 
riance with the pope, occupied the whole of Umbria, as far as 
Otricoli. Upon this Eugenius sent his secretary Biondo, the 
historian, to treat with Sforza, and agreed to make him 
vicar for life of the March of Anoona, and gonfaloniere of 
the Roman Church. 

Another condottiere however, Picoinino of Perugia, urged 
secretly by Filippo Maria V isconti, who aimed at enlarging 
hi» dominions at the expense of the pope, joined Forte- 
hraccio with a body of horse, and advanced to the walls of 
Rome. The people, excited by the Colonna, and weary of 
the oppression of the papal officers, ran to arms, arrested 
Cardinal Condulmero, the pope*s nephew, and invested the 
pontifical palace, from which Bngenios had just time to 
escape, disguised as a monk, to Ostia, where he embarked 
for Tuscany. Fortebraecio and his bands entered Rome, 
and gave themselves up to plunder and bloodshed, and all 
sorts of violence. The Romans, being weary of this dis- 
order, sent two bishops to the pope, to beg his return ; but 
the pope remained absent, delegating his authority to the 
Cardinal Vitelleschi, a bold unscrupulous man, who by 
means of the sword and the halter, restored peace to Rome 
and its territory, a.d. 1437. He reconquered Foligno and 
other towns for the pope, but at last he became suspected 
of a secret correspondence with the duke of Milan and 
with Piccinino, and the pope ordered his arrest. Vitel- 
leschi was mortally wounde4 in defending himself, and 
being taken into the Castle S. Angelo, died there, a.d. 1440. 
In 1443, Eugenius returned to Rome, where he opened a 
council in the Lateran. He formed an alliance with king 
Alfonso of Naples against Sforza and the Florentines, and 
thus contributed to keep all Italy in a state of confusion for 
several years longer. Eugenius died in 1447. His long 
contention with the council of Basle, and with the antipope 
Felix, and his other transactions as head of the church, are 
noticed under Eugbnius IV. He was the last pope that 
has been expelled from Rome by an insurrection of the 
people. He restored many churches and other buildines in 
that city. ^ 

His successor, Nicholas V., is one of the most illustrious 
m the long series of popes. He restored peace to Rome and 
to all luly, ended the schism with the antipope Felix, 
embellished Rome with useful buddings, restored the 
walls and the Basilica, and began the Vatican library : 
he may be considered as having begun a new »ra for 
Rome, in which the city recovered from the distractions 
and calamities of past ages, and became again a seat 
of learning, of the arts, and of polished society. [Nicholas 
V.J In 1462. Frederic HI. of Germany came to Rome, 
where he was crowned bv the pope, with great pomp, first 
as king of Lombardy and afterwards as emperor. He was 
the last emperor who was crowned at Rome, and the people 
were greatly rejoiced and almost astonished to see the coro- 
nation of a German emperor pass off without tumult and 

The last years of Nicholas's pontificate were disturbed by 
the news of the taking of Constantinople by the Turks, 
1453, and also by the conspiracy of Steiano Porcari, a Ro- 
naan noble and demagogue, which some writers have 
chosen to look upon as a patriotic effort to restore liberty 
to Rome, while others have considered it as the last struggle 
of the expiring factions led by ambitious nobles, who, flat- 
tering the populace by empty words of liberty and a re- 
public, had so often brought Rome to the brink of destruc- 
tion. Poroapi had once made an attempt at insurrection in 
the Piasxa Navona, and the pope had treated him leniently, 
mereW exiling him to Bologna. Here he kept up a corre- 
spondence wiih other exiles and maloontento,and appointed 
a meeting at his house at Rome, in January, 1453. Escaping 
from 0ologna, he repaired to Rome, attended by several hun- 
dred men, with whom he was to attack the Capitol, seize the 
pope, re-establish the senate, and renew in short the scenes 
of Crcvcnzio. Aiialdo da Brescia, and of Cola di Rienzo. 
Cardinal Bcssarion. leaaie of Bologna, however, having dis- 
eoverwl the flight of Porcari, haf sent information to the 
pope. The conspirators were seized in the midst of their 
noetumtl moetuig, with their arms and other evidence of 

their guilt» and Porcari and nine of hia aoaoeiales woe L 
on the battlementa of the Castle of 8. Angelo. 

Nicholas V. died in March, 1455. He left iht pi. 
power firmly established at Rome. He entrusted tb' . 
ministration chiefly to churchmen, and this system of t 
archical government has continued to the present dtv 7 
senator remained a lay magistrate, appointed by the r 
The senator must not be a native of Rome. His ;•.- 
diction has gradually dwindled to mlmost notkui^. . 
the governor of the city, who is a prelate, baa the %. 
police under his oontrol, and the aenator is otf. 
prniident of a court of premidre instanoe for civil nin- 
which is composed of himself and three conserraior. 
lay judges, generally noblemen, who are appointed bt • 
pope, and renewed every aix months, and of the prm 
caporioni, or head of the head-borougha of the foorx 
districta of Rome. This court, called Tribubale delCc 

Sidoglio, takes also cognizance of petty offences aoJt- 
emeanours. The senator has also the auperintond^ 
the markets, of the annual horse-raoea^ and atteaii : 
great processions and other public ceremonies. 

The sticcessoiB of Nicholsis V., during the lemaiodiT 
the fifteenth century, consolidated the papal power in K z 
and Alexander VI. and Julius II., at the beginning &; .. 
following century, extended it to the reat of the doauE^< 
of the See of Rome. [Papal State.] 

Nicholas V, was succeeded by CUixtus IH., wb<ye }> - 
tificatedoes not exhibit any important feature. Tbeb 
tory of the city of Rome henceforth becomes ideoM' 
with that of the popes, and maybe traced, in order of i 
under the heads of Pius II. ; Paul IL ; Sixtus IV. ; 1» 
NOCBNT VIII. ; Alkxandbb VI. ; and his nephew Ek}u ' 
(CxsARB) ; Jiaius II. ; Leo X.; and Clbmbnt VIL 

Under Clement VIL, Rome was stormed, in May, u. 
by an army of merce*nary and disorderly Germans^ led 
the Constable of Bourbon, who was in the service of Char- 
Vn but who led his freebooting bands against Rome vt'>- 
out any commission from the emperor, and with no oti>- 
object than to pay his troops their arrears by giving ibe ' 
the plunder of Rome. [Boubbon, Chablbs db.) This «i> 
the last storming and pdlage of Rome, but it was alio c^ 
of the most cruel. From 1527 till 1798 Rome was Dotr^ 
tered by any hostile army, nor exposed to any pohtica) r^- 
lution. Of the popes who sat m the papal chair dor/: 
this period of nearly three centuries, the most remarb- 
are : Paul III., Paul IV., Pius V., Gbbgort XIH, Stir* 
v., Clement Vm.. Paul V., Urban \UU IifNocxaTl 
Alexander VII., Clbmbnt IX^ Clbmbnt X., Iwjrwi^^ 
XL, Innocent XII., Clement XI., Benbdict XIU^ B> 
NEDiCT XIV., Clement XUL, Clbmbnt XIV, sod P.  
VI. Under Pius VI. Rome was occupied without an; m* 
ance by the srmies of the French executive Directory, uiu. 
though not actually pillaged by the soldiery, it was sbir* 
fully plundered in a more systematic manner b) ':• 
generals, commissaries, and other agents of the Dine^t^ 
In 1799 it was occupied by the Neapolitans, vbo :» 
made it pay dear for what they called ita deliverance b*:: < 
the French. 

In 1800 the new pope, Pius VIL, recovered po8««" 
of Rome, and the memorable events of his long-'. 
troubled pontificate are noticed under Piua VII. S. 
the restoration of 1814 there has been no material cU:r 
in the political condition of Rome. The popes who ^- 
done most for improving and embellishing Romear* - 
Nicholas V. ; Paul IL, ^o built the Palace of Vcoiw -*• 
part of the Corso; Julius II. ; Leo X., who began St. h 
ter's church ; Gregory XIIL. who founded the Koiua:« ' 
lege ; Sixtus V., who raised most of the obelisks ; Po: • 
(Borghese), who built the splendid chuieh of SaDts\U * 
Maggiore, the palace Borghese^ and other atructurcs; i*' 
gory XVn who fbunded the Propaganda ; Innocent > 
who embellished theiPiaua Navona; Alexander VU . * 
raised the present building of 4he University; Inm^- 
XIL, who built the palace for the courta of ju*i.c 
Monte Citorio ; Clement XI., Benedict XIV., and -- 
though not least, Pius VL, who created the Vatican X 
Mum. Besides the popes, many cardinals of the Aib. 
Borghese, Barberini, l<amese, and other femUies \" 
greatly contributed to the embellishment of modern I;. 
during the last three centuries. The French admin i * 
tion durine ita second occupation of Rome, 1810-14, i* 
contributed materially to the improvement and omamen* 
the city. 




of fire suspended above the Confession in St Peter's chureh, 
whither thousands resort, and the aisles of that vast temple 
become a sort of foshionable promenade. On Easter Sunday 
the pope officiates with great solemnity in St. Peter*s church, 
after which he ascends the balcony in fVont of the building, 
and gives his benediction ' urbi et orbi.' Then comes the 

?'eat procession of the Corpus Domini, the Thursday after 
rinitv Sunday, when the pope and all the clergy walk round 
the colonnade of St Peter's. Next comes the festival of St 
Peter, on the 29th of June, when, in the evening after the 
ceremonies of the day, the whole exterior of that magnificent 
building, with its swelling dome, lantern, and cross, is lighted 
up first by paper lanterns, which give a soft ethereal light and 
then, at a given signal, another set of thousands of bright 
lamps are suddenly ignited, as if by magic, spreading like a 
blaze of fire along that vast structure. Then follows the 
Girandola, or fireworks on the castle of St Angelo, which 
are for superior to any other fireworks in the world. The 
Christmas festivals are also splendid. All these have been 
described by most travellers who have visited Rome, and 
some of them most beautifully by Madame de Stael in her 
' Corinne.' 

The profane amusements are those of the Carnival, with 
its horse-races in the Corso and the masks in the streets ; 
the inundation of Piazza Navona twice a week, in the month 
of August ; the bull-fights and fireworks during the summer 
season; and the vignate, or country excursions in the 
autumn. There are generally two If not three theatres 
open at Rome, one for the Opera Seria, and another for the 
BufTa, but although the people are very fond of music, yet 
their rulers, through regard for their profession, abstain from 
attending plays, and this renders the amusement less na- 
tional than at Naples or Milan. The fashionable carriage- 
drives are along the Corso, and outside of the Porta del 
Popolo, and along the road to Porta Pia. 

We must refer for other particulars concerning the habits 
and pjastimes of the modern Romans to books of travels, and 
especially to that under the name of Stendhal, ' Rome, 
Florence, et Naples,' and also the 'Promenades dans 
Rome,* by the same author, and Miss Waldie's ' Rome in 
the Nineteenth Century.' 

The language of Rome is good Italian, but the lower 
orders, like those of everjr other country, fall into gramma- 
tical inaccuracies, wrong mflections, &c., and have moreover 
a drawling way of speaking, which is peculiar to them, and 
is easily recognised. The popular dialect thus disfigured, 
though much more intelligible than that of most other 
countries of Italy, is called Romanesco, and there are bur- 
lesque poems written in it. One of these is entitled ' Meo Pa- 
tacca,' the name of a bravo or leader of the lower class of 
Rome, who, hearing of the siege of Vienna by the Turks, 
proposes to march to its relief, but after many delays and 
episodes, the whole troop vent their courage upon the poor 
Jews of Rome, whose district they take by storm. The fol- 
lowing is a sample of the style : 


• Ere queir oni ch* t Ptuiearoli 

Cou La partiche a^^fti^tauo le taniM 
Inaatiil alio lor mustre. e i Fruttaroll. 
E o^nun clio robba ma^naticcia veuno ; 
|'«rclie p« fa torviik) a i NevaroU, 
Kl cildo iucupportabilc so roiiiie« 
E allora il Sol, m non ci son ripari. 
Scalla Je robbe, e acoUa i Bottegaii.* 

There is another poem, called * Maggio Romanesco,' by 
Peresio, which is founded upon the history of Cola di Rienzo. 
But most of the popular poems, songs* and ballads of Rome 
are in good Italian. The * Ritornello' is a favorite com- 
pusitiou of the lower classes, and consists of asonante rhymes, 
such as follows : 

' Piore de Pepe, 

B qtuiDte me ue dite e me ne fat«, 
£ ch' iu ve vu^iio bcuc noa lo emdett.* 

A collection of popular Roman sonfifs was published by 
the Cavaliere Visconti : * Sujrgio di Canti Popolari della 
Provincia Marittima e Campagna,* Roma, 1830. The fol- 
lowing is a specimen : 

' Ptlomb.» rh* prr 1* aria vk a volnrc, 
F«Tni I, rhe vxiizWo ilirli due parole, 
yc>;:ii«» c.i\a uou ppoD* A I0 tae ale* 
V'.^iio *.riT« nuA Ictlxa al mio amort, 
Tutta ili b ingy.. 1.1 M>sif\ o ■Uimparo, 
Vyt -isillo lo niftto lo iniueoTv; 
K Ihiit.i lit «iciivtf ,• •ii>iildre, 
F.iltirat'O, j'uiL'rcl'.a a In niio amorc. 
K »c I') lr'>^i ill li'tUi a niKxvre, 
O Pal'jiuUa ripo^at tu aucote.* 

The satirical hum<rar for which the modem Romans ] 
been long celebrated, has been noticed under PAsgr. . 

The upper class at Rome consists of two distinct or 
the hierarchy or clerical dignitaries, eardinals and pr*- . 
who constitute the court and cabinet of the pope, ai} . 
have in their hands the government, and fill the pr; . 
offices in the administration; and the lay nobility, «:'.. 
titles of princes, dukes, marquises, and oounts, irho h\e: 
the revenue of their estates, and have little or no fndj 
in political affairs. In the middle dass, ' meszo cetc 
lawyers form an important order ; tbey are diwided in* - 
avvocati concistoriali, who alone can plead before- 
sovereign in concistoro, or papal privy oouncO ; 2. i 
cat! rotali, who plead before the ouier courts ; 3, <^. - 
or patrocinatori, who are the same as the English so!.: 
4, notaries, who form a corporation under the prptv. 
the archives. In the early part of the present centun 
advocates Bartolucci, Bontadossi, Angelotti» LAsagn;, • 
distinguished among the members of their proft*^- 
Among the physicians and surgeons. Bombs, Egidi. (t;  
nelli, Trasmondi, Savetti, had a considerable reputat:. * 

The artists form anothw important body at Rome. M 
of them are foreigners, but they generally live or . 
terms, and there is a sort of professional fellow- ft- 
among them all. The life which the artists lead at R 
their studies, and Iheir meetings, have been desrr.U . 
Stendhal and other travellers. The Academia of S. Lu * 
the fine arts, is the connecting bond of all the ar* « - 
Rome. France and other countries have their sci .~ 
academies, or ' pensionats,' where a certain number of i" 
of their respective nation are boarded and pensioi c 
their government for a certain period. The snti<fi:i: 
have also their academy. Among these the names of \ 
conti, Fea, Nibby, R^, and others are well known. 

The mercanti di Campagna, or great ftrmen, who * 
the vast estates into which the Campagna is drvulei. 
longine to the nobility, or to various churches, con\' 
charitable institutions, or corporations, are a wealthy o 
they live in a good style at Rome, have their cou'/ 
houses, and employ numerous agents, clerks, mess<.'. 
and servants. The smallest of these farms requr-. 
capital of 2000/., and the largest of above 20,OO0f. A. 
the whole of the Roman lowlands, from Cometo t - ! 
racina, are in the hands of about 150 of these far. 
of whom one- third, and those the wealthiest, reside at H 
Both Chiteauvieux and Toumon give animated desc*.' 
of the farm of Campomorto, which is among the la:^.-^' 

Rome is well supplied with provisions; butchers* mt^: . 
game, and vegetables are gocxl and abundant ; the c. . - 
country wine is small and light, but the Romans arc . 
rally a sober people. Cheese, butter, ricotts. aci 
produce of the dairy, is plentiful and varied. 

In conclusion, there is much that is interesting an^ :. 
that is good in modern Rome, both materially and m 
but it ought to be borne in mind that the state of ^ 
is totally different from what it is in England, P. 
or France. English travellers have not suflicientlv a.: 
to this; they have iudged of Roman society after tb- r 
lish standard ; they have contrasted its stationary but 
condition, with the prodigious activitv, excitement, a- 
petual agitation of the population of Britain. But * 
man race can accommodate itself to various cond.t . 
can thrive and be content under very different in^tii 
It is neither possible nor perhaps desirable to hm. 
once a complete revolution in the habits and Kiei<» 
the nations of the earth ; that must be the slow \\ 
time, of education, and of spreading intercourse. T: * 
been the great mistake of the so-called republicaii^ . 
age ; they have considered roan as a plastic beiui;. • 
they could remodel at will, without any considera: • - 
his moral feelings, habits of thought, and etfrly r 
sions, which will not easily bend themselves to the •. 

The great mass of the population of the city of R-- 
shown, of late yeai*s, that it is, generally speak 
tolerable harmony with the form of government. I 
government would but take care to aooommodatc 
gradually to the very slow change which must be t. 
place even in the minds of the people of Rome, that *. 
be sujQ&cient at present for the purposes of peace, vi< 
and good government, without any violent and * 
change in the established form of society. S^ue re 
on this subject which were elicited by the abortive .■ » 




other schemes respectinf; him, eventually employed him 
in his own trade, at first simply for the purpose of furnishing 
him with occupation, and afterwards with the intention 
that the two brothers should succeed to the business in 
partnership upon their father's retirement. 

During the intervals of leisure which were abundantly 
afforded him fur several years after he left school, at the 
age of fourteen, Samuel Romilly applied himself assidu- 
ously to literary studies, which were more suitable to his 
serious and somewhat melancholy disposition than the 
usual exercises and amusements of youth. Antient history, 
English poetry, and works of criticism were at this period 
his favourite objects of pursuit. When he was between 
fifleen and sixteen years of age, he determined to become 
acquainted with the Latin language, and by means of hard 
study, and with the assistance of a master, he acquired so 
much proficiency as enabled him, in the course of three or 
four years, to read through almost all the classical writers of 
Rome. He also applied himself to Greek, but, discouraged 
by the diflUculties of self-instruction, he abandoned the 
attempt, and contented himself with studying the Greek 
authors by means of Latin versions. In addition to 
classical studies, he read travels, and acquired a competent 
knowledge of geography, and some aciquaintance with 
natural history ; and he also attended private lectures on 
natural philosophy, and the lectures on painting, architec- 
ture, and anatomy delivered at the Royal Academy. Thus, 
though he had not the opportunity of becoming a scholar 
in the academical sense of the term, he contrived by his 
perseverance and unaided efforts to refine his taste, and to 
ky up in his mind a store of elegant and useful know- 
ledge, which enabled him to proceed in the exalted walk 
of life to which his fortunes subsequently led him, with- 
out experiencing those impediments and mortifications which 
usoally arise from an imperfect education. 

It is not surprising tnat a devotion to such pursuits as 
these should excite aspirations for an occupation more con- 

Sen'iSi to them than the trade of a jeweller ; and his in- 
ulgent father, whose pecuniary means had been about 
this time increased by considerable legacies to his family, 
and aokong them a bequest of 2000/. to Samuel Romilly, 
readily yielded to his son's wishes in this respect, and articled 
bim for five years to one of the sworn clerks in chancery. 
The mechanical duties of this office, though in some 
de^pree enlivened by his master's practice as a solicitor, 
were scarcely more attractive to Romilly than his attend- 
aoee upon nit father's business; but he devoted his fre- 
quent leisure at this period to literary studies, and in par- 
ticular to strenuous exercises in prose composition. The 
object of serving a clerkship of this kind was the purchase 
of a seat in the Six Clerks* Office at the expiration of his 
articles, and the intended retirement of his master was 
likely to offer a favourable opportunity for the attainment 
of this object ; but Romilly s dislike to the business, and 
his disinclination to embarrass his father by withdrawing 
from his hands the amount of the bequest above men- 
tioned, which would have been necessary in order to pur- 
chase the seat, determined him to renounce his prospecta in 
the Six Clerks* Office entirely, and to qualify himself for 
the bar. Accordingly, in May, 1778, having served his 
clerkship, and completed his twenty-first year, he en- 
tered himself at Gray's Inn, placed himself in the cham- 
bers of an equity draughtsman, and commenced with 
great ardour the study of the law. He still, however, pur- 
sued his literary studies and exercises, employing much of 
his time in reading and translating^ the Latin historians and 
orators, occasionally writing political essays for the news- 
papers, and sometimes attending the houses of parliament 
for the purpose of exercising his own powers of abstraction, 
argument, and expression, by composing imaginary answers 
to the speeches which he had heard there. 

Not long after he commenced his legal reading, he was 
attacked by serious illness, which, aggravated and pro- 
tracted as it appears to have been by his constitutional dis- 
position to despondency, compelled him to lay aside all 
•evere studies, and threatened wholly to interrupt his pro- 
fessional proipocu. Fortunately a family incident induced 
bim to underuke a journey to Switxeriand, where he re- 
mained several weeks in the society of his brother-in-law 
and most intimate friend the Rev. John Rogct,and, return- 
ing by way of Paris, he became acquainted in Uiat capital 
with IXAlcmbert and Diderot, and formed intimate friend- 
ihips with screral pf ibe mm cnuatm poUtioa pbilotopbm 

of that day, whose eonTersation and oorrespondenc« r 
duced a marked effect upon his character and op:; 
He arrived in London after an absence of several m^. 
with his health entirely restored. 

In Easter term« 1783, Romilly was called to tke 
but his entrance upon the practice of the possesuan • i 
postponed for several months in consequence of a u 
journey to Switxerland, which he undertook for the pu: 
of attending his sister to England, upon the death o^ 
Roget. In Michaelmas term, 1783, however, be bcgi: 
attendance upon the courts, and opened his practice «. 
very inconsiderable amount of employment in dr.f 
chancery pleadings. In the following spring be joior 
Midland circuit ; but being unknown and without <x( 
tions of any kind, no encouraging prospect of busin€»< 
peered for several years. Success at sessions howevc 
to employment pn the circuit ; and though his progre&? - 
by no means rapid, we have his own authority fur it. 
that when the extent of his practice in the Cour: 
Chancery compelled him to restrict himself to L*. 
he had attained to a larger amount of leading nin ;r . 
business than was possessed by any other counsel upot. . 
circuit. {Memoirs of Sir Samuel Romilly^ toL i., p. 9i 

In the year after that in which he was called to tik ■* 
Romilly, through his connections in Paris, became araui.:. 
with Mirabeau. By his means he was introduced L . 
late Marquis of Lansdowne, who had become desjn »^ 
his acquaintance upon learning that he was tht « 
of an anonvmous tract, entitled ' A Fragment on the C 
stitutional Power and Duties of Juries ; and who, hs . 
from the first conceived a high opinion of Romilly stAl^. . 
continued to be for many years his steady fiiend andp&tr 
Lord Lansdowne*s estimate of his character, and hbr 
eipation of his eventual success, are evinced by the feet, u 
in the first years of their acquaintance, and before the : 
of Romilly's professional fortunes had b^un to flov, 
was twice offered a seat in parliament hj that nobJcn. 
which he declined from a feeling of independence. 1 
early introduction of Romilly to the confidence and fam 
friendship of many persons of the highest dislmcuoh ' 
their station and talents, both in France and £0^;:. 
must be considered as an unquestionable proof of - 
eminent merit. A young man barely twenty-six jeirs 
age, the son of a jeweller, unknown at any public y • 
or university, and a barrister of only a year's stss^ 
could have been indebted to nothing but his own pe^ 
character for his admission into such society, and fur * 
esteem and respect with which he was regarded by bisiw- 
riors in rank, age, and reputation, at the very comae 
ment of his active life. 

Soon after his first introduction to Lord Lansdowne, L>^ 
tention was directed by that nobleman to Madan*s *Thcu: . 
on Executive Justice,' a tract now forgotten, but which i' - 
time excited much notice, and is said to have had eonsitlcr-i 
influence with the judges in enforcing the execution ofc»; 
punishment. The author of this tract relied upoo the » 
known principle, that as the object of judicial pun*^ 
is to deter from crime, the effect of penal laws is in 1 : 
measure lost unless execution follows the sentence < 
certainty. The principle is true in the abstract; but i: '• 
absurd to attempt to apply it in practice to laws so k*> 
as at that time existed m England. In answer to Mii- 
tract, Romilly published some sensible obsenratioci - • 
anonymous pamphlet, his composition of which wss {r . 
bly the first occasion on which he was induced to coc^- 
with attention the principles of criminal law. 

Romilly*s practice, both on the circuit and in the C -'■ 
of Chancery, within ten years after he was called t 
bar, became considerable. The precise period at wIik: ~ 
quitted the circuit is not mentioned in any published s^ 
of his life; but it must have been subsequent to 1>' 
which year he successfully defended at Warwick a dfi . 
of the London Corresponding Society, prosecuted t^ 
government for sedition {HowMs State TViaU^ vol \> 
p. d95), and was probably previous to the summer of - 
y^ar 1800, when he was made king*s oounseL It is o.i 
probable that upon his mairiage, whieh took place at ' 
commencement of 1798, he may have formed the (• 
minatton to confine his practice to the Court of Chan* . 
AAer obtaining rank in the profession as king^ cou  
his business in the Court of Chancery rapidly increi- 
and in 1805, we learn from his own evidence, * that \A > 
barristers who attended the Court of Chancery, he was t^ 




•peech delivered by him on his first proposal of the bills, 
together with some farther arguments, in the form of a 
pamphlet, entitled ' Observations on the Criminal Law as 
it relates to Capital Punishments, and on the Mode in 
which it is administered.* One of the bills introduced by 
him on this oocasion was thrown out in the House of Com- 
mons by a majority of two voices, in a very thin house ; a 
second reached the House of Lords, and was there thrown 
out by a large majority — the lord chancellor (Eldon) and 
Lord EllenbOTOUgh using reasons against it which at the 
present day cannot be perused without astonishment ; and 
the third bill was wiUidrawn by Romilly, after having in vain 
attempted to make a house in order to have it read a third 
time. Notwithstanding this failure, his confidence in the 
justice of his principles, added to his characteristic firmness 
and perseverance enabled him, in spite of all the discourage- 
ments arising f^om the apathy of friends, and the ignorance, 
prejudices, and party-spirit of enemies, to renew his endea- 
vours to pass these measures in eaeh succeeding session 
during the remainder of his life; but although several 
severe laws of a local and special nature were repealed, and 
although a considerable effect was produced on public 
opinion by the repeated diacusions of the subject, it was not 
until several years after his death that any substantial im- 
provement of the criminal law was efieoted. 

In the anticipation of a dissolution of parliament on 
occasion of the king*s illness, at the latter part of 181 1, Sir 
Samuel Romilly was invited to allow himself to be put in 
nomination to represent the city of Bristol. Having accepted 
this invitation, he went down to Bristol upon the dissolu- 
tion of parliament at the close of the year 1812, with the 
most encouraging prospect of success; but an opposition was 
excited in fkvour of a merchant of Bristol, whose personal 
influence and local connections gave him a much more effi- 
cient interest among the numerous constituency of that 
city than that which Romilly had acquired by means of 
his nublio character. The consequence was, that after a 
fisw days' struggle, he abandoned the contest as hopeless. 
Upon this foilure, he was returned by the duke of Norfolk 
for his borough of Arundel ; and Sir Samuel considered 
that the objections which he bad entertained in early life 
against accepting a seat in parliament ttom the proprietor 
or a borough no longer applied, inasmuch as his public cha- 
racter was now so fully established, that he could never be 
suspected of intending to speak or vote merely at the dicta- 
tion of his patron ; and because, since the law had declared 
the former practice of selling seats to be illegal, there was 
no other means of entering the House of Commons than by 
the nomination of a patron or a popular election. 

In the interval between the dissolution of the former 
parliament and the meeting of the new one in 1813, he 

fublisbed a small pamphlel^ entitled 'Objections to the 
^roject of creating a Vice- Chancellor of England.' lliis 
unsatisfiictor^ plan of reforming the evils of the Court of 
Chancery he in all its stages strenuously though unsuccess- 
fully opposed. 

It would exceed the proper limits of the present article to 
relate in detail the circumstances of the parliamentary career 
of Sir Samuel Romilly during the last five years of his life. 
In addition to his proposals for the improvement of the 
criminal law, he took an active part in all the political ques- 
tions of the time, generally actm^ in zealous opposition to 
the ministers. He supported Mr. Whitbread's resolution 
against declaring war with France upon the return of Napo- 
leon from Elba in 1815; he opposed the bills for suppressing 
Irish insurrections, and for the suspension of the Habeas 
Corpus Act in 1817, and moved resolutions condemning 
Lorn Sidmouth*s circular to magistrates respecting the pro- 
secution of seditious libels. He also spoke and voted against 
the Alien Act, and in favour of an extension of the elective 
franchise, and of Roman Catholic emancipation. 

In tbe summer of 1818 a dissolution of parliament took 
place, and Romilly, being solicited to appear as a candidate 
for the representation of Westminster, was returned at the 
head of the noil, though he declined to take any part in the 
canvass, and did not appear upon the hustings until the 
termination of the election. He died however before the 
meeting of parliament Lady Romilly, to whom he was 
devotedly attached, and whose health had been for some 
months dechning, died at Cowes in the Isle of Wight, on 
the 29th of October, 1818; and this event occurring to a 
mind already dangerously excited by recent exertions and 
uixiety, prodttoed a delirium, under the influence of which 

he put an end to his existence on the Snd at Novcc 


In his profiMsion Sir Samuel Romilly attained to ttl 
success than has been enjoved by any advocate sincr 
time of Sir Edward Coke. Nor did his professicmal r. * 
tion at all exceed his merits. He had a familiar kno« - 
of the principles of English law as administered uoc o: . 
courts of equity, but in common-law tribunals, an un.- 
perspicacity of tkiougfat and expression, strong |>ower .?r 
soning, great earnestness in enforcing his ar^gumeDtSi, e: 
devotion to the interests of his client, and aing^ular pruc- 
in the management of a cause. To these qtialitie* 
united a deep sonorous voice, and unequalled imptv. 
ness of manner. On the other hand, he is related to . 
been stem in his deportment to juniors, and unnece^- 
severe in forensic altercation. This may have arisen : 
that contempt Ibr the members of his own prcfcTv 
which, it appears from his diary, was a prevailing sent:r 
in his mind, and which he expresses in some ins*^. 
without sufficient reason. Being himself t^r in advai '^ 
the opinions of his urofession, and feeling in his owri < 
with the certainty of demonstration the truth of tho9« . 
ciples upon which he founded his projected improxt:.. 
of the law, he was too much inclined to treat the ign;*''- 
and bigo^ which often opposed them with an \: 
proportion of personal acrimony. Although in hi^ $ 
letters Romilly occasionally expressed in strong tern.: 
aversion to his profession, declaring that he * eTer>' du) 
more unfit for it; and disliked it the more the more r.i . 
with success in it' {Memoirs, roLi,^ p. 454.), these feii 
do not appear to have been the confirmed sentiments ! 
mind, and were probably excited by the irksomene&is <•/ ' 
mechanical business with which the practice of a chan 
barrister commences. At a later period* when tbe n.-.: 
of his practice viras different, we do not meet with su... 
expressions of discontent; and it is hardly po^ihl- 
suppose that his exalted position in tbe Court of Chan < * 
during the latter years of his life, should not have bo. 
source of just pride and gratification to him« At all e\ t 
the tradition of the profession ascribes to him much cu. 
ness, both in acquiring and retaining his practice. 
As a politician, Romilly was inflexibly consistent in iaV. 

feneral views, and unifonnly acted up to his principlc$^ I 
isplayed however more of the mere spirit of part> : 
might have been expected fh>m his enlarged min'j . 
otherwise independent character. In some instances <• 
cially in the case of Mr. Perceval, he suflTered the fi . . 
of party to interfere with the friendships of private Lfo 
with a species of bigotry hardly credible, seemed to co- ^ 
it morally wrong that he should associate cordially vi i 
who differed fh)m him in political opinion. The same :.. 
attachment to party induced a degree of intolerance in ~ 
formly ascribing to corrupt or interested motives the <x 
sional desertion of individuals from the Whig standard : . 
sometimes, as in the case of his persohid attack uptci 
Melville in the debate on Mr. Brand's motion in isor. 
him into expressions of rudeness which his own excf. . 
taste afterwards strongly condemned. 

His public speaking was perhaps more deeply imprt— 
than that of any speaker of modern times. He expr>>- 
himself with great readiness and fluency. Without &:u : 
artificial means, and without the use of figurative bni.. .. 
or ornament of any kind, his simple, correct, and nx:r 
style, supported by his serious and dignified deportmct.: 
fine voice, often produced an effect equally surprising t. 
speaker and his hearers. Romilly mentions in h(& I' 
an instance of this kind, which occurred in his tu^v • 
speech to the electors of Bristol, in 1812: 'There w,i 
thing,* says he, * in this speech at all calculated to exc: l 
passions, and I know not to what cause is to be ascriK .' 
effect it produced ; but it is certain that before I got :. 
conclusion, I saw the tears streaming down the cIk. ^ 
many of my hearers.* (Memoirs, vol. ii., p* 61-2.) ' 
writer of this article was present on the occasion hero a . 
to, and well remembers tne powerful impression pruduc 
the few simple sentences uttered by Sir Samuel Rooi-:.. 
Romilly's >tyle in writing displays the same feature- 
his manner of speaking,— clear, easy, forcible, and i« : 
unadorned. In very early life, he acquired tbe hab.t- 
reading with care and reflection, and of thinking cleai 1.. 
closely ; and hence arose the faculties of accurate reax>;. 
and of distinct and powerful expression, for which he -^ 
singularly remarkable. 




years, and in bis later days he devoted himself more 
ardently to fancy subjects than ever. Milton and his 
Daughters, and Newton making Experiments with the 
Prism, as a companion to iU were the roost popular of these 
later productions. He sent 100/. to Flaxman, then study-' 
ing in Rome, to purchase casts from the antique for him, 
who sent him * the cream of the finest thini^s in Rome.' 
The group of the Laocoon,the Niobe, the Apollo Belvidere, 
the Apollo Sauroctonos, groups of the Castor and Pollux, 
and Cupid and Psyche, the relief on the Bori^hese vase, 
several busts; and the best fVa^cments of legs and arms that 
could be found. These splendid monuments of antient 
genius tended only still further to excite the emulation and 
ambition of Romney ; he conceived grand de!«igns of paint- 
ing ' the seven ages,* ' the visions of Adam with the angel,* 
' the flood, and the opening of the ark,* and many from 
Milton, some of Adam and Eve, and others having Satan 
as their hero. 

This constant excitement seems to have been too much 
for the painter's nerves, and his mind was gradually giving 
way unaer it. His observations called forth by the melan- 
choly fute of his friend Cowper seem to have been almost 
foreboding of the similar fate that awaited himself : ' If there 
is a situation n&ore deplorable than any other in nature, it 
is the horrible decline of reaiion, and the derangement of 
that power we have been blest with.* The health of his 
faculties was now rapidly declining, but the return of his 
friend Flaxman from Rome, of whose talents he had a very 
high opinion, cheered him for a season. He shortly how- 
ever became possessed with an idea that his house in Caven- 
dish Square was not sufficiently spacious to admit of the 
execution of the magnificent designs he had in contempla- 
tion, and he accordinglv had a house and gallery constructed 
at Hampstead, upon his own plans and under his own 
direction. He lert Cavendii^h Square in 1797, after a resi- 
dence there of twenty-one years, and repaired to his new 
studio at Hampstead, but not to revel in the dreams of his 
wild genius, for he was soon oppressed with a degree of 
nervous dejection that deprived him of all energy. After 
one or two efforts upon the canvass, he complained of 
a swimming in the head, and a paralytic numbness in his 
right hand, and then renounced the pencil for ever. 

In the summer of 1799 he was seized with a sudden im- 

Eulse, and started abruptly for the north, where, in Kendal, 
is amiable wife still resided, surviving the cold neglect 
and long estrangement of her husband, and in whom he 
found an attentiv^e and affectionate nurse, * who had never 
been irritated to an act of unkindness or an expression of 
reproach' by thirty-seven years of absence and neglect, 
during which long interval he had paid but two visits to 
the north. The kind attentions of this exemplary woman 
awakened feelings of intense gratitude in the heart of Rom- 
ney, and he once again enjoyed real happiness, to which in 
the long years of his prosperity he had been a total stranger. 
He gave orders for the sale of his property at Hampstead, 
and purcbased a house at Kendal, where he had resolved to 
remain. But this bright period was of short duration, for 
upon the return of his orother, Colonel Romney, from 
India, which was little more than a year after his arrival at 
Kendal, he suddenly fell into a state of utter imbecility, and 
he lingered on for nearly two years, unconscious of existence, 
until the 15th of November, 1802, when he died, in the 
sixty-eighth year of his age. He was buried at Dalton, the 
place of his birth. 

In person Romney was tall and strong, ' L.8 features 
were broad nnd manly, his hair dark, his eyes large, quick, 
and discerning.* 

Roidney attained to greater eminence in two branches of 
art. history and portrait, than it is the lot of most men to 
attain in one. According to Flaxman, he surpassed all 
British painters in poetic dignity of conception ; and in por- 
trait he was the acknowledged rival of Sir Joshua Reynolds. 
His productions in poetic and historic art, finished and un- 
flnifched, are extraordinarily numerous, comprising every 
variety of subject from the illustration of the most simple 
historical fact, to the endeavour to embody the wildest 
fictions of the poets. Some of these designs were presented 
in 1 8 1 7, by the painter's son, to the university of Cambridge, 
to be deposited in the FiUwilliam Museum ; and the Car- 
toons, so much admired by Flaxman. were by the same 
fentleraan presented, in 1823, to the Royal Institution of 
.ivcmol. They consist of eight from the story of Cupid 
'^'^^ 'che, two from that of Oipheus and Eurydice, and 



one firom each of the following sulgeets :^Prom<r!V 
chained. Descent of Odin, Medea, Birth of Shakspe^^ ' 
fant Shakspere, Death of Cordelia, Ghoat of Dariiu. . 
Atossa's Dream. 

The following examples will serve to sbovr hoirer 
sively Romney was -patronised in portrait :-~the Dl ^' 
Richmond, the Duke of Portland, the Duke of Gr. 
Lord Chancellor Thurlow. Warren Haatingn, Cowper. : 
of Chatham, William Pitt, Gibbon, David Hartley ^ 
Hyde Parker, Lord Melville, Lord EUenborougfa. the A 
bishops of Canterbury, York, and Dublin. i>r. Pair, . 
Paley, John Wesley. Thomas Paine, Mrs. Fitzherbert, V 
Jordan, and Flaxman modelling the bust of Ha} lev. 

Romney was not a member of the Royal Ac^emr 
he never sent any of his works to its exhibitions, li- 
had several biographers : Cumberland, the dramati»i, « 
a short account of him ; his friend Hayley, the poet, r 
lished an elaborate life, for which Flaxman wrote the ' 
racter of his works; another was afterwards written l> 
son the Rev. John Romney; and there is an exc^ 
memoir of him in Allan Cunningham's ' lives of . 
British Painters,* &c. 

The following are extracts from FlazmaD'i ehan'"fr 
the works and genius of Romney : — * When Romney 
began to paint, he had seen no gallery of pictures, Du: : 
fine productions of antient sculpture : but then women .. 
children were his statues, and all objects under the c^. 
heaven formed his school of painting.' * His ^nius t 
strong resemblance to the scenes he was born id : like 
it partook of the grand and beautiful ; and like tbem : 
the bright sunshine and enchanting prospects of hh iy 
were occasionally overspread with mist and gloom.* ' } 
painters have left so many examples in their works of 
tender and delicate affections; and several of his pictu 
breathe a kindred spirit with the Sigismonda of Come: 
His Cartoons, some of which have unfortunately ne/it . 
were examples of the sublime and terrible; at (hat (. 
perfectly new in English art' ' His compodtions. like i) 
of the antient pictures and basso-relievoa, told their &. 
by a single group of figures in the front ; whflst the b 
gvound is made the simplest possible, rejecting all ur.n^ 
sary episode and trivial ornament, eitiier of secondiry i:r 
or architectural subdivision. In his compositions i hi 
holder was forcibly struck by the sentiment at the . 
glance; the gradations and varieties of which he t: 
dl rough several characters, all conceived in an ek\i 
spirit of dignity and beauty, with a lively expressi 
nature in all the parts. His heads were various ; the =. 
were decided and grand ; the female lovely ; his figurv» " 
sembled the antique ; the limbs were elegmnt and ^/ 
formed ; his drap^ was well understood? ' Few i:' 
since the fifteen tn centur}* have been able to do so dlc. 
so many different branches.' 

ROMORANTIN. [Loir bt Chib.] 

ROMSEY. [Haiipshirb.] 

RO'MULUS. The numerous legends about Roc. 
the founder of Rome, may be distributed into two pnn 
classes. One of these represents him as closely con:. <- 
with the royal family of Alba, and may be considered a 
native legend which probably originated among the Rjr. • 
themselves, and was almost universally believed b^ - 
Romans. The second, which connects Romulus with Ac' 
and the Trojans, is manifestly of Greek origin, and ct . 
become current until a comparativdv late period cf 
history of Rome. According to the latter story, R •>-::'' 
was sometimes described as the son of Aeneas, and ^ 
times as his grandson; and while some writers mc 
Romulus alone, others represent him as having a b: 
(Remus), or several brothers. (See the various d>* 
tions of this legend, or rather Greek fabrication, in Ic- 
#. V. * Roma;' Plut., Bomul., 2 ; and Dionys. Hal., L 73; 
Niebuhr, i., p. 210, &c.) This story leaves a vacuum r 
history of Rome, which amounts to about three cen'. 
and a half, that is, firom the return of the heroes frora T 
till the middle of the eighth century before Chr;>t. * 
various means were devised by antient writers* such a* 
building of a second, and even of a third Rome, fat t 
up this gap. But this story, notwithstandini? its inrv: 
ities, has sometimes been adopted even by Roman « ^ 
such as Sallust,who sUtes that Rome was founded bv ! 
jans, under the guidance of Aeneas. The genuine K 
legend made Romulus and Remus the twin-sons of > 
daughter of the Alban king Plrocas. TheioyalbouseofA-^ 




to the province of Malaga, is now the capital of a prayince 
so called since the late division of the Spanish territory. 
It is generally supposed, though erroneously, to occupy the 
site of the antient Arunda (Plin., iii. 1), which stood some 
miles to the south-west. It is an ascertained fact that it 
was entirely huilt hy the Moors, with the remains of Ad- 
nippo, or Ronda la vieja (old Ronda), which is two leagues 
to the north, and where the ruins of an amphitheatj^ a 
temple, aqueduct, and extensive walls are still standing. 
Ronda is situated in the midst of the lofty mountains of the 
Sierra de Ronda, and is fourteen leagues from Gibraltary 
twenty from Cadiz, and about the same distance from Seville. 
It is considerably elevated above the sea, being built on a 
hill, w;hich terminates abruptly just below it to the west. 
The city is separated into two parts by a very narrow ravine 
of great depth, called £1 Tajo (the cut), through which flows 
the river Guadiaro. Though divided by nature, the city has 
been united by means of a bridge of most stupendous dimen- 
sions, springing from the banks of the river on massive stone 
piers, and at the height of nearly 400 feet above the bed of 
the river. 

The city of Ronda has a population of about 20,000 inha- 
bitants. The streets are narrow, but clean. There is a 
public walk, catted Alameda, well shaded with trees and 
shrubs; and a Plaza de Toros (bull-ring), built entirely of 
stone, and capable of holdinj; eight or nine tliousand per- 
sons. The Alcasar, or Moorish castle, one of the most ex- 
tensive and best built in all Andalusia, is now a mass of 
ruins, having been blown up by the French on their eva- 
cuation of Ronda during the Peninsular war. It was con- 
sidered impregnable as long as the Moon held it, and re- 
sisted several sieges, until it was finally reduced by Ferdi- 
nand in 1 486, towards the close of the Moorish war. [Moons.] 
With the exception of a few tan-yards, which are not in a 
very prosperous condition, Ronda has no trade whatever ; 
the inhabitants occupy themselves chiefly in farming and 
raising fruits and ve^tables for the consumption of Gibral- 
tar. An annual fair, originally instituted for the sale of 
horses, but which now is not confined to that traffic, is held 
at Ronda. It is attended by merchants from almost every 
part of iiouthem Spain. 

RONDEAU (Fr.), or RONDO (It.), a kind of air oon- 
sisting of two or more strains, in which, after finishing the 
second strain, the first is repeated, and again after the third* 
&c., always returning to and concluding with the first. 

RON DELE'TI A, a genus of planto of the natural family 
of Rubiaoess, named after Rondelet, a French botanist of 
the sixteenth century. It is characterised by having a 
calyx with a subglobulav tube. Corol superior, funnel- 
shaped, ventricose at the throat. Segments four to five, 
ovate, obtuse, spreading. Anthers four to five, sessile within 
the corol. Ovary two-celled. Style filiform. Stigma bifid. 
Capsule round, crowned with the limb of the calyx. Seeds 
minute, numerous, or few when abortive. The genus, as 
formerly constituted, included many shrubby trees whieh 
occur in India (Roxb., Fl. Indioa\ but these have been re- 
ferred by modern botanists to Adenosacme, Graenia, and 
Wendlandia. The present genus Rondeletia occurs chiefly 
in America and the West Indies. 

RONGBBIRGB. [Germany.] 

RONSA'RD, PIERRE DE, bom in 1524, in the dis- 
trict of old France called VendOmois, was the son of a 
roohre-d'hdtel of Francis I., who made him a knight. 
Pierre studied for a short time in the college of Navarre at 
Paris, but soon after he entered the service of the duke of 
Orleans, son of Francis I., in the quality of page. He after- 
wards attended, in the same capacity, James Stuart, king of 
Scotland, who had come to Paris to marry Marie de Lor- 
rafne, and he accompanied James on his return to Scotland, 
where he remained three years. On his return to France 
he resumed his post with the duke of Orleans, who sent him 
on several missions to Scotland, Ireland, and other countries. 
lie was afterwards sent by Francis I. on a mission to Pied- 
mont In these several joumevs he suffered much, in con- 
sequence of which he became deaf. On withdrawing from 
active life he retired to the college of Coqueret, where he 
studied the classics under Tumdbe, became a good 
Greek scholar, and took orders as a priest He also began 
writing French poems, and was crowned in the floral games 
at Toulouse, [(jlsmsncs, Isaurs.] He was considered as 
the successor of Marotand the chief of the French poets of 
the time. [Marot.] Montaigne, De Thou, Scaliger, Muret, 

Pasquier, and others commended him highly; but mo 
critics have judged him more severely. Boileau sa>s t 
Ronsard*s language was a heterogeneous «x>nipound uf 
rious languages and dialects, and that his muas spoke C 
and Latip in French verses. Malherbe and La Bu 
have spoken of him in the same strain. GSharles IX 
stowed on Ronsard an abbacy and other benefices. : 
moral conduct however is said not to have been strictly 
lical. He died in 1585, in one of his livings near T 
and a solemn funeral service was celebrated in honuL- 
him at Paris, in the chapel of the college of Boncour. R 
sard had certainly poetical genius, but he wes defic^e: 
taste. He was in this respect in France what the «c  
tisti of Uie following century were in Italy and SpsiD 1. 
poetical works ate numerous ; they consist of odes, b}t 
eclogues* See. : ' Mascarades. Combats, et Cartels faits 4 Iv 
etau Carnaval de Fontainebleau.' He also began a poetn. ^ 
Franciade,' whieh he left unfinished. His works arv - 
neariy forgotten. The most complete edition of them b v 
hy Richelet, 2 vols. ibL, Paris, 1623. 
ROOD, the quarter of an acre. [Acsx.] 
ROOF, the covering of a house or other building. T 
name, in its most extended sense, embraoea the etkr 
covering itself, and the framework by which it is supp^'r 
but, as a term in carpentry, it is limited to the careass r * 
or framing. 

The importanoe of this part of a building can banilr 
overrated, since on its right construction depends not i 
the comfort of those for whose shelter it is designed, buu* 
the safeMr and durabilitjf of the edifice itself. For \ 
former of these purposes it is desirable that a roof sb 'M 
exclude extremes of heat and cold, and be impemoik 
rain or snow. For the latter, the exclusion of waier 
equally necessary, and it is essential that tlw framework 
so disposed as to throw the least possible strain on the v:. • 
By a judicious arrangement in this particular, a itx>f ms) > 
only be prevented from pressing on the walls in an tr.i 
rious manner, but may be made to contribute greatly to ' 
stability of the whole structure. In order to the due cc 
bination of the requisite qualities, an intimate acqua.: 
anoe with the principles of mechanical philosophy is ina • 

Sensable; and a correct knowledge of the strengtb 
ifferent materials, when exposd to various kmdi 
strain* is necessary to the economical adjustment of " 
dimeoitons of the several parts of a roo£ A roof of ir:- 
•puiibrmf, indeed, one of the most interesting a;r 
cations of the science of carpentry, theoretical or c 

In order to cover in a building ir which the spsce to *< 
spanned is greater than can be covered by single blocks 
stone extending flpom one point of suyyKirt to another, J ' 
necessary either to have recourse to the principle of '' 
aroh, as in vaults and domes of stone or brick, or to fwis - 
framework of timber to support the covering. Tb« fcnr ' 
plan is objeetionable in the case of ordinary buildifigs ^^ 
Its expense and weight, and from the great solidity nqa:' 
in the walls, where they have to be used as tbe abatD^ *" 
of an areh. The principles on which such coverings of a 
sonry are formed are explained under Arch and Dom. ^ 
in this article the more usual kind of roof, that susta:- 
by a wooden framing, will be described. Such stnKtu-* 
occasionally partake of the character of an arch or dcz 
but more usually consist of flat planes variously dispw^ 
Roolb formed of one level plane, which are extensive!} u^ 
in eastern countries, are not adapted for buildings in vb- 
a large space has to be spanned over, nor to resist tbe pr 
tration of water; and are therefore unsuitable for clioi' • 
in which rain and snow are common. A simple itKi-* 
plane is well adapted to resist injury from weather, bot.- 
It is scarcely more fiivourable to an economical dtspue^' 
of the timbers than a flat roof, it is only suited for fcu 
buildings, and is seldom used except as a laan-ta AncC^ 
objection to its use on a large scale is the disproportt«^«'- 
height it rec^uires in one side of the building. Tbe* 
figure for a simple raof is that formed of two inclined } •->* 
rising from the two opposite walk that approach netrr-i 
each other, and meeting over the centre of the edifice. >•* v 
to form a ridge. Bv this form, supposing the same sl< r^ 
be maintained, one half of the heigtit of the single iocl' 
plane is avoided; and, the length of the timbers l«'- 
diminished one half, their scantling may be oonsident 
reduced. Fir. 1 represents a plan, with side and end i«»* 
of such a roof, which is called a cmnmtm or gobie-emiei ^.' 

parallel with «>ch other at equal Pittance*. In  hipped ' 
Toot, ihe rarieri near Ibe en<k, being panllBl with the others, 
are oeceMarily dimini&bed in length, exlendiDg from the 
will-plate to the bii>-rafter initead or the ridge-jiiec«. All 
■uch piecea, being ahorter than the length between the wall- 
plate and Ihe ridge-piece, are called ^ft rafter*. 

It ii not uiual to vary the icantling, or transrerae dimen- 
•iont or raTlcra, in anj coniiderahle degree, on account of 
Ihcir varioni lengths ; nearly the same scantling being ui«d 
in all buildings, and the required strength being obtained 
fay iiitroduring intermediate supports between ibe wall- 
piale* and ridge-piece where the aiie of the roof renders 
surh necessary. This additional support is supplied by 
horiiontal rectangular bars called pwKn*, placed under the 
rarters in such a manner as to divide their length into two 
or more equal parts, the ends of Ihe purlins being Sxed to 
the aides of the bordering frame. Like the rafters, the 
purlins are not much varied in thickness according to the 
strain upon them, hut they are in turn supported bya series 
of bars placed eauidistant from each other, and parallel 
with Ihe raftera, out with their upper face in the same 
plane aa the lower face of the purlins. These are called 
princij>al rojten, or, for bre»ity, prittcipaJt, to distinguish 
them from Ihe 11 rst described, or common raflert. Where 
it is desirable to save room by reducing the thickness of a 

4 ROO 

roof, the pnrliDS may, aa shown in Jig. 13, be Doldied 
the principals and common raflen, but this pradice -li 
to bfl recommended, as it weakens the titnbera. U : 
prindpala are used, their lower eikds ate aortiaed ii>t ' 
ends of a(M-£e«i)n, which stretches acroaa the buildiP£. : 
rests upon the wall-plates. This beam keeps the lovrr 
tremilies of the prinojals from separating and diarha- 
ihe weight of the roof on the w«lu in a vertkal dmr- 
' ving then entirely froa the lateral thraat of 

igth, is called s frw**, and aueh franiea being plan-, 
regular intervala, the timbcc-work between hit "- 
them is called a bay <if roq/big. Hie lower Atmniii? 
the common ratters, being elerated by Ibia arransr.: 
above Ihe wall-platea, are supported by pok-platt*. or 7-^ 
of timber parallel to the wau-[dat«a, reaiing on ibe tt-i- 
the tie-beams. The supporting (iame-work Kltogcibt: 
called a carcau-roqf. 

Pig. 7, which represenli a vauXi carciw roof *npi<T 
by four trusses, and having one purlin only betstc-i 
wall-plate and ridge-piece, may awiat tb« twader in r - 
prehending the arrangement of the parts ennotented : : 
their names will be found more distinctly bj refen-.i: - 
the repceseolation of a more cotnplic«ted tniM at >;. . 

In this Sgure the common nJtera are represented on one 
half of the roof only, that the Iruases may be mora dis< 
tinctly seen ; and the end walls are omitted for the same 

The proper eonstruction of the truues of a roof, with re- 
ference to the siie of the building and the weight of the 
eovering, is a matter requiring much scientiSo knowledge. 
For the want of Ibis it is not unusual to encumber trusses 
with much more timber than is necessary or useful ; and 
the disadvantage of this is not confined to the increased 
weight and cost of the root; as superabundant timbers fre- 
quently occasion injurious strains, and the increased num- 
ber of joints adds to the risk of derangement by the shrink- 
ing Bud warping common to all timber constructions. The 
general principlss to be acted upon may be illustrated by a 
few diagrams; but in the limited space devoted to this 
article no attempt can be made to describe all the modi- 
fications required by the ever-varying forms of buildings ; in 
the design of which it i* too common, instead of assigning 
its due importance to the roof, to treat it as an unsightly 
feature, to b« concealed as much as poosible from view. 

In a roof formed as shown in^, e, consitting simply of 
two inclined planes abutline on the walls, it is evident that 
Ihe weight of the rafters ab and be, as well as that of the 
covering sustained by them, will have a tendency to thrust 
uut Ihe walls. This tendency ordinaty walls have not the 

sironi^th to resist, and therefora it becomes necessary to add 
the beam ae (flg, 9), which, by reeeiriog the outward tbrust 

of the ralUrs. relieres the walls of lateral stnint I: 
tension of the tie-beam ac be sufficient to reaiat tlw r\' 
ing force of the raftera without aensible elongatwu. tbr 
eSect that such a roof can have upon the v2u isaic 
pressure on each, equal to half iu weight; and 11 cii 
fall without the tie-beam, which acta the part of a w- 
chain, being pulled asunder, or the rafters being a-j-. 
ir the matenals were perfectly rigid, no additiunil -: 
would be required ; but as they are not ao in pnd/^ 
becomes necessary, when the timben ara of con»i< 
length, to provide means for counteracting their tenir- 
sinking, or tagging. By adding a bar shaped like W 
Id), tbecentreofthelie-beammaybe suspended bia 
crown oftbe roof. This pieoe is colled a kuig-pott. I. 

ime is perhaps not a f^ood one, as, though it appnr 
_ post to support the ridge or crown of the toot :> 
reality a tie, supported by it, and sustaining, in>u 
resting upon, Ihe centre of the tie-beam. By c. 
the king-postoutofa piece of wood of larger scantlici 
tho shank of the post itself projections of the ahapc 
coled in the cut may be formed at its ends. Theae arv.- 
jnggleM, and those at Ihe upper eud farm a wedge be 
the heads of Ihe rafters, like thp k«v-itnnn af an s.^1. 

^tM,anu mose at me upper eud farm a wedge be-.' 

heads of Ihe rafters, like the key-stone of an an;b. I 

Innitiini n Knight »»..:„,. „„ (ho orojecUng joegk*' 

be bjr It tnatmiuedis '-i 

the base of Ibe kiug-pott 

of I he roof, 
I support ma 
f, e and/, for 

ra added, ihey rest on those points of the primipal 
s iliat are thus supported hy struts, as mny be seen by 
nee to fig. 7. It maj ba observed ihat this trusseoD' 
if tM'o pieces (the iic' and king post) iij a state of 
n. and four (the two rallers and the two struta) in a 
of compression; and that in every well-contrived 
Iionuver the number of its component parts may be 
i~<\i\, every bar is iu one or other of those states. Those 
»hich are in a slate of tension, acting merely as cords 
id the truss together, may be and sometimes are 

wood or cost -iron. Sometimes ihe king-post is ditpen^jd 
wilb, and its office performed by two similar posis, e;.,liid 
queen-posU, at equal distanres from the centre of llie truis. 
In ord^r to keep these in their right position, a short liori- 
zonial beam, called a collar-beam, is inserted between thoir 
upper extrcmties, and another, termed a ttraining-sill, 
betiTcen their lower ends. This arrangement is explained 
by fig. 1 1, which also sliows the position of olhov parts of 
a truss. One side is represented as a gutler-roof, and the 
other with ei"" 

Tlio aiiTiiiary or cushion rafters, m, m, are pieces occa- 
iiiuiUy added, in large roofs, to strengthen the principals; 
I'l they, with the collar-beam, &c., fotm a complete truss 
idiin Ilium. The trusses of Iruricated roofs are formed in 
,i> milliner, the collar-beam forming, as it were, the key- 
.j;ic of the arch, and being surmounted byacamfier-feen'n, 
u> upper edge of which is formed into two slightly inclined 
hues, lo give the necessary slope to the lead covering. In 
ii'h a roof, pieces of wood resembling ridge-pieces are in- 
■iiod at the angles formed by the meeting of the rafters 
:'h the horizontal bars that support the flat. 
Die following represenlation of a very simple truss, from 
. .I'liiil son's 'Carpenter and Joiner's Companion,' illustrates 
ic ii<^c of slender king-posts and queen-posts of wrought- 
■'U, and shows how the stress of every part of the roof may 
'■ liroughi to bearon Ihe ridge. Thelowerendsof theslriils 
-I iu stirrups attached to the vertical rods, and the weight 

hs- 12. yy^ \:\ 

 iiniiir on the strut o is iinparted, through b and e, to the 
..: -.' pi^l. The lie-beam is suspended by holla from each 
I iIji; \urtical rods, and the ends of the rafters are secured 
|> iliH lic'bcam by iron straps passing round them, afid 
I lii'il to the beam at d,d. Trusses on the same principle 
■•'■ ly bi' made of limber only. 

hi curl) roofs the upper rows of rafters are called atrh- 
"l-rt. and the horizontal burs that receive the upper ends 
I ilii! lower rafters, and the feet of the curb-rafters, ate 
l-^ii>«ii as cur6-p/(ile«. The proper position of equilibrium 
'■r llio rafters of a curb-roof may be ascertainod by very 
-"iiiili: means, within the reach of persons not possessed of 

 iiV.< lent malhcmntical knowledge for determining it by 
•.il Lilsiiiin, If Iho rafters are to Ijo equally loaded, as in a 

 ■((■[iiirely covered with one material, this position will be 
. .1 111 ilie reverse of that which they would take by gravity, 

 'Ti' iliey suspended in a chain or festoon, the joints being 
''■■■\\\>V.. If they are framed loi{ether in this position of 
' I'liUliriuiD, Itiey will balance each other like the stones of 

■I aTili; and the tie-beams, posts, and braces will have no 
■liiTolHce to perform than that of resisting such irregular 
'■iiiisas might lend to alter their arrangement The 
".'.ITS tliu* suspended would fall into the position a 6c if *, 
.''^. 13, Dime drawn ihiough the angles being a catenuian 
P. O, Mo. 1249. 

curve; and o'ft'c'rf' e', in Ihe same figure, represents th 
corresponding position in whiih tliey should be placed i 
an equally loaded roof. If the rafters 6V and c'rf' are t 

bear a greater weight than db' and dV, they will, if pro- 
portionately loaded when suspended in a curve, fall in such 
a way as to increase the angles abc and cde, and diminish 
A cd, thereby indicating their proper position in the roof. 
When the roof is to be loaded unequally, and more on one 
side of the ridge than the other, as it would be if b' d wera 
to be covered with lead, and the other planes with slates, a 
corresponding weight added to the centreof gravity of 6c 
will cause the bars to arrange themselves as abc de, Jig. 14, 
the angles of which, being transferred to the roof, give the 
position of equilibrium a'l/i^<fe'. This practical method 
of Ending the proper an;;les of a curb-roof may be applied 
under all circumstances, the dimensions of Ihe experimental 
bars being propotuonale to tliose of the rafters, and their 
centres of gravity being loaded according to the pressure to 
be sustained by each plane of the roof. The great advan* 
tage of curb-roofs consists in the space they atford for chaoi' 
hers in Ihe roof, such chambers being lighted by dormer 
windows in the lower inclined faces. When the trusses of 
the roof form partitions between the bed-rooms, their posu 
and braces ate so arranged as to leave one or mare door- 
ways for communicatiot) between them. 

In roofs of very large span it is often desirable, in order 
to avoid running up to a great heijjht, to form two or more 
ridges. 'When intermediate support can be obtained from 
partition walls, such constructions may be regarded as com- 
binations of two or more distinct roofs placed side by sids. 
Fig. IS IS an example of a roof of large span without any 
intermediate support, and having a large available space 
between the lie and collar beams. It represents the fuMV 
of the trusses, which were placed Bfteeu fool apart, of a roof 
of eighty feet span, erected over Drury-Lane Theatre in 

It is sometimes necessary, in order to obtain additional 
height inside a building, to raise the liebeam above tL« 




lerel of the top of the walls. In small spans this may 
be done by the simple arrangement called the carpenter's 
boast (A, Fig. 16), in which a firm union is effected between 
the beam and the rafters without the use of nails or pins. 
Such a roof can only press injuriously on the walls by the 
rafters sinking into a concave form, which however their 
lower ends are very liable to do. In such a case additional 
strength may be obtained by inserting a longitudinal truss, 
as in B, Mg. 16, where c represents the end of the truss, 

f II II II II II r-^^ 

which should be firmly built into the gables, d and e are 
side views of two longitudinal trusses suitable for such a 
situation, the first being stiffened by an arch of iron notched 
into the short vertical pieces, and the second formed of tim- 
ber only. Similar trusses are occasionally introduced under 
the purlins. Rooft without ties may be greatly strength- 
ened by the use of parabolic cyrves of iron, notched into 
the rafters of each inclined face, and abutting on the wall- 

?1ated, which in such a case are firmly bolted together. 
*he timbers of such a roof may be framed togetner in 
E lanes, each having a distinct ridge-piece, and the ridges 
eing screwed or otherwise firmly connected together. The 
curves may be cast in short segments, as they are com- 
pressed when in use. it being merely necessary to provide 
that the joints should always abut on a rafter. Tredgold, 
in his ' Elementary Principles of Carpentry,* recommends 
the use of similar curves, of either wood or iron, in the 
trusses of an ordinary roof, by which the deraneement often 
arising from the shrinking of the king-posts and queen-posts 
may be avoided. In this case the curves take the place of the 
principal raflers, and, if made of wood, may be constructed 
of short straight pieces, arranged as shown in Fig* 17, and 
held together oy bolts or wooden keys. When curved tim- 

ing of two pieces, one on each aide of the xib* notchcl ^i 
aiw the beam, and fastened by bolts and straps. 

Fig. 18. 

ber can be obtained it is to be preferred, as it reduces the 
number of joints. For small rooh timbers may be bent 
into the required form, as it is found that a piece of wood 
the thickness of which does not exceed ij^ih part of ito 
length, may be bent into a curve rising one-eighth of its 
span without impairing its elasticity. Two such pieces 
may be laid together, and bent by twisting a rope attached 
to Uieir ends, as is done in tightening the frame of a bow 
or pit saw ; and, being bolted togetner while curved, they 
will spring back but little when the rope is relaxed. An- 
other mode of ibrming such a rib in to take a piece of wood 
whose thickness is about one-sixtieth of its length, and 
cutting along the middle with a thin saw from each end, 
leaving about eight feet in the centre solid. The beam may 
then be bent, and bolted or pinned together as before de- 
scribed. In either case the rib should be bent about one- 
fourth more than it is intended to remain, to allow for 
springing back. A parabolie eurve is the form most re- 
commended ; but a circular are, rising half the height of 
the roof, will answer the purpose. Fig, 1$ represents the 
truss of a truncated roof strengthened by a curved rib, the 
suspending pieces being, when tbe rib is formed in the man- 
- first described, placed at each joint, and each consist- 

One of the advantages of this mode of construe: 
that the tie-beams may be suspended from any nun. 
points, which is important in large spans, when? the :•* 
have to be formed of several pieces scarfed tc; 
[Scarfing.] Diagonal braces, tiiough unnece&sar^ 
parabolic curves, may be added to meet accidental &'r 
as shown by the dotted lines in the cut. This price: 
construction, with an arc composed of several pieces « : 
ber, was followed in one of the largest roofs ever buil:. 
erected in 1791 over a riding- house at Moscow. The ^ 
of this roof, which has been said to be the most ex re: 
in the world, is stated by Tredgold at 235 feet, tbe « 
being about 19**, and the external dimensions of the ^ 
ing 1920 by 310 feet He states that it had sunk so l 
that it was proposed to add a second curve for add.: 

A simple and economical roof, invented by Mr. A 
Holdsworth, and rewaraed by the Society of Aru ;u i 
is supported by curved ribs of timber applied in a d.f* 
manner. A detailed description is given in the 3i}tb tj 
of the Society's * Transactions,' but Fig, 19 will soffic. 
explain the principle of its construction 


a u a 


serving as a tie-beam, and also to support the upper H. ' 
the building; 6 6 are curved ribs, formed in aMmiUr u- 
ner to those just described, the lower ends of mhicL. 
firmly secured to the tie-beam o. Tbe principal rafter» 
on these ribs, and their lower ends bear upon short i/^ 
resting on the walls, these pieces being fastened by » . 
iron straps to the curved ribs, to counteract the cl* . 
thrust of the rafters. By this arrangement the wboie r 
interior of the roof, which is usually encumbered v::^ t. 
posts, queen-posts, braces, &c., is rendered available f..' - 
ful purposes, in addition to which it effects a confide. 
saving of timber. 

Wrought-iron straps of various forms are very in 
when judiciously applied, in strengthening the j. in'- 
roof. They should be fixed with regard to the uns>u 
tendency of the timbers to shrinking, so that while ' 
may, in some cases, counteract or lessen tU effect, tb<'f 
so far yield to it as to prevent a strain which should a 
upon a timber, being entirely thrown, bj its alten'i 
form, upon the strap. Tie-beams are onen scspenOi.' 
tbe trussing-posts by means of straps, so arranged l- 
allow tbe beam to be keyed up to its true position ic « 
of the roof sinking. When this is not the case, the tie^ ' 
sometimes drawn up into a slightly convex or eaibc 
form, to meet the same contingency. Height id:'' 
gained inside a building by disposing the timbers as ic 
20, the want of a continuous tie-beam being compter- 

^ig. 20. 

for by an iron strap to unite the ties to the bottom J 
king-post at a; but it is evident that the safety of tbe ; 
most depend wholly on the strapi^ which alone couc'. 
the outvar4 thrust of the raften. 

R O O 


R O O 

Til roofing a church tvith a nave and side aisles, the con- 
iiiuity of the tie-heams may ho dispensed with, interme- 
Kite support heine ohtained from columns. It is however 
••' essary to guard carefully against any lateral strain to 

It' columns. 

Many of the high-pitched roofs of old Gothic churches 

1(1 halls are very ingeniously contrived, but they often 
LI row great pressure on the walls, owing to the absence or 
i Natcd position of the ties; thereby rendering very solid 
»alls and buttresses necessary. The Norman roqf is an 

^^enious contrivance for the construction of roofs of large 

au with small pieces of wood. Fig, 21 shows this arrange- 
u'nt, in which all the rafters abut on joggled king-posts, 
t which there are several, their relative position being 

. uiitained by diagonal braces. The timbers of this kind 

.<. ) 


r roof are often left visible, being so canned as to have an 
rnaniental effect. Such a roof may be made to exert very 
t!le injurious pressure on the walls. 
When the space covered in is of an irregular shape, it is 
'^i to arrange the inclined planes of th« rouf in a similar 
i:inner to those of a rectangular building, leaving a level 
It form in the centre, corresponding to the plan of the iu- 
t^sed space. "Where the space covered is circular, ellipti- 
lI, or polygonal, although the construction of the roof may 
v,M;ar more complicated to the eye, it is, in fact, simpler 
t<i easier than that of a quadrangular building, the strain 
' the roof being more equally distributed. The nearer a 
f approaches to a circle in plan, the stronger it will be, 
> parts deriving that mutual support from each other which 
rnis the distinguishing character of the dome. Domes of 
00(1, of great size, have been made without trussing, 
niply by forming the timbers into curved ribs abutting on 
le wall-plates« which then form a circle, and kept in their 
-opcr positions by horizontal circles framed with them at 
tcrvaLs. As the ribs approach the upper part of the dome, 
le intervals between them diminish in width, to allow for 
tiioh every second or third rib is discontinued at intervals, 
ic ends of the ribs thus discontinued being received by the 
>rizontal circles, which may be compared to purlins, the 
hi taking the place of rafters. The wooden dome formerly 
Listing at the Halle aux BlSs, at Paris, was a remarkably 
>]<1 example of this kind, being 200 feet in diameter, and 
iving a large opening in the centre. It was built at the 
^:i,M^stion of M. Moulineau, and, having been destroyed by 
e, has been replaced by a similar structure of iron, but of 
.1 a Ilea* dimensions. 

When the roof approaches the circular form, but not 

rVioiently to have the character of a dome, it may be con- 

lorccl as consisting of several trusses resembling those of 

1 ordinary roof, but so contrived as to intersect each other 

I the centre; the king-post, being common to all the 

u>^es. Fi^, 22, representing a design for a polygonal 

>r, from Nicholson, may illustrate this, and exemplify 

M) some of the applications of iron straps: a shows the 

I m of the strap by which the ties are secured to the king- 

^t ; the post having as many faces, and the strap as 

i my arms, as there are trusses in the roof. 

Fig- 22. 

works on carpentry, allusion can here be made to only one 
other. It is an admirably simple plan for making a very 
flat roof, described in the 37th volume of the 'Transactions' 
of the Society of Arts, in a communication from the in- 
ventor, Mr. Smart. The beams or rafters are cut, with a 
circular saw, as shown at a. Jig, 23, while b represents their 
form when in use, a wedge being inserted between the ends 
of the parts that are elevated into a sloping position. These 
may be raised to an angle of 10'' or 12^ and will bear a great 




Fig, 23 

weight, as they cannot be depressed without thrusting off 
the ends of the beam, or breaking the lower part of it by 
tension. This is called, by the inventor, the bow and string 
Tofter^ and was used by him to support a roof at the Ord- 
nance Wharf, Westminster Bridge. Strong laths wore 
nailed uj[)on the rafters, and on these a platform of bricks 
was laid in cement, the whole being covered with tiles also 
bedded and pointed with cement, and twice coated with hot 
linseed' oil. The cost of this roof is stated to be not more 
than half that of lead. For a further notice of the experi- 
ments of the inventor of this simple truss, see Trussing. 

In the valuable practical works of Micholson, Tredgold, 
&c. the methods of calculating the strength necessary in 
the various parts of a roof may be found ; and in the ' Prin- 
ciples of Carpentry,* by the latter author, tables are given 
of the dimensions suitable for different spans. The table 
here quoted refers to a roof simOar to fig, 7 ; the trusses 
being not more than ten feet apart, and the pitch at an 
angle of about 27^ with the horizon, for a covering of slates. 
The scantlings are suited for yellow fir, and must be somo 
what increased for timber of inferior quality. 

Though the number of contrivances for the construction 
f roufb IS very great, as may be seen bv reference to various 


Tie'beam. Kin^-poflt. 



















8 X4| 













4 X2i 

Six 5 

4 X2 




















9 XH 


For th« strength of different materials, under various cir- 
cumstances, the reader may consult Materials, Strength 
OF, vol. XV., p. 8. As a general remark, it may be observed 
that oak, when exposed to tension, is weaker than fir, and 
is therefore less adapted for ties. Being however less com- 
pressible, it is usuallv preferred for raflers, straining pieces, 
and struts; but Tredgold observes that its greater tendency 
to warping in summer renders it less fit for rafters and 
purlins than foreign fir. Cast-iron is not much used, except 
in fire-proof roofs, and each piece requires to be well tested. 
Wrought-iron is very useful for straps and fastenings, and 
also for ties and trussing-posts ; but care is always necessary 
to guard against imperfections, which are more likely to 
pass unobserved than in wood. Wherever iron is applied, 
provision should be made for its expansion ukd contraction, 
and it is desirable to protect it from oxidation by painting., 
Though iron is far stronger for its size than any kind of 
timber, it is neither so strong nor so eheap as yellow fir, 
vmghtfor weight. 

The joints in the frame-work of a timber roof are of va- 
rious kinds, according to the nature of the strain they have* 
to resist. They should be formed with ereat care, and withi 
due regard to such probable changes of K)rm as all construc- 
tions of timbers are liable to from shrinking and warping. 
Cocking or cogging is the name given to that kind of Jfom- 
ing in which one piece of timber, in a state of tension, is* 
so attached to another that it cannot be drawn away without 
one piece breaking. Figa. 24 and 25 represent two methods* 
of cocking the ends of tie-beams on the wall -plates, 
giving a plan and elevation of each. In both figures a< 
represents the beam, and b the wall-plate. In the first 
plan, which was formerly much practised, the contraction 
) of the dove-tailed end of the beam would allow it to be 


R O O 



Ff^. 24. 

Fi^^ 25. 

dfavn considerably out of iU place, and would therefore 
permit the walU to spread ; but in the second the amount 
of contraction is diminished, owing to the small width of 
the rectangular tongue that enters the tie-beam, while its 
poaitioD is such as to prevent the beam being drawn out of 
its place beyond the actual extent of the contraction of the 
tongue. Tlie shrinkmg of the joggles of king-poats and 
queen-posts is often productive of serious derangement, a 
circumstance greatly in favour of the substitution of iron for 
wood lor such parts, especially in large roofs. This inconve- 
nience is sometimes avoided by making the upper ends of 
the principal rafters abut immediately upon each other, as 
lepresented in jig. 12. A similar arrangement is made, in 
some cases, where wooden king-posts are used, the king- 
post and rafters being strapped together with iron. The 
sinking of a roof, particularly if it be of low pitch, is very 
injurious to the mortise-and-tenon joints of the struts and 
rafierSv by throwing the strain on the shoulders of the 
tenons in such a way as to break off the tenons or splinter 
the wood. To guard against such injuries, it has been pro- 
posed by M. Perronet, a French engineer, instead of making 
the tenons and joggles square, to form them into circular arcs, 
the centres being at the opposite end of the strut or rafter. 
This plan appears worthy of general adoption, as it allows 
the joints to accommodate themselves to changes of form 
without injury. All the timbers of a roof are usually fitted 
and framed together on the ground, and taken to pieces 
again before being elevated to the building. 

Allusion has been made in a previous column to the 
various materials used for the covering of roofs, with refer- 
ence to the different degrees of inclination suitable for 
them. Thatched roofs have been considered by some to 
maintain the most equable temperature in the buildings 
oovered by them, keeping out alike the extreme heat of 
summer and cold of winter. They are objectionable on 
account of their harbouring vermin, being.easily damaged 
by wind, and dangerously combustible. The frequent re- 
pairs required make thatch also an expensive material. 
Besides straw, reeds and heath are sometimes used for 
thatching, and possess the advantage of greater durability. 
Tiles admit heat and moisture more than good slates. Pan- 
tiles, having no holes for nailing through, are simply hung, 
by ledges* upon laths nailed to the rafters. Plain tiles, laid 
in mortar, and over-lapping, so as to be double thickness 
everywhere, make a very good though heavy covering. 
Tiles of a peculiar form, called hip-tiies, are used for cover- 
ing salient angles ; and gutter tiles, which are similar to 
them, but placed with the concave side upwards, in the 
valleys or receding angles. Slates are laid in various ways. 
They are sometimes nailed down on a close boarding ; or, if 
large, on battens, or pieces of wood from two and a half to 
three inches wide, and three-quarters of an inch to an inch 
thick, which are nailed to the rafters at intervals regulated 
by the length of the slates. Lozenge-shaped slating is occa- 
aiunally used, and has an ornamental appearance, but is 
easily injured, as there is but one nail through each slate. 
It is always laid on boarding. For what is called patent 
slating the best large slates are selected, and fixed without 
either boarding or battening, the common rafters being 
placed at such a width as to come under the joints. The 
sl&U'b are screwed down, the courses over-lapping about two 
iiM:U<^ Tlie meeting joints are covered by fillets of slate 
fcl»'>ui ibfbc iftcbe« wide, set in putty, and screwed down; 
ai»U u.« itip* a till rt<i^(fs arc s^^metirocs covered in the same 
iiiuiii)t-r, tlioj^U ji ih i>e«»t in all such cases to use lead. 
pAiriJi ►luM ^ ifth.ri licil executed, is water-tight with as 
|ij^ a fri >\^ -^ vt.c it» wx. In rnvac districts laminx* of stone 
lire u*c'j ifi ]..,-u *A ^:Jl^-» w t.U?*. Shingles whir h are like 
h-d'^'i^ t>ij( loa'ic of w >'i*l v«frc l*ntut\\y m\ic\\ used incovei- 
ij.;' pwiiMu'j u h'iTty.* », XII I II n,i,\^ «if »ti'ep pilch. Tbi-y are 
sti.; utiK'i a t'i*" L'mi.«-H Si .u-». iiti<l an* usually laid on 
bv<«;'. II: a * II' «i fi-i.'i'** f t«> *'i\mi\',n %\iiW% 

btMTvu v( ibvUi ui« )fi) i*ju>i;H^u\ tor <:o^cring domes, 

and curved or angular surfaces gencnUj; mnd also L : 
roofs, or such as ha\'e too little slope for slating, L 
the most common material for such purposes, ftiou^'^ 
per, iron, tinned iron, and recently zinc* are al5o «• 
Lead terraces or flats are commonly laid on boaitii . 
plaster. The joints are sometimes soldered, but iLe c 
approved method is to roll or wrap the edges m:u > 
other, making allowance for expansion and contract:'^, 
fall of a quarter of an inch in a foot is sufficient for sur.: 
covered with sheet metal. 

Cements of various kinds have been applied to ::r 
mat ion of roofs, and in some cases with success, t: 
they have often been found to crack, and thereby ^ . 
permeable to water. Mixtures of tar with lime, i^and. ^.. 
ashes, &c., have been recommended ; and atsphalie ha'« 
applied to this purpose, apparentfy with great adv:: 
Compositions of tar, resin, and si mils r substancc> >, 
upon sheets of coarse paper, have also been used. 

(Sicholson^i ArchitecturcU Dictionary, Practical F 
&C &&; Trcd^old's iVtiict]p/tf« qf Carpentry; It..- 
Mechanical Philosophy,) 

ROOK {Corvus frugilegus, Linn.), This well-kn^v: . 
garious and familiar bird (for it seems to affect the nc:^ 
hood of man, and even not to be scared by tbe • 
atmosphere of great towns) is the Comacchia nera a:. 
nacchtone of the Italians ; Grave, GroUe, Freux, ani ; 
onne of the French ; Comeille Moissoneuse of B: •• 
Schwartze Krdhe of the Germans ; Rohi of the S j- 
Rook of the modern British, and Yd^fran of the j. 

Belon and Caius, the latter of whom names the R 
Spermologus, seu Fhtgilega, appear to be of opinion il. 
it is the vfTtpfioXoyoQ of Aristotle {Hist, Anim.,\n\. o\. I 
doubtless, as Pennant observes, the Corvus of V^iigil, • 
has happily described a flock of them 

Geographical Distribution,— Die Rook is spread over ; 
greater part of Europe ; but nowhere does it seem to 
more abundant than in Great Britain and Ireland. Wo 
and cultivated districts are its favourite haunts. The fa:' 
north the observer goes in Scotland, the fewer rooks d^ - 
see. In Orkney and Shetland there are none, nor are :' 
any in Guernsey and Jersey. They do not appear to be 
merous in Denmark, nor in the southern districts of Sa ^ 
nor in Russia and northern Asia, though they msy b< « 
there. In Italy the rook is common and permanent, 
it appears to be migratory over a part of the contiLt: 
Europe. In France it is also common, and the i^.- • 
quatrain appears under the cut of it in the Ihrtnait - 

* Jam&li le Freux ne luinte le riraifr, 
£t ne M pairt que d« graias et de vert, 
II est oynunii commun, groc et perren. 
Qui vole eu truuppe, ct eric a TaTaata^.* 

It occurs between the Black and Caspian seas: y ' 
Von Siebold and M. Burger note it among the Eu.. 
birds seen by them in Japan. 

Food, Habits, ^, — Grain, and insects especially, f*^ 
food of the Rook, and there can be no doubt that u . 
repays the farmer for the seed which it takes, by xtsA.^ 
ily in clearing his land of wire- worms and the larw 
cock- chaffer (Melolontha vulgaris). These last are t- 
Rook-worms in many places, and the birds maybe $ev 
lowing the plough-tail to gather them up as the sh." 
poses them. In the end of May and beginning of 
when the young are able to fly and go abroad sitn ' 
parents, they may often be seen among the bri^hi . 
leaves of the horse-chestnut and other trees bonir: 
branches with their weight as they assemble to pick v** 
cock-chaffers in the winged state. Where these birl^ 
been inconsiderately destroyed, on account of the sut' 
damage which they had done, a total failure of the rn - 
made the farmer glad to try to get them back again • 
stick-built nest contains four or five pale greeui^t 
blotched - with dark greenish brown ; these are &«. l^c' 
palmed upon the undisceming for Plover's egns ^'• 
easily distinguished from them. Not that a rook*s o;:: - 
any means bad ; though far inferior in every rc$(>««4 
other. The male is most attentive to the female «i 
is setting, and feeds her assiduously : both are ver\ : 
trious in supplying their young, and the »kin ur. :. 
tongue may at thij» season be ofien seen dilated i>r 
of pouch by the collected food. During the buildi*?^ > ^ 



R O O 

otber strong battery, which put them in possession of most 
of the enemy's cannon. The governor then accepted the 
offered terms of capitulation, and the fortress surrendered. 

On the 9th of August, 1 704. Rooke fell in with the French 
fleet under the Comte de Toulouse, who had recently put to 
sea from Toulon, with fifiy-two ships of the line and twenty- 
four galleys/ The French admiral endeavoured to get 
away, though, according to Rooke's statement, he had a 
superiority of 600 guns, but on the 13th of August Rooke 
brought him to action off Malaga. The battle began in the 
forenoon, and ended with the day, when the French went 
off to leeward, and, the weather being hazy, escaped. This 
was a hard-fought battle. The Frencn lost upwards of 3000 
men, and the English upwards of 2000. 

Sir Greorge Rooke on his return to England was received 
by queen Anne at Windsor with great distinction, but find- 
ing thai the government was hostile to him, he resigned his 
employments, gave up his seat in parliament, and passed the 
rest of his life at his seat of St. lAwrence, where ne died on 
the 24th of January, 1709, aged fifty-eight, and was buried 
in the cathedral of Canterbury. He was thrice married. 
(CampbelVs Lives of the Admirals ; Locker *s Gallery of 
Greenwich Hospital.) 

ROOKER, MICHAEL AN6ELO, an artist of con- 
siderable merit as a landscape-painter and engraver, was 
born in London about the year 1743. His father, Edward 
Rooker, also a skilful designer and engraver, who excelled 
in landscapes and architectural views, appears to have been 
a singular character, having for some time acted as a harle- 
quin at Drury-Lane Theatre. Michael Angelo was taught 
engraving by his father, and executed the head-pieces to the 
' Oxford Almanack ' for several years, from his own draw- 
ings. In landscape-drawing, which is said to have been his 
favourite occupation, he was instructed by Paul Sandby, 
whose style he imitated. His manner is not powerful, but 
his drawings display much taste and feeling. For several 
years Rooker painted the scenes for the Haymarket Theatre. 
He was one of the earliest associates of the Royal Academy, 
and died on the last day of February, 1801, at the age of 
fifty-seven or fifty-eight. 

ROOS. PHILIP PETER, a painter commonly calle<l 
Bosa da Tivoli, from his long residence at that place, was 
born at Frankfort in 1655. He was instructed in art by 
his father, who was in the service of the landgrave of Hesse, 
b^ which prince Philin was sent to Italy, and allowed a pen- 
sion during the period of his study. On arriving at Rome, 
he applied himself assiduously to painting, and acquired a 
most astonishing facility of hand ; indeed, such was his ra- 
pidity of execution, that C. le Blond, who was at the same 
time at Rome, declares that Roos copied in chalk the arch 
of Titus within half an hour, and that with a considerable 
degree of finish. He devoted his talents chiefly to painting 
animals, which he designed mostly from nature. To facili- 
tate his studies he established himself at Tivoli, where he 
kept a kind of menagerie for the purpose of drawing from 
the life with correctness such animals as he required for his 
pictures. His other subjects generally represent pastoral 
soenes, with herdsmen and cattle, and works of a similar 
nature, some of which are executed as large as life. His 
groups are composed with great judgment; and the land- 
scapes in his backgrounds, his skies and distances, are 
treated with surpassing truth, and executed in a masterly 
style. Yet, although he painted with great facility, his 
productions betray no appearance of negligence or inatten- 
tion ; they are free, without being deficient in finish. His 
pictures, according to Lanzi, are to be found in the galleries 
of Vienna, Dresden, and other capital cities of Germany, 
besides an immense number in Italy and many in England, 
though we have no specimen by his hand in the National 
Gallery. He was a member of most of the principal, aca- 
demies of Europe. He is said by Huber to have etched a 
few plates of pastoral subjects, which are very scarce. M. 
P6ries, in the *Biographie Universelle,' mentions three pic- 
tures by this master which were in the Mus^e Napoleon, 
but which were returned to Vienna* whence they had been 
Uken, in 1 81 5. These are a view of the Cascade of Tivoli, 
a picture of animals, and a wolf devouring a sheep, the 
otndscape in which latter work was pain tea by Tempesta. 
(Pilkington's Dictionary, by FuseU ; Lanzi, Storia Pttiorica. 
ii. 174; Bioeraphie Universelle,) 

ROOT. The mathematical use of this term has gradu- 
ally been extended, until it may be defined as follows: 
every value of an unknown quantity which satisfies a given 

equation is called a root of that equation. Thus, 2. 1. 
V(-3) and l-> V (">3) are the roots, and all the r • ^ 
the equation 

since they are the only algebraical formulo and antji 
cal numbers which satisfy it. On this general use j 
term root, see Theory of Equations ana I kvolvtio-^. 

The more common use of the term root is as fitHon* 
seventh root of 8 is the incommensurable fractioa • 
seventh power is 8, or the solution of the equation :'* 
There are altogether seven such solutions, one only ar. 
tical, the others of the form a+&^ (— I) ; the \n*.\\ 
obtaining the arithmetical solution has already been di^ 
in the article Involution ; the importance of the s^ 
Root will justify its consideration in an article apsr. 
reserve for the present article the method of find ..; 
using any root (in the common sense) of any algc 
quantity, a necessary completion of the article Nec' 
AND Impossible Quantities. 

Every algebraical result is of the form a-^-b »J ( - 
widest, or may be reduced to that form. Here a aiTi 
meant to be real algebraical quantities, that is, rec. 
to positive or negative whole numbers or fraetious 
mensurableor incommensurable. Thus, if 6=0, ve br 
simple real quantity a ; if a=0, we have the simple .: 
sible quantity 6 V (— 1 )• It is indifferent, as to the rr 
article, in what light the impossible quantity V( - D - 
sidered; whether, as in Nbgatiyb and Impossible Q' • 
TiTiES, upon that extended system of definitions i 
makes it explicable and rational, or upon the more c.i 
system in which it is used without such explanatiu'i 
we are now merely considering all algebraic fonoLl.t 
results, subject to certain laws by which their use i« ) 
regulated, and without any reference to interprc:: 
When we desire to consider only the arilbmef ical root . 
arithmetical quantity, we shall use the symbols /%/, {/, t^ & 
but the exponential fractions ). ), i, &c. will denote 
one of the algebraical roots of a formula. Thus Vl6 iu< 

simply 4; but (16)^ is an ambiguous symbol slandin«: ' 
either +4 or —4* And when we have an equation ^ 
presents an ambiguous formula equated to an unaml ^ . 
one, we mean that the unambiguous side of the cqua:: 

one of the values of the ambiguous one : in this sense 
i( — l-fV(— 3) ). When we use the simple ariiLr:- 
symbol tj before an algebraical quantity, as in ^^-? 

merely mean to signify that the two values of ( -> 3)* ai^ - 
tinguished into + V (-3) and — V ( --3). 

Let us now take a quantity of the form a^hs - 
Assume r cos. 0=a, r sin. 0=6, which gives 

r^ ik fj (6*+o«) tan. e=-. 


Let us choose for r, which is called the modulwf J 
expression, the positive value V (6*+^*). We ctn '. 
always make the angle B give the equation 

a+*V (-l)=r COS. e+r sine //(-I) (I 

identically true. If a and b be both positive, $ mu? 
between and a riffht angle, or between and ^ [A> 
if a be positive and b negative, must lie between ^ • 
2ir : if b he positive and a negative, $ must lie betvn 
and r : and if both be negative, must lie between r a. . 
Thus reducing angles to degrees and minutes, 

2+3V(-l)=v'13 (008.56** 19'+ sin. 56* 19' . ^'i- 
-2+3V(-l)=Vl3(cos.l23''4l'+sin.l23*'4r Vl- 

2-3V(-l)=Vl3{cos.303''41'+sin.303"4r J "- 
-2-3Vi— 1)= Vl3 {cos.236^19'+8in.236* 19' -^'i^ 

Generally,* if a and b be positive, and if, returning t 
theoretical mode of measuring angles, 6 be tfiat «:. 
which lies between and ^,ir and has b:a for iti^ t3 ^ 
we must use e for a-\-b V<-1), w-e for — a-f ^n^' - 
2ir-e for a-A^/f-l), and w+e for -a-6V(— 1) 

Again, since 6+2^3r has the same sine and costnr - 
when k is any whole number, positive or negative. . 
take e so as to satisfy (1), we find that the following .* 
satisfied : 

a+&V(-l) =r {cos. (e+2Air) + sin. (e+2*ir). ^'l-- 

for all integer values of k positive or negative, but r ' 
any fractional value of A whatsoe\er. This and variou> » 
results of common trigonometry should be familiar to . 
student who attempts the present subject. 

R O O 


R O O 

Common multiplication makes it obvious that 
(cos, X'\-&in,x. V(— 1)} {cos. y+sin.y V(— 1)} = 
COS. (a?+y) + sin. (x-^y) V(— U 

* >r all real values of x and y; so that if we represent 
>s. x+sin. ar. V(— by nx we have i|a?Xi)y=i}(a;+y)- 

^ ow in Binomial Theorem it is proved that this equation 
ill nut be universally true without giving as a consequence 
/./)')= 7i(?jx), for all values of n, whole or fractional, positive 
r negative. Wo have then 

tv»s. iT+sin. X V(— 1)}"=C08. n:r+sin. nx, V(— 1)...(3) 
( I o(} nation which goes by t&e name of De Moivre's Theorem. 

^ is the key of the present subject. it now be required to raise the nth power of a^- 

^ \^i — \),n being integer or fractional, positive or negative : 
IS includes every case of raising a power, extracting a root, 

"■if )rming both operations, and taking the reciprocal of any 

• -ult. Reduce a+6V(— 1) to its equivalent form rjj(0+ 
»rr;, or 

r {cos. (e+2kir) + sin. (d+2ikT^ . V(-l)}, 

i:ence {a+6Vr-l))"ia {rij(e+2ATr)}" or T^ri(n9+2nkv), 


II which 7*" is found by purely arithmetical operation, and 
'><.{fiO-}'2nkT) and sin. {n6-i-2nkfr) by aid of the trigono- 
u't ricul tables. So many distinct values as the variation 
1' /i enables us to give to n6+2nkirt so many values do we 

III of {(i-|-^ V( — 1 )}". Two angles are distinct when they 
. K" unequal, and do not differ by 27r or a multiple of 2ir. 

Firstly, let n be a whole number, positive or negative, 
..on 'l?ik is always an integer even number, and there is 
.ily one value, namely, 

{a+6V(-l)}"=r"{cos. w0+sin. nO. V(-l)}. 

\\i, let 72 be a fraction in its lowest terms, and, choosing 

n example, say nr=-. Let us examine all the values of k, 


H..I11 A = —5 to A = +5, making A.=nO+2nAir. 

4 ^ 4 32 . 4^ 24 , 

V^5 = 5 ^ - S'^' A^,= -0-^ir, A^3=30-— TT, A_2 = 

IG ^ 4 8^4^48^ 

•^ - -T- ^, A_^=. i ^- F ^' ^0= - e, A^= je+- .r, A2= 

ir> . 4 24 . 4^ 32 ^ 4 

Here it would seem as if from this set of the possible 

>luo5> of /f, we get eleven distinct values of the fifth root of 

,.c liyLHiU power of fl+i\/(— 1). But a moment's inspec- 

 11 shows that A_5, A^, A^, are not distinct angles, since 

:u y ill Iter by multiples of 2v: neither are A_^ and Aj, 

uu- A_3 and Aj. nor A_^ and Ag, nor A_j and A^. Also 

t w ill be found that for every value of k 

Ajkdb5» A/,J;:io» Aftii5» ^^' 

re i\\\ angles which differ, each from its predecessor, by 2ff; 
. that there are but five distinct angles in the whole series, 
Such may be found by taking A^, Aj^.^, A^^2* ^^^3, 

"'1 '^k-hv ^^^^ *"y ^*^"^ °^* positive or negative. And 

• iterally, if n be a fraction whose denominator (when the 

^ictiou is reduced to its lowest terms) is q^ it will be found 

hdt there are q distinct values of {a+AVC-U}" and no 

The most important cases are those in which r= 1, or a»4- 
. =1. in which cos. 6 + sin. eV(-l) may represent the 
-\].i ession. And of this particular case, the most important 
uc'e particular coises are 

e=0 cos. e+sin. 0V(— 1) = 1 
e=:ir COS. O+sin. 0V(-l)= -I 
0=Jir cos.e+8in. eV(-l)=V(-l) 
O^Itt cos. e-fsin. eV(-i)= — V(-l) 

> )r these, again, the two first are the most important. 

Let n=l:q, and let the question be to find the q qih 
i.»ts of 1. Putting unity in the form cos. 2Air+sin. 
>A:r. V(-l), all these roots are the distinct values of 

^IkTT . 2kT . ,^ I 2ir 2fr U 

, ,s. — -Irsin. — V(-l) or {cos.--- + 8in.--V(- IJi • 
q q ^ Q. H 

2ir 2ir 2ir 2ir 

L'.t cos. — + sin. — . V(-0=ai cot. — - siii. — . 
q 9 ^ 9 H 

Then a/3 = l, as will be found by multiplication, and 

« =^"7 : a*=a*^^=/3~*=^«, since a^=l. Consequently, 
since the series of powers of a, positive and negative, are 
successions of gth roots of 1, the series of powers of /3 will 
be the same; and we may therefore select these roots at 
convenience from either series, or partly from one and partly 
from the other. Thus, if we would have the ten tenth roots 
of unity we may form them in pairs, as follows : — 

oO and /30 
a' and /3* or a* 
a* and j3* or a* 
a» and p^ or a^ 
a* and /3* or cfi 
a* and /3* or a* 

give COS. 


. . 2.0ir , 
± sin. -— - V(- 1) both =1 

cos. — ± sin. 

4^ , . 
cos. TT ± sin. 

cos. — ± sin. 

cos. — ± sm. 


47r . 


Sir , 

lOir, . lOir , 
. COS. —± sin. —V(- 1) both s>-l 

Of these twelve forms, t^n only are distinct, giving the 
ten tenth roots required. In this way the following theorems 
may be easily demonstrated. 

1. The (2m)th roots of unity are +1, 1, and the 
2m^1 quantities contained in 

2k'ip , . 2Air , 
COS.— ±sin.— V(-l) 

for all values oik from A=r 1 to k=m^ 1, both inclusive. 

2. The (2ffi+l)th roots of unity are 1 and 2m quantities 

contained in 



d: sin. 




2m+i " 2m+l 

for all values of k, from A=I to A=m, both inclusive. 
3. If fi be one of thegth roots of unity, fi', /x*, .... are also 
th roots, but do not contain all the q roots, unless /x be made 
rora a value oik which is prime to q. Thus, if g=12, and 

A=rl, weget 

2t 2t 

asrcos. — + sin. — V(- 1) 

the list of roots is complete in 1, o, a^ a^ . . . . a'*, and a>' is 
1, a'^ is a, &c. 
But if wc make A=8, or take a" for /x, we have 

IL^:=za^^=ta\ /*»=a"=l. n}—a^^=za\ fA^=a*^=a\ &c., 

so that we get no roots from this series but a^ a^ 1, which 
are only the three cube roots of 1 (cube roots are among 
twelfth roots). But choose a^ (5 is prime to 12) and its i>uc« 

o*® or a*. 

a" or tf, a^ 


cessive powers are a*, a^^y a'* or a^ 

a\ a^* or a'*, a^° or a®, a*^ or a», o*° or a', a" or a^ *a®o or 

1, after which the series recurs in the «ame order. 

4. If m be any factor of g, all the mth roots of unity are 
among the qih roots. Thus, if qim^v, and if a be the 
first of the series of qih roots, the mth roots are tt», a*^ .... 
amv or 1. For (ao)'«=a^"»=a9=l, &c. All those powers 
of CI which have exponents prime to q, may be called primi- 
tive ^th roots of unity : thus the primitive 12th roots arc a. 

or, a^, a 


5. The ^lli roots of unity exist in pairs of the form 
COS. ^±sin. (fi V( — 1). These pairs are are a and av-', a* 
and a^—\ &c., or a and a— ^ a' and a~\ &c. 

Let the question now be to find the^th roots of —1. If we 
now take 

- 1 = cos. (ir+2*T') + sin. iv+2kTr) . a/(- 1 ) 

we have all the 9th roots in the distinct values of the 

(— 1) = COS. — -I—— -f- sm. . v( - 1). 

X X 

Let a=cos. - + sin. — V(— l)i then the nth roots re- 
q q 

quired are (1^0.^^ a*,.... a'?—*, beginning with A=0, and 
ending with k=q^\. Thus, if /« be* any one root, all the 
odd powers of m (positive or nep;ative) are also roots, but do 
not contain among them all the roots unless the value of 
2*4-1, from which /i is derived, be prime to 9. Thus if ^= 15 
and if /* =a», >V9 have (since a'"= I > 



R O O 

BO that we only get, firom the powers of a*, the distinct roots 
a", a , —I. a'. &''• which are also the fifth roots of —I. 
But if 2A+1 he prime to 9, all the oth roots of — 1 may be 
obtained from /*. And as before, ir m be any factor of 9, 
all the mth roots of — 1 are among the 9th roots. Also 
thoM oth roots occur in pairs of the form cos. ^ :k 
sin. 0V( — 1). the pairs being a and 029— \ a* and a2q~\ 
&C-, or a and a-*, a* and a-', &c 

Every 9th root of —1 is one of the (29)th roots of +1* 
and the (2q)ih roots of +1 consist of all the qth roots of — 1 
and all the qih roots of + 1- 

The following equations will also be easily proved : — 

{ V( - 1)} = «»• h s»n. 


{-V(-l)} =C08. - 

+ sin. :^ v(- 1). 

q 9 

As it is not our object here to write on the applications 
of these formulas, but only to supply an article of reference 
for those who may have forgotten or imperfectly learnt 
the ^^undwork of this very important branch of analysis, 
we finish here, referring to Series for such applications as 
fall within the plan of this work. 

ROOT is that part of a plant which is sent downwards 
into the earth, at the same time that the stem is sent up- 
wards into the air. Every part of the plant which exists 
underground is not root, as large portions of the stem itself 
may remain under the surface of the earth ; and large buds, 
called bulbs, also exist underground. These parts have 
been often confounded with the root. The creeping root, 
and some forms of the tuberous and bulbous roots of older 
botanical writers, are only so many different forms of the 
stem. [Stem.] 

The root is distinguished by certain structural peculiarities, 
by which it may be easily known from the stem. First, its 
ramifications are irregular, not having the symmetrical form 
of branches, nor are they developed like branches from 
buds. Secondly, roots generally produce no leaf-buds. 
When they do appear, which occasionally occurs, they are 
called adventitious buds. Thirdly, roots never have leaves, 
scales, or other appendages developed upon their surface ; 
and fourthly, the cuticle of roots is never found to possess 
stomates, which are frequently very numerous on various 
parts of the stem. 

The smaller divisions of roots are called JlbriU, which 
consist of a little bundle of ducts or spiral vessels, sur- 
rounded by woody fibres, lying in a mass of cellular tissue. 
At the apex of the fibril the cellular tissue is loose and 
devoid of cuticle, from which cause it absorbs more rapidly 
the fluid by which it is surrounded than the other parts of 
the root. Although the terminations of the roots cannot be 
considered as special organs, they have been named by De 
Candolle 9pongeleU or spongioies, in reference to their ab- 
sorbing power. 

The relation between the size and extent of the roots and 
that of the branches varies very much. In some tribes, as 
the ConiferoD and PalmacesD, the roots are very insignificant 
compared with the size of the stem. In other plants the 
roots are much the longest, as in the lucem, &c. In the 
greater proportion of trees the roots extend wider than the 
brancbesi but do not penetrate so deep as the stem is 

The internal structure of the root resembles that of the 
stem, but in Exogcns the roots do not possess a central pith. 
Tlio cellular tissue of many roots is exceedingly abundant, 
and on this account they are used as articles of aiet. Their 
nutiitive property depends on the saccharine and other 
secretions which are deposited in the cells of the cellular 
tM«uc. Many of these roots, by attention to their culture, 
may be increased in size ; and the growth of esculent roots 
if an object of importance in the kitchen-garden. The prin- 
cipal cM'ulcnt roots are: the Jerusalem artichoke (Helian- 
thu9 lubero$us); itxrnip (Bratm'ca Rapa); csLYtoi (Daucus 
Curota) ; par»nip {I\utinaca saliva) ; red-beet (Beta vul- 

B4*»i'le» these, which arc commonly cultivated, there are 
tnanv of oi&r native plaata wliich possess roots yielding a 

nutritive matter, and are occasionally used as artselea cf 
The arrow-head, common arum, bitter vetcli or iiiou«« : 
earth-nut, meadow-sweet, pilewort, sago, stlv«r-wee«i ^ 
mon*s seal, and common comfrey, are recorded aa 5«t-.: 
edible roots. {Cyehptrdia of Gardenings p. 882.) 

During dry seasons and in dry situaiioiis tlfte r^>'- 
many plants swell and become tuberous, which seem? ' 
a provision for supplying nutriment to the stem ai^d .'- 

Roots are called annual, biennial, or perentncU^ aort>7 
to their duration. When a root perishes after its fir« v 
herbage and flowering, it is annual ; if afler tl>e »: 
year's herbage and first year of flowering, it is bK-nti 
a root endures for many years, although its herba^ir ^ 
perish every year, it is perennial. 

There are various forms of roots distinguished by bo* 1* 
The yE^ou^ root possesses a multitude of small div-^. - 
the fibrilise, as is seen in the Poa annua aod mant 
grasses. The nodulose root presents occasional diliu 
as in the Phleum nodosum. A prtemorse root is o'- 
which the extremity of the primary axb has pen^^t- ' 
its development has been prevented by the exteDi> 
fibrillin from its sides, as in the DeviVs-bit Scabioui « 
biosa succisa). The fusiform root is seen in the cam: 
turnip ; such plants are also called tap-rooted. The '-- 
tubercules is applied by some to the roots of tbe orrh*< . 
dahlia; the former are palmated or lobed^ the Utter 

Although most' if not all the higher plants jpcsae^ r 
amongst many of the lowest forms they are not to be * 
tinguished. The lower plants which float about in v^' 
as the Oscillatoria, Diatoma,&c., and which consist uf i: 
more than simple cells, possess no appendages which can 
called roots. In many of the ConfervB a downwaiti - 
velopment of the cells of cellular tissue, attaching the: 
the objects on which they grow, has been observed. So- 
of the lichens, as the L. eeculentus of Pallas, and the Ium 
forms of Fungi, as the Tremellas, &c., possess no r«> -• 
Many of the floating water-plants, as the Aldrovanda \'- 
culosa, do not develop roots, and derive their noahsfaa 
from the medium in which they live by the direct coatar 
the cellular tissue. In fact we find that the simple cf^l > 
cellular tissue in the lower plants perform all those Uz 
tions which, as we ascend in the scale of organization : 
performed by particular parts of the plant In the On"- 
and the Marchantia, the roots become more evidentl} .■ 
veloped, and the downward growth of the cells is i' ' 
observable than in the Confervse. On the lower sarfv- 
the Marchantia, prolongations of the cellular tissM y 
observed, which Meyen calls root-hairs or capillary fib * 
In the EquisetaoesD and Ferns tbe roots become mart :• 
fectly developed, and their surface is almost entirely eo^" 
with capillary fibrils. These fibrils are developed on a!r 
all roots, and perform the function of absorption. K 
are only seen on recently- formed roots, as with the incK> : 
age of the root they drop off; and in old roots none r 
are found. They are not so numerous in the roots nf : 
higher plants as in those of the lower, but their ccr 
varies exceedingly according to the circumstances io «- 
a plant is placed. The number of these rooi-ba:.^ 
greatest in those plants which derive their nutriment i' 
the earth, and accordingly they may be looked up' 
a provision for extending the absorbing surface. T 
attain sometimes the length of a quarter and the tli.:- 
aft inch. 

In many plants the roots, instead of being covered >•' 
the capillary fibrils, present a condensed membraitc, v.^ 
also encloses the roots as in a sheath, and extends t,> ' 

5oint of the root where the fibrils commence their gr ' 
*his structure occurs in most water-plants, and in tbe r 
of those plants which are accidentally projected intoi>->' 
and in some land-plants. It drops oflf with increasing . 
in the same manner as the root- hairs. Meyen cou'^y 
this sheath a modification of the root-hairs, and hence i: * 
that it performs the same functions. (Meyen, Neues 5y>> " 
der Pflanzen Phynologie, band ii.) 

What the absorbent vessels are to the animal, the r- * 
are to the plant, and a difference between plants and 
mals has been pointed out as dependent on the relative ^• 
ation of their organs of absorption. Tbe animal den\t-^ '- 
nutriment, by means of its absorbents, from an inti 
reservoir, the stomach ; whilst the plant derives its nuinr. 
from an external re8ervoir« the earth. The spongioles irf ^ 




beyond that wUch limfly prevents the fibra* being drawn on t 
without breaking, is injurious. A skein of fibres, or a rope, 
may be twisted so hard that any further attempt at twisting 
would break it. and such a skein or rope will evidently have 
no power to support a weight, each fibre being already 
strained to the utmost extent that it will bear. In &ct, 
whatever force is exerted by any fibre in compressing the 
rest, may be considered the same as a weight hanging on 
that fibre, and must be subtracted iSrom its absolute strength 
befbM its useful efl'ect can be ascertained ; the available 
strength of a rope being the remainder of the absolute 
strength of its component fibres, after deducting the fbroe 
exerted in twisting them. 

Were a rope to be formed by simply twisting together, in 
one direction, the whole of the fibres of which it is com- 
posed, there wonld be nothing to prevent iu untwisting as 
soon as left to itself. It is therefore necessary to twist the 
fibres in comparatively small portions, and so to combine 
these into a rope that the tendency to untwist in one part 
may counteract the like tendency in another. Hkos the 
same force which would cause the component parts, if se- 
parate, to become loose or untwisted, is employed, when 
they are combined into a rope, to keep the wnole firm and 

Ttie first process in rope-making consists in twisting the 
hemp into thick threads, called rope-yarns* This process, 
whicn resembles ordinary spinning, is performed with 
various kinds of machinery. The common mode of spinning 
rope-yams by hand is performed in the rope-ground, or 
rope- walk, an enclosed slip of level ground six hundred 
feut or more in length. As many of the operations of a 
rop«ry are impeded by wet weather, and by the unchecked 
heat of the sun, it is not unusual to cover the walk with a 
dight roof. At one end of this ground a spinning-wheel 
is set up, which gives motion by a band to several small 
rollers or whirls. Each whirl has a small hook formed on 
the end of its axis next the walk. Each of the spinners is 
provided with a bundle of dressed hemp, laid round his 
waist, with the bight or double in firont, and the ends pass- 
ing each other at his back, from which he draws out a suf- 
ficient number of fibres to form a rope-yarn of the required 
sise; and, after slightly twisting them together with 
his fingers, he attaches them to the hook of a whirl. The 
whirl being now set in motion by turning tbe wheel, the 
akein is twisted into a rope-yarn, the spinner walking back- 
wards down the rope- walk, supporting the yarn with one 
hand, which is protected b v a wetted piece of coarse cloth or 
flannel, whOe with the other he regulates the quantity of 
fibres drawn from the bundle of hemp by the revolution of 
the yarn. The degree of twist depends on the velocity with 
which the wheel is turned, combined with the retrograde 
pace of the spinner. Great care is necessary in this opera- 
tion to make the yarn of uniform thickness, and to supply 
the hemp equallv from both sides of tbe bundle ; because, 
if a considerable ix>dy of hemp be supplied to a yam that is 
becoming too thin, it will not combine perfectly with it, but 
form a loosely connected wrapper ; and any irregularity in 
tbe last-mentioned particular will cause the fibres to bear 
the strain unequally. The best mode of supplying the hemp 
is in the form of a thin flat skein. When the spinner has 
tnreruid the whole length of the rope- walk (or sooner, if 
the yarns are not required to be so long), he calls out, and 
another spinner detaches the yam firom the whirl, and gives 
U lo a per»un who carries it aside to a reel, while the second 
spjnner attaches his own hemp to the whirl-hook. The 
oeoap. being dry and elastic, would instantly untwist if the 

iarn were now set at liberty. The first spinner therefore 
eeps faftt bold of it all the while that the reeler winds it 
iip« walkinfT slowly up the walk, so as to keep tbe yarn 
1f^u'J.Ay ught all the way. When it is all wound up, the 
»(.t finer holds it until another is ready to follow it on the 
}«?el. Sometimes, instead of being wound on a reel as they 
are ma<le, the yarns are bid together in large hooks attached 
to [0Mh at the tide of the walk until about four hundred 
are col:e<;ted together, when they are coiled up in a haul or 
s-:»-jn, in whir h state they an» ready for tamng. 

Attempts have been made to introduce machine-spun 
yams, in order to avoid the irregularities and defects of 
tliose t)rmed br hand, and the recent improvements effectefl 
\t% Mr. Lang, of Greenock, in the spinning of yams by ma- 
#b.n'^. are said to succeed very completely. By his pro- 
*^-t tr«« htfrop is more completely heckled, or divided 
sbto tbres, than in the ewPWOP Bode vf proceeding ; and 

k • 

the advantage of each fihce betiig laid at foil Ici.r 
the yam, instead of being doubled, as in faaod-s^ _ 
is ensured. By a modification of the nsuad pnx^^ 
fibres of hand-spnn yams oiav be laid io t full .t 
instead of being doubUd. as when ibey enter tbe >;. 
their bight; but experiment has not ahovn an) ^ 
advantage firom such a mode of spinning- Tha 
improvement in this operation was needAiU may be i.- 
fnaa the result of a comparison between Mr. Lang*s n* > - 
spun yarns and those of eanal grist apnn by his.... . 
result showing the stiength of the former to excr . 
latter by fiftv-five per cent This improved pn:<-- 
been adopted by some of the principal rope-ma nu fa. . 
of Great Britain. 

The common size of rope-yams is firom one-twt - 
rather more than one-ninth of an inch diamel^ ; 1 6 o u* 
of white or nntarred yam weighing finom two and a i. 
four poimds. 
. The next process is warping the yams, or stietch^n: 
to a given length, in order that they may, vrhen foroc. 
a strand, bear the strain equally. When th« rope .« 
tarred, that operation is usually performed upon the '. 
immediately after their being warped ; as the applv^' 
tar to the yams previous to their combinntion is nee • 
to the complete penetration of the whole substance i« 
rope. The most common method of tarring the var ^ 
draw them in hauls or skeins through the tar>kett.c ^ 
capstan ; bnt sometimes the yarns are passed singl) ttr 
the tar, being wound off one reel on to another, :>:.• 
superfluous tar being taken off by passing tbe yarn tlr: 
a nolo surrounded with spon^ oaknm. Great cl:. 
required in this process that tSe tar may boU neiiLc. 
fkst nor too slow, the common heat being from 21:2' to . 
Fahrenheit In Huddart's patent of llfOO^ tbe cover.:, 
the tar-kettle is recommended, to prevent iJie e»cap€ t-: 
evaporated matter, which would make the tar too th. 
The degree of impregnation necessary depends on the k . 
of cordage ; cables and water- ropes needinf^ a considtT. 
quantity of tar, while Ibr standing and runnmg riggicg . 
suflicient that the yams be well covered. 

In making large cordage, it is not usual to twi&t toge': 
at once, as many yams as would suffice to fiirm s to\< 
the required thickness; a suitable number of jtrrA : 
quently from fifteen to twenty-five, are formed in:. 
strand, and three or more such strands are tAer* 
combined into a rope. The twist of the strand is i: 
opposite direction to that of the yams of which it i« 
posed, in order that, as before mentioned, the tendi'.- 
untwist in the individual yarns may be counteric;e>i. : 
taken advantage of to prevent the untwisting of tb« 
In closing or laying the rope, three strands, or sl<c 
four, in which case a small central strand, or k 
added, are stretched at length along the walk, and a!'- - 
at one end to separate but contiguous hoolu, and ^' 
other to a sinj^le hook; and they are twisted togct: 
turning the single hook in a direction contrary to '• 
the other three, a piece of wood called a top, in the . 
of a truncated cone, being placed between tbe stnniN - 
kept during the whole operation gently forced in: " 
angle formed by the strahds, where they are united I) ' 
closing or twisting of the rope. As the rope shor:t' - 
closing, one end only of the apparatus is fixed, tbe 
being on a moveable sledge, whose motion up tbe rupe - 
is capable of regulation by suitable tackle attached tu 
by loading it with weights. The top also is moutite-^ 
sledge, for closing large cordage, ana its rate of motk: 
be retarded, in order to give greater firmness to tbe t^ - 
the rope. The art of the rope-maker, in this o^"-'^ 
consists in so regulating the various movements tb/ 
strands may receive separately at one end just as u 
twist as is taken out of them at the opposite end, t) • ' 
twisting the contrary way in the process of combinai • " 

Such is the methcra, more or less modified by tbe ^ 
machinery employed, of forming a shroud-kud or A. 
laid rope, and such appears to have been the whole rr ' 
of rope- leaking until cordage of very larre size ^^^ - 
for by the progress of navigation. In maSung such it 
not found advisable to increase the number of ysn^ 
strand, it being difficult, when their number is Wrv : 
to throw an equal strain upon each and thereby obu.i' ^ 
aggregate strength. To obviate this inconvenience. (• 
or such large ropes as are said to be cabU4aid, uc <• r 
by tbe combination of smaller ropes twisted ruuua t- * 




R O P 

Tbe trtmvrtl cif the 4Hpeto aad had qiolitks af 

tsir «>» tf^ ^v-e>»t of SMtfc:.! Uk««i o»t m 1*v2 by Mr. 

f .'.(;.'j;.2r:. UL^3'j<9ei»'ul x*t«^|yu had been ma^ to sob- 
ft' ' «ve o>M ar»^ Tsr//:^ (i: ft'..S*tan*«iy which wytAd be uuo- 
j'..v.«; Hi tr»*«r, ^vr tar: bat luifj had been found to nnpede 
lb« '^Aentioo '>f tvutr ^ Chapmas iinprorred the ordinarr 
tv. L r«4, ' br b-.* .l^ th« tax ;d water one or more Ixuma, each 
<>f «7 ii'.b ex*n»'^% a (^^r.-vn of jt* tupcrrabur^iant and, ax»d its 
tu^nj^^ w '.«'h «yy:ita.r.-ft a d.«e;.g-^ged ac.d ;' and, eeoondlj, 
' t';. "'^.'..Zi ..' 1^ ti,«%e f»ry"«:M<» until ibe tar baa thrown o§ 
a !»';;«-' ;.<ir«'.n of tu eM<^ o:U uid become* more 
I ' .} ' ii ^ >■--*!: and, f'-^s.Ij, br re»;oring tbe requisite 
)/. •y ^ ;:^r-. ^^^ tLe a'l':.:../a of iubttanee» leta injunoiu 
a; 1 i»-«« rv^t. «:. ar.d tfiereiore nkTre c%»nticuous, tiz. br tbe 

a-v. '^'r^ of %~f*^ ta ,rjr, arj.aiil o.:*, or tiatahU eipi 
'^ k/ Of *. t^ a'li 2 tiU';ir*r% attei^d.og tLiis proeeM, an idea raaj* 
♦/^ lvrx.*;"i fjxta IL« *•,-,; ..r.ed uatement of the reiatire 
•••♦rr.r'.h ',-( !.'.* *T/r4a^«f witr^out ant tar, with ecrmm^n tar, 
i'rl «/;. C' <;/c£»'«>r/t f jr.f.«id tar. Tbe rope wai made on 
tt H I I'. 'A A-j(-»t, i-«,2, and eorjti..'M:d tvel re Tarns in 
•fitft* %-''^*A: p»rt wsif trj*rd nnm^^tately, and liie rest 
••*'*->*d L*, vqi'#-' fyf a^^yul tr.r^e morjths, then r*'mored to 
a f >-;-/: n •",-.« V.t ihr#-* monittv-arid 6r,a/.y kept at the 
/ '.'^'y  -. ?»---»fra»'^CT i, j;'j-i, ta* date of i:.e Mcood expe- 


If a^- >• A« ^M t'Jf09, 

7.35 3 
12-35 43 

13 S 
13-9 J 

per eent 

t" 'I 

yi-./K . * . 3;4 

i,Anm'/7i **rr*?i , * '-iJ'2 
l*i'fs4 ».•;* ^.-.r.;, *1 lar Tf I 

K^'iafa" '/.'/ «^ th'-v; ^x^« riments appear, Mr. Cbaptnan's 
pr'r"«r»« !ia* Ti'>* l/'*ri \j"jj^]it in*o general use. 

8«f J /^{'!} H^hf.% ha/1 *r^rne ro(^es tarred with teak tar, 
by %»ay of ex{f«;:ixnc*rif, and found them to be one-tfaird 
ftCron^er than ih'/»e done wjth common tar. Tanning has 
biffn Iriud for tbe prcserraiion of ropes, but apparently 
without realizing any decide«l ad^-antage. The same may, 
if the writer be not misinformed, l>e Mated of Kyan's pro- 
rji%» for tbe prevention of dry-rot. A solution of caoutchouc, 
in lieu of tar, has been Uftcd with success. 

Several olher kinds of vegetable fibre have been made 
us» of in the manufacture of cordage, and some appear 
greatly to exceed hemp in strength. In a comparative trial 
made at Paris between ropes made of hemp and of the 
aloe from Algiers, the latter was found to bear 2000 kilo- 
grammes, while the former, of equal size, bore only 400. 
Ropes have been formed also of long wool, but they are 
only about one- third as strong as the best hempen cordage 
of the same size. Ropes composed of fibres of hemp inter- 
mixed with threads of caoutchouc are very valuable for 
some purposes, owing to their superior strength and elas- 
t ticity. Their power of bearing sudden jerks without in- 
jury is a highly important property. It may be mentioned 
that such a rope has been used with the grapnel or anchor 
of the great Nassau balloon, and found to arrest tbe balloon 
without any unpleasant check when the grapnel catches. 
Ropes made of thongs of ox-bide twisted together, are used 
in the rope-bridges of Peru, and for some other purposes. 

Ropes formed of iron wire have been, within the last few 
years, introduced to a considerable extent, and have been 
found to effect a great saving of expense from their durability 
and superior lightness. From a paper communicated by Count 
Breunner to the British Association for the Advancement of 
Science, in 1S38, it appears that such ropes had been intro- 
duced about seven years before, in the silver mines of the 
Harz Mountains, and had been found so advantageous as 
almost entirely to supersede flat and round ropes of hemp 
in the mines of Hungary, and most of those in the Austrian 
dominions. The count observes that these iron ropes are 
nearly equal in stren{;tb to solid bars of the same diameter, 
and equal to hempen ropes of four times their weight. One 
of them had been in use for upwards of two years without 
any perceptible wear, though a common flat rope perform- 
ing the same work would not have lasted much more than 
one year. The diametor of the largest rope in ordinary use 
is stated to be one inch and a half, and it is composed of 
three strands, each containing five wires of two lines in 
diameter. Great care is observed in tbe manufacture of these 
n»pe?«, that the ends of the wires may be set deep in the in- 
icnur ul :hc lu; e, and thai tMo eitd% may not occur near the 
same purt. In use, it is nece»Hary that the ropes be wound 
o 1 a rounder of not less than eight feet diameter, and be 

ork with a wire rc^ as sot with 

PHor to the dale of this 
tained in this eocntrr far the 
and they have sinee been iiiipnuiil sad 
upon. The ropes of Mz. Andxcv Smitlu wbo sppci-* 
moat m the introdoctioo of wire ropca in tiiis oocci.7 
been oaed in Bine* and shippcng far tone jemn ; 1 
being adopted for other porinaea^ bavins nndergor^ 1 
factory tnal for icreral moolfas on the London ani :' 
wall railway, where the tnina are drmsm by sfA 
engAoes and ropesw They are Ibnned in Tnrioui v. 
oording to their mtended nee. For itanding riggrri^ 1*- 
untwined vires are csfiaTed, bound loand with r ! 
small hempen oordaige aaturaled with a nolotioa cf 
chone, asphaltam, or other preaermtive firom m>r. 
ropes may likewise be mnde of straight viraa, inter* 
or mapp e d with hempen yam, or seved belvoeo &. 
&e. ; but the patentee prefers uang them with 1 « 
twist. Other ropes are formed much ixk tbe same •. 
those of hemp, the wires taking tbe place of rope-yir < 
being twisted into strands, and eombined into ro(<^». 
hawser-laid and cable-laid. Die twitting sboold b/ • 
hard as in hempen ooidage ; and aU the wires most i- 
tected by an anti-oorroave composition, or by ooar : : - 
tin, zinc, &e. In tbe potent obtained bj Mr. Nfv> 
Dundee, for improTements in wire ropei» coating « :: 
following mixture is reoommended: — ^Tar.siz parts: i .• 
oil, two parts ; and tallow, one part : tbe whole being c: 
together, and applied while boL In this patent jt i^: 
p<Med to twist wires round a core, either of wire, hemp . 
spun yam, or other material, to form a strand; and t-- 
such strands round a similar eore when there are more :. 
three strands in a rope. For joining the wires. Mes 
Smith and Newall both recommended twisting their e; 
together for a few inches; and the latter also su?t]^is 
possibility, in some cases, of welding them. Yrire r* 
may be very conveniently and firmly secured ftt their end* 
passing them through the small end of a conical collar. * 
doubling up, or upsetting^ the ends of the wires, « 
may then be welded into a solid maae^ or secured bv :. 
ning melted brass or solder among them. The colUrs 1 
then be attached, in various ways, to anything with wh 
is desired to connect the rope ; or they may, as sug^e* : 
Newall's patent, be screwed together, so as to untt« se^ 
lengths of rope. 

Iron IS the material usually employed for wire rope« 
copper and other metals may also be used. 

The annexed table, showing the comparative size : 
weight per fathom for equal strength, gives tbe reM 
experiments with the wire ropes of Mr. Andrew Smi.. 
may serve to show their great superiority to tho&e o( - 
which they surpass even in flexibility : — 

*■ . 

Hemp Rupe. 

Pntent Win Rope. 

RpV • 


Walght p«r fiiUiom. 

Size. Weight per ftitkon. 

stni' ■' 


Iba. OS. 

Inches. Ibe. os. 



2 4 

I* 1 4 

2 \: 


3 15 

1# 1 9 

3 ^ 



If 1 14 

6 1- 



2 2 2 

6 V 


12 3 

2f 2 9 

6 I. 


14 3 

2} 4 1 

9 1' 


19 6 

3 5 4 

15 fi 



3i 7 1 

24 ^ 



4 11 6 

29 ^ 


36 8 

4^ 15 12 

3j 4 

RORASS. [Trondhkim.] 

RORQUAL. [Whalbs.] 

ROSA (from the Latin Rosa^ through tbe w 
of the French Rote ; the Latin * Rosa * and tbe Qreti 
are evidently the same), the name of the most v: 
sally admired and cultivated genus of plants forioin^ 
type of the natural order Rosaceae. 

The rose was known in early times, and was as gr ' - 
fiivourito among tbe nations of antiquity as it is in ic -' 
times. The rose is found generally in almost evety co^ 
of the northern hemisphere, both in the Old and > 
World; from Sweden to the north of Afrioa; from K ** 
tchatka to Bengal, and fW>m Hudson's Bay to the n> " 
tains of Mexico. It is not found in Sonth AiBer<i 
in Australia. All the species are included between <*' 





persistent, conniTent; disk thickened, closing tbe fauces. 
The best known species of this division is the B» alba, white 
rose ; it has rugo^ glaucous leaves, with simple serratvres 
and acicalar unequal prickles, by which it may be distin- 
guished from both R. tommttota and R. caninat with which 
it is liable to be confounded. It is a native of Piedmont, 
CochinChina, Denmark, France, and Saxony. Its flowers 
are very large, exhaling a delicious ihigrance. A number of 
handsome varieties are found in gardens,' as the maiden's 
blush, double, semi-double, single blush, white, &c. 
In the garden the varieties of this species, varying in 
the colour of iheir flowers from pure white to vivid rose, 
controst well with beds of darker varieties. They make 
good standards, bear close pruning, and blossom abundantly. 
IL HibemicOy the Irish rose, belongs to this division, and is 
interesting to the botanist as being entirely confined to 

7. RuBtoiNOSA, unequal and sometimes bristly prickles, 
ovate or oblong leaflets, with glands and diverging serra- 
tures, persistent sepals, thickened disk, and arched root- 
shoots. To this division belongs the eglantine, or sweet 
briar {Rtaa rubiginosd). It is common in Britain in bushy 
places on a dry gravelly soil. From its extensive diffusion 
it has been subjected to a variety of changes in external 
character, and as a consequence of this has received a ^reat 
variety of names. It is characterised by hooked snmes, 
opaque rugous leaflets, and hairy peduncles and calyces* 
The Austrian briar {Rosa lutea) is nearly allied to the latter, 
but is known by its foliage existing only at the extremitv of 
the branches, prickles under the stipule, and leaflets hol- 
low. The most brilliant yellow roses are produced from 
this species. They require a moist soil and dry pure air, 
and will do wrthout severe pruning. 

8. Caninjb, with equal hooked prickles ; oval eglandulose 
leaflets, with connivent serratures, deciduous sepals, and 
thickened disk closing the throat. To this division belong 
many of the varieties called autumnal or perpetual roses, 
on account of their blooming late in the season and con- 
tinuing in flower a long time. Most of the perpetual roses 
are highly fragrant, and more so in the latter than the early 
months of the vear. The soil in which they are grown can- 
not be too rich. In order to secure fUll blossoms in the 
autumn, all the flower-buds should be cut off in June, the 
shoots shortened, an4 the plants well watered and manured. 
They should never be planted on dry lawns, and wherever 
placed they should be manured everv year. By retarding 
and forcine them, these roses may be made to blossom 
eight months in the year. Of the roses in this group that 
have afforded varieties for the garden, the /?. Indica, Chinese 
rose, stands first It is known by its whitish green or purple 
stem, stout falcate distant prickles, stamens bent inwaids, 
and semi-double usually red flowers. It is found wild in 
China about Canton. It blossoms six or eight months in 
the year. The varieties of this plant are quite hardy ; their 
colour varies from a delicate blush to a most brilliant red. 
There is a hybrid variety between this species and the R, 
odorctta, which is well known in gardens under the name of 
tea-scented China rose {Rosa Indica odoraia). This rose 
is the parent of a great number of sorts in gardens. They 
are the roses which are most commonly sold in Paris in little 
bouquets wrapped roun4 with coloured paper. Most of the 
varieties of this plant are French, and only a few will grow 
in this country ; they are fleeting in duration, and will not 
bear the cold well. They blossom best in August and Sep- 
tember. When grown on their own roots in moist soils and 
situations, they must have a raised border in some warm 
and sheltered place: the border should be a compost of 
rotten manure or leaves, light loam, and sand, in equal 
parts, and raised about eighteen inches above the surface. 
When grown aa low standards, they should be taken up in 

The Bourbon rose (R, Bourboniana) is a natural hybrid 
oetween R, Indica and a variety called red four-seasons. 
This hybrid was found amongst a number of the latter 
plants in a hedge in the Isle of Bourbon. It was brought 
to Paris, and has since produced, many beautiful varieties. 
The flowers of this rose are very handsome, pendulous, 
with fine colours, and a most delicious fragrance. The va- 
rieties are not yet much known to English cultivators. 
They form a pretty addition to clumps of roses, or may be 
giuwn in bedbs as standards and as pillars. Mr. Rivers, in 
his * Roi»e- Amateur's Guide,' says, * I consider the culture 
of these roses only in its ini'ancy ; wo shall ultimately have 

the richest huef combined with perfection of fbrm, and tbe 
complete p»leniiude of their flower.* 

Tne Noisette rose was grown fVom seeds produced from 
R, moichata impregnated with R. Indica. It was flr»t 
reared in America. In many of the sorts the cIust«Ti-l 
habit'^and peculiar frag^rance of the musk-rose prevails; 
whilst in others the perfiime and magnificent flowers of te i- 
scented rotes are apparent They form an elegant secti< n 
of flowers for the rosarium, producing sometimes as ra:ir.y 
as seventy or eighty flowers in a corymn. They are all % e r^ 
hardy. * 

Rosa Latcranceana, the miniature or Lawranoe ro«-?. 
named after Miss Lawrance, who published a collection jf 
drawings of roses, belonn to this division. It was firtt 
brought f^om China, .ina ia probably only a dwarf vane ry 
oTR. Indica or R. semper/hrens, which it closely resembie'i 
in structure. All the varieties are known by their diminu- 
tive size; some of these little 'fair^ roses* produce blossiim^ 
when they are not more than six mches high. In culrira- 
tion they will not bear moisture, requiring in most soil< a 
very dry warm raised border. They form elegant ornaments 
for the drawing-room. R. canina, the dogrose» is one of 
the most common species of the division in this countn, 
and flrom its varying characters has given origin to a great 
number of names supposed to represent species. This i& ti,c 
species used for making conserve of roses. 

9. Systtljb, styles cohering in an elongated column . 
stipules adnate. The habit of the plants of this divi«-i. u 
is nearly the same as that of the last. R. arvensis, the fiei'l 
or white dog-rose, belongs to this group. It is a very cuin- 
mon plant in many parts of England, adorning the hed{;f«4 
with Its elegant snowy blossoms. It has cord-like shats 
unequal falcated prickles, leaflets glaucous beneath; d;- 
verging stipules, and ovate crimson fruit. Tbe varieties "f 
this and allied species, as 22. muttiflora and R, iempervirm '. 
produce the climbing roses of the garden, of which tlit- it 
are a great number now to be had. They can be grown ls 
underwood, and nothing would add more to the beauty of t 
shrubbery than the introduction of the undergrowth of the 
varieties of these roses. They grow with most vigour whcr. 
prostrate ; but can be earned up framea, which may be made 
into various shapes for the purpose of effect. 

R, tnoschaia, the musk-rose, is one of the oldest inhal i:- 
ants of our gardens. It is found native in the North of 
Africa, and in the temperate and warm provinces of Span. 
It has slender recurved prickles, the surfaces of its leaflets 
of different colours; acute narrow stipules, with numcru.^ 
white fragrant flowers. It is an autumnal rose, and is rcrv 
generally cultivated on account of the beautiful musk sccit 
of its flowers. It is a tender plant, and our winters are 
generally too severe for it. Its bunches of flowers are fre- 
quently very large, requirin&r props for their support. The 
musky odour is most powerful at night It is supposed to 
be the famous rose of Persia, in the branches of which the 
poets of that country delight to describe the buUnd (singing 
nightingale) pouring forth her music 

10. Sanksianjb, nearly free subulate stipules* usually 
deciduous; ternate shining leaflets and climbing stems. 
This is the last division of the species of rosea. The mu^t 
remarkable species in this group is the Roia BanktkT, 
Banksian rose, named after uidy Banks. It ia a native <«f 
China, and has very numerous double sweet-scented nod- 
ding flowers, which are arranged in umbel-hke corymb*. 
It is one of the most elegant plants of the genua ; it gro^^ 
well in the open air, but is tender, and requires to be grown 
against a wall or in a sheltered situation. It grows an i 
blossoms better in a dry than in a moist situation. Tbo 
branches should never be shortened, aa it prevents tl.t-.r 
producing flowers. The seeds are not perfected in v.k^ 
country, but are in Spain and Italy. 

The rose is more frequently cultivated as an omamc:, 
than for its applications to medicine or the arta. It i.^^ 
however astrmgent and tonic properties which render i 
useful in medicine. In the East it is extensively gruNvn 
for the purpose of procuring, in a variety of ways, tiic* 
volatile oil which gives it its delicious fragrance. For th«*^ 
purposes the species that are mostly cultivated arc R. nt t- 
chatOy centifolia, and damascena, from all of which thu att: . 
butter, essence, or oil of roses may be procured in o u- 
siderable quantities, [Attar.] The attar of roses form- a \ 
object of considerable commercial importance on tbo r.>-.>t 
of Barbary, in Syria, Persia, India, and various part« of t.f* 
East. Many other perfumes are made Drum ro^es, and ai • 

R O S 


R O S 

ttreral distinct layers, the upper one of which is sold as | 
rose-oil. The Chinese adopt a similar expedient. Genuine 
attar of roses at all temperatures helow 80° Fahr. is a crys- 
talline solid, and generally colourless. At 90* Fahr. its 
specific gravity is 0*832. It consists of two volatile prin- 
ciples, one solid, the other liquid, at ordinary temperatures, 
in the proportion of one part of the first to two of the 
latter. The first is a stearopten, the last an eleopten. The 
entire oil, according to Gobel, consists of carbon 69*66, hy- 
drogen 16-06, and oxygen 14*28 ; but the analyses of Saus- 
sure and Blanchet do not correspond with this : Saussure 
says it contains nitrogen also. This proves the variable 
nature of the article sold as attar, which is almost con- 
stantly adulterated. When mixed with any essential oil, 
such as that of an Indian grass (Andropogon, Aoorus Cala- 
mus), or of sandal-wood, or of rhodium (from Convolvulus 
Scoparius), the sophistication is not easy of detection, but 
if with fixed oils, blotting-paper will reveal their presence. 
Alcohol is no criterion of the purity ; for when castor-oil has 
been used to adulterate the attar, it is as soluble as the rose- 
oil iu alcohol of 0*815. Attar of roses is chiefly 
brought from Constantinople and Smyrna. It is subject to 
a duty of U, AdL per lb. In 1838, 973 lbs. and in 1839, 754 
lbs. paid the duty. 

(Pereira's Materia Medica.) 

ROSA SALVA'TOR was bom at Renella or Arenella, a 
village in the environs of Naples, on the 20th of June, 1615, 
and he was originally intended for the church. Whilst 
yet a boy be manifested a strong propensity for drawing, 
and in order to cure him his parents procured his admission 
as a student in the college of the congregation of Somasca 
in Naples; but before the expiration of the usual period of 
residence, he was either expelled or voluntarilv quitted 
the college. On his return to Renella he devoted his time 
to the study of music, and cultivated his .talent for poetry, 
and on the marriage of his eldest sister with Francesco 
Francanzani, a disciple of the Spaguuoletto school, he at- 
tended the studio of that artist. He also studied from 
nature in oil-colour, and in 1633 went from Naples on a 
tour through the wild scenery of La Basilicata, La Puglia, 
and Calabria. During his absence he associated with ban- 
ditti. At this period Salvator seems to have fostered 
and matured his taste for romantic scenery, and the studies 
which he made of groups and single figures whilst with 
the bandits served him as valuable materials for his 
future worka. Soon after his arrival at Renella his fa- 
tuer died, leaving the fiimily dependent upon Salvator, 
who was then certainly not more than eighteen years of 
age, for tbeir support. To perform this duty, he executed 
with great rapidity subjects on primed paper, his poverty 
not enabhng him to purchase canvas, and sold them to the 
dealers who keep the staHs in the Strada della Carit& in 
Naples. One of these, representing the story of Hagar and 
Ishmael, was seen and purchased by Giovanni Lan franco, 
who was then in the city decorating the church of Gesii 
Nuovo for the Jesuits. The admiration of that painter was 
valuable to Salvator, for his works rose in price accordingly, 
but at the same time it laid him open to the malice and 
envy of other Neapolitan artists. They ridiculed the efforts 
of a man who had been obliged to seek the patronage of 
mean dealers, and he retorted upon them in epigrams, and 
satirical verses which he set to music and sang. He how- 
ever obtained the friendship of Aniello Falcone, an eminent 
Sainter of battles, the first and best of the pupils of 
paguuoletto, who gave him instruction, and after a time in- 
troduced him to the notice of that great painter, from whose 
advipe and practice he derived great benefit. 

On the invitation of his former friend, who was in the es- 
tablishment of the Cardinal Brancaccio, he repaired to 
Rome. Here he enjoyed the patronage of the cardinal, who 
took him to the bishopric of Viterbo, where he painted an 
altar-piece representing the incredulity of St. Thomas, for 
the Cbiesa della Morte, and other works. In 1639 he 
went again to Rome. The reputation of Salvator was 
now at its height ; he was esteemed as a painter, a poet, 
a musician, and an actor, for the plays which he per- 
formed were written by him, the music composed by his 
hand, and the principal character representea by himself. 
As an artist, he was most extensively patronised, uid at very 
high prices. In 1647, on the breaking out of the revolt of 
saniello at Naples, Salvator Rosa returned to that city, 
became a member of the band. On the suppression of 
revolt, he made hii escape liom Naples in the train of the 

Prince Carlo Giovanni de* Medici, with whom he went t -» 
Florence, where he was employed by the grand-duke t -^ 
paint in the Pitti Palace. Here he associated ^jth 
the literati and the principal nobility. After remaiintv 
several years at Florence, he returned to Rome. ati<) 
was again extensively employed. In 1663 he executed 
three pictures for the exhibition of San Giovanni; one wu% 
Pythagoras on the sea-shore, the second was the same iihi- 
losopher recounting his visit to the infernal regions, an! 
the third the Propl^t Jeremiah thrown into a pit for havint; 

Erophesied the fall of Jerusalem; and aoon after he produce «I 
is most celebrated picture, the Catiline Conspirary. Ii 
1668, at the annual exhibition of the Feast of San Gio%*ani.i 
Decollate, he placed his Saul and the Witch of Endor n\ 
competition with the works then shown of the elder master^. 
He did not execute many important works after this, an<l 
died of an attack of the dropsy, on the 15th of March, 1 67 ^ 
He was buried in the vestibule of the church of Santa 
Maria degli Angioli, which was erected over tho ruins of 
the baths of Diocletian, by Michel Angelo. Salvator Kos \ 
left one son, by Lucrezia, a mistress, who accompanied lum 
from Florence, and to whom he was married shortly befoi c 
his death. 

Rosa possessed great invention, and had a wonderful dri- 
lity of execution. He is superior when he confines his efl'vir! <> 
to works of the easel size, and his figures are then corre'-t 
in drawing and spirited in design. Such is the case in h % 
picture of Atilius Regulus, formerly in the Palazzo Colon !• a 
at Rome, and now in the possession of the earl of Darnicv. 
Of his landscapes, it may be observed, that he wholly r« - 
jected the simplicity and amenity cultivated by Claude n*. 1 
by Poussin, and indulged in gloomy effects and roniani.:* 
forms ; nor are his sea-pieces less forcible ; in them he re- 
presents the desolate shores of Calabria, and not un fre- 
quently adds interest to his works by the terror of s!i {>- 
wreck. According to Sir Joshua Reynolds, he gives a 
peculiar cast of nature, which, though void of gr«i<><-. 
ele^nce, and simplicity, though it has nothing of that kW- 
vation and dignity which belong to the grand style, h^s 
yet that sort of dignity which belongs to savage and uncul- 
tivated nature ; and Fuseli says, that though Salvator R«.^j 
was without choice of form in design or much propriety i { 
conception, and though his talent was better adapte«i t • 
smaller dimensions, he could fill a large canvas with terr.fic 
effects, of which the Conspiracy of Catiline, formerly in ti.. 
Casa Martelli, and now at the Pitti Palace at Florence. i« a 
pov^erful instance. The subject of the Witch of Endor h i» 
been by some persons extravagantly praised, but the la^i- 
named acute critic has observed that the toads, bats, skele- 
tons, and other accessories are vainly accumulated to paUta •* 
the want of dignity and pathos in Saul, and of subliiDi(> la 
the apparition. He however admits that in lancWapc 
vator was a genius. 

There are a great number of his pictures in England 
several of which are in the collections of the Marquis *,i 
Westminster, Lord Francis Egerton, the Duke of IXm.^d- 
shire, the Earl of Darulev, the Duke of Buckingham, an \ 
others. The Finding of Moses, at Stowe, was purrha>v^ 
from the Orleans collection for 2500A His etchings con»>: 
of about ninety in number, executed in a spirited at '\ 
masterly style. The chiaro-*scuro is admirably roanagt 1. 
and the heads of the figures arte full of expression. II.> 
monogram is composed of an 8 and an R combined, the- 
former letter drawn over the straight line of the latter. 

Some of the music-books of Salvator Rosa were, aroonL*«: 
other musical manuscripts, purchased by Dr. Bumev. .-kt 
Rome, and amongst many airs and cantatas by differvt. . 
masters there were eight entire cantatas, written, ser, at:<i 
transcribed by the painter himself. From the specimen ^f 
his talents for music there given, there seems to be no duul : 
that he had a truer genius for this science, in point of mo 
lody, than any of his predecessors or contemporaries, an<! 
there is a strength of expression in his verses which niu-^t 
always place him above the middle rank of poeta. To li.« 
other accomplishments he added architecture, which, ac- 
cording to Pascoli, he understood perfectly, and he exce.U <! 
as a comic actor, an improvisatore, and a performer on vai .^.u % 
musical instruments. {Biographie Univertelle ; Life ^^^- i 
Times qf Salvator Rosa^ by Lady Morgan ; Bryan s aiul 
Strutt*s Dictionary, &c.) 


ROSA'CEA. (Malacology.) [DipHYDES.voLix., p. 1^'.; 

ROSA'CEiBy a natural order of Polypetalous e&ogensi 



R O S 

wiih 4- or 5-lobed calyx ; 4 or 5 regular petah ; indefinite 
perigjmous stamens; exalbuminous seeds; and alternate 
itipulate leaves. The plants of this order are allied to 
l/brysobalanacesD, from which they may be distinguished by 
their styles proceeding from the side of the ovarium near the 
apex, and not from the base, and by their regular petals 
and stamens. They are distinguished from Fabaces (Le- 
gaminoscD) by their regular petals and stamens, and espe- 
cially by the odd segment of the calyx being posterior, and 
not anterioi; as in that order. The genera of this order may 
\e arranged under four groups or suborders, the prin- 
npal distinctions of which will be seen in the following 
analysis: — 

Carpels nume<x>us. 

Ovaries superior. RasACSiS (proper). 
Ovaries inferior. Pombji. 
Carpels solitaty. 

Fruit a drupe. Amyodalbjb. 
Fruit a nut. 

Posaoese proper include the true Roses (Rosesa), the 
Cmquefoils (Potentillessjb the Spirsas (SpirosD), and the 
Neuradas (Neurades). They are heii>aceou8 plants or 
shrubs. Thia ftmily includes about 570speoie8 and 20 
genera, principally inhabitants of the temperate and cold 
X jnes of the northern hemisphere of the New and Old World ; 
a very few are found on high land within the tropics, and a 
small number in the southern hemisphere. None of the 
plsnts of this section of the order are unwholesome; they 
are characterised by the presence of an astringent principli^ 
vfaich has ledlo the use of many of them in medicine. 

Pome» are known by the adhesion of their ovaries to the 
sides of the calyx, forming the fruit called a pome. Their 
vnila are always in pain. The tendency of the flowers of 
iliis family to revert to their normal state frequently affords 
ir*structive examples of morphological changes. The fruit 
of many of the species contains a considerable quantity of 
Bialic acid, which gives to the fruit its peculiar flavour. The 
apple, pear, medlar, quince, service-tree, and mountain-ash 
belong to this family. They are inhabitants of Europe, 
Northern Asia, the mountains of India, and North Ame- 


Amygdalee have but a 8injg:le carpel, which,' when ripe, 
b a drupe; but they are also distinguished amongst Rosaoefls 
hj their leaves containing hydrocyanic acid, and their 
hark yielding gum. They are natives exclusively of the 
northern hemisphere, where they are found in cold or tem- 
fvrate climates. Many of the species are poisonous, on ac- 
tMuut of the hydrocyanic acid they contain. They yield 
Luwever some of our most valued fruits, as the peach, nec- 
tdune, plum, apricot, cherry, and almond, which last is 
tLe iced of the Amygdalus communis. 


iki perigynoai kiraugemcnt of the ilanieaf ; &« fhiit. 
■tnwtares e, oa« of Ihe foniclet wpante bom Uie 

SaiiguisorbesD are nof only known by their solitary car- 
ffeU, but they are destitute of petals, and have a hard thick- 
P.a, No. 1251. 

ened calyx. They are found wild in heaths, hedges, and 
exposed places in Europe, North and South America be- 
yond the tropics, and the Cape of Good Hope. Their prin- 
cipal property is astringency, and some of the species may 
be used as fodder. • 

ROSACIC ACID, a name given by Prout to a peculiar 
acid which he imagined to exist in the lateritious sediment 
deposited in urine during fever. Dr. Prout is of opinion 
that it contains some purpurate of ammonia, and conse- 
quently, if this opinion m correct, no such substance as the 
roaacic acid exists. 

ROSALl'NA [FoRAMiNiFE&A, vol. X., p. 348.1 


ROSARIO. [Mexican Statbs.] 

ROSARY. [Beads.] 

ROSAS, a small seaport town of Spain, in the province 
of Gerona in Catalonia, not far from Cape Creus, on the 
north side of a gulf in the Mediterranean known as the 
Gulf of Rosas ; in 42'' 1 5' N. lat and 3"" 1 1' E. lonff. Rosas 
was founded by a colony of Rhodians, who called it Rhodope. 
(Strabo, p. 160.) But the reading in this pass^e of Strabo 
is evidently corrupt, and should be Rhoae. The town is 
mentioned under the name of Rhode by Stephanus Byzan- 
tinus (r. *P<S4^), by livy (34, c. 8), and by Mela (2, e. 6). 
It has a good and capacious harbour, which was formerly 
defended by a strong fort and batteries. The town itself is 
surrounded by a very thick wall and towers built by the 
Arabs. The fort however was blown up by the French on 
their evacuation of the Peninsula. During the sL\teeath 
and seventeenth centuries the port of Rosas carried on a 
brisk trade with the Spanish colonies. It is now redu<^ 
to a mere fishing^town, the population of which, according 
to Minano (vol. vii, p. 566)> did not exceed 2200 inhabit- 
ants in 1830. 

lUySCIUS, QUINTUS, a celebrated Roman aotor, was 
bom near Lanuvium (Cic, De Div,, i. 36), but at what 
period is uncertain. He is frequently mentioned in the 
writings of CSicenH who was his friend and warm admirer. 
His tidents also obtained for him the friendship of Sulla, 
who^ during his dictatorship, presented him with a gold 
ring, the mark of equestrian rank (Macrob., SaL, iL 10), 
which honour was the more remarkable, as many passages 
in the R;oman writers prove that the histriones were gene- 
rally held in great contempt So perfect however was 
Roaeius in his art, that his name became almost synonymous 
with excellence in any other branch, and thus when an orator 
produced a great impression on his audience, it was cus- 
tomary to say ' a Roscius is on the stage!' (Cic, De OraLt 
i. 28 ; Brut., 84.) Actors frequently received instruction 
from Roscius, who used to say however that he had never 
had any pupil with whom he was satisfied. {De Oral^ i. 28.) 
Macrobius relates (/. e.) that Cicero and Roscius used to 
try which of the two could more frequently express the 
same thought,- the one by his eloquence, the other by his 
gestures ; and that Roscius derived from this exercise such 
a high opinion of his own art, that he wrote a work, in 
which lie compared eloquence with the art of acting. Ma- 
crobius also states that Koseius received about a 1000 denarii 
a day for his acting (upwards of 35/.). He died about 
B.C. 61 ; since (}ioero» in nis oration for Archias, which was 
delivered in that year, speaks of his death as qitite recent 
(c. 8). There is an exUnt oration of Cicero, though con- 
siderably mutilated, in defence of Roscius. The subject of 
the oration is a claim of 50^0 sesterces against Rosoius, by 
C. Fannius Chaerea {Uem^ die Rede dee Cicero fur Q. 
Raeciue, Zeitschrift, i., p. 248). 

ROS(X)E, WILLIAM, bom in 1753. near Liverpool, 
received a common school education till he was twelve years 
of age, after which he continued to improve himself by 
reading. When in his sixteenth year he was apprentioed 
to an attorney in Liverpool, and in 1 774 he was admitted an 
attorney of the Court of King's Bench, and began to practice 
as such. In the meantime he wrote some poems, among 
others one on the origin of the art of engraving, which made 
him known to Sir Joshua Reynolds, Foseli, and other dis- 
tinguished artists. In 1784 he was elected honorary mem- 
ber of U)e Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society. 
He also turned his attention to the subject of the slave- 
trade, and wrote several pamphlets recommending its sup- 
pression. When the French revolution first began, Roscoe 
was one of its warmest partisans in this country. He wroto 
• Strictures' on Burke's 'Two Letters addressed to a Mem- 
ber of the present Parliament,* reflecting in severe terms 

Vol. XX. — ^Y 



RO 8 

upon vhat Roscoe considered as an apostacy in 6urke*B | 
political conduct. In 1796 Roscoe published the * Life of 
Lorenzo de' Medici, called the Magniflccnt,* a work which 
established his literary reputation. The subiect was hap- 
pily chosen, and the author treated it well. The work went 
through several editions, and was translated into Italian, 
German, and French. It was generally well received on 
the Continent, but its sphit was criticised by two classes of 
writers : one of them, of which Sismondi may be considered 
as the representative, see nothing but perfection in a repub- 
lican government, and cannot forgive Lorenzo for having 
controlled and curbed the Florentine democracy. Sismondi 
charged Roscoe with having deceived himself and others 
with regard to the character of his hero, who Hi Sismondi*s 
eye was an insidious and crafty tyrant. It is curious to see 
Roscoe, who at one time was the advocate of the French I 
revolution, accused of being the panegyrist of the tyranny of 
the Medici. The grounds of this controversy are adverted 
to in Florence, History of, and Medici, House of. 
Another class of critics was an^ry with Roscoe for having 
exposed the part which Pope Sixtus IV. took in the con- 
spiracy of the Pazzi. which led to the nuirder.of Giuliano, 
Lorenzo's brother, and also for having spoken unfavour- 
ably of Cardinal Barbo, afterwards Paul II. On the 
subject of the Pazzi, Sismondi joined the papal advocates 
in representing that conspiracy as a laudable deed, justifi- 
able under the circumstances in which it took place. After 
many years Roscoe replied to his various critics in pointed 
though temperate language in his * Illustrations, Historical 
and Critical, of the Life of Lorenzo de* Medici,' 4to., London, 
1822. Ho inserted in the appendix, among other docu- 
ments, an important letter written to Sixtus IV. by the 
signoria, or executive, of Florence alter the failure of the 
Pazzi conspiracy, which letter was discovered in the 
archives of Florence by the Rev. F. H. Egerton, and printed 
at Paris in 1814. 

The second historical work of Roscoe is his ' Life and 
Pontificate of Leo X.' In this also the author has been 
charged with undue partiality for his subject He has re- 
flected with much severity upon the great reformers of the 
sixteenth century, because, while they struggled against 
the overgrown absolutism of papal Rome, they could not 
divest themselves at once of the habit of intolerance which 
they had derived from early education. Count Bossi trans- 
latiMl the 'Life of Leo' into Italian, adding notes in which 
be rebutted several of the charges brought against Ro«coe*s 
former work concerning Lorenzo: 'Vita e Pontificato di 
Leone X., di Gugliclmo Roscoe, tredotta e corredata di anno- 
tazioni ed altri document! inediti, dal Conte Luigi Bossi, 
Milanese,' Milan, 1817. 

Considered as works of erudition and of general interest, 
the lives of Lorenzo and Leo by Roscoe stand deservedly 
high. They introduce the reader to a splendid period of mo- 
dern history, among a chosen society of scholars, poets, states- 
men, and artists, who gathered round the hospitable board 
of Lorenzo, and afterwards in the more pompous court of 
his son Leo. Numerous anecdotes and other particulara 
concerning those individuals make the reader femiliar with 
their persons ; and poetical extracts and valuable historical 
documents add to the value of the work. ^ The style is re- 
markably pleasing and fluent These merits of Roscoe's 
biographies have been universally acknowledged, even by 
those who have censured the general spirit of his works. 

Roscoe contributed greatly L^encou rage amoirg his coun- 
trymen a taste for Italian liteMbre ^nd tne fine arts. In his 
own town of Liverpool, the Royal Institution owes its forma- 
tion to Roseoe*s exertions. 

Roscoe was returned to parliament for Liverpool in the 
lYhig interest In the latter part of his life he became 
partner in a banking-house, in which however he was not 
auccessful. He died at Liverpool, in June, 1831. A biogra- 

Ihical notice of him is appended to a new edition of his 
«ife of Lorenzo, by his son. 

ROSCOE A, a handsome ^nus of the highly ornamental 
family of Scitaminenor Zingiberacen, whicu was named by 
' 8ir J. E. Smith, in honour of the historian of the Medici, 
who elucidated the plants and remodelled the genera of the 
Scitamines in his beautiful work on that fiimily. The spe- 
eiet have been figured by Smith, Wallich, and Koyle. 

The genus consists of only a few species, which are con- 

*~H to the Himalaya Mountains, and is characterised by 

g spathaceout flowers, a single-leafed tubular calyx, 

Tingent, limb double, the outer tripartite, with the up- 

per segment erect and arched. Inner limb two-lipf'd, 
ovary inferior, style enclosed in the fUrrow of the anthn, 
which is two-lobed, incurved, surrounding the style w ttb a-i 
appendage split at the base. 

The species of Roscoea, belonging to so tropical a famil i a« 
the ScitaminesB, are generally accounted showy stove i^lanu . 
but they are found only on the slopes of the H imalayas d u r i r • j 
the rainy season, when there is moisture with untCbnnit> of 
temperature, and a much less degree of heat than is usnnlls 
thought necessary is found to be sufficient for the grow t h 
of tropic-like plants, and therefore less would suffice fr 
the cultivation of these plants than is generally supposcnl ; 
indeed Roscoea purpurea has been flowered in a dravini;- 
room in London, under a glass case, and without any artifi- 
cial heat. Dr. Graham mentions its springing up tn tho 
open air every year in the Edinburgh Botanic Garden. Hut 
the genus Roscoea is that, of all the Scilamines, which i< 
found at the greatest elevations. R. alpina is found at ,»% 
great an elevaUon as 9000 feet above the level of the «< a. 
and on places whence the snow had just melted, like tif 
snowdrop in early spring in European countries. (Ro> U *« 
HimaJ. Bot, p. 357.) 

ROSCOMMON, an inland county in the province of 
Connaught in Ireland, bounded on the north and itorili- 
east by the county of I^itrim, on the east by tliat of Lot it. 
ford, and on the south-east by those of Westroeath at.ti 
King's, from all which it is separated by the ri%*er Shannon, 
except just on the north side; on the south-wot it i« 
bounded by the county of Gal way, on the west bv that *.: 
Mayo, and on the north-west by that of Sligo. llie rner 
Suck, a tributary of the Shannon, separates it along xl^- 
greater part of the border from the county of Galwa) ; j;i . 
the Curlew mountains for a short distance from that ( ( 
SUgo. The form of the county is irregular; the great d 
length is nearly from north to south, from the border of tin 
county of Leitrim west of Lough Allen to the junction of 
the Suck with the Shannon, 60 miles ; the greatest breadili. 
at right-angles to the length, is from the junction of ().•• 
three counties of Galway, Mayo, and Roscommon to tiu* 
bank of Lough Forbes near Tarroonbarry, 40 miles. T..< 
area is estimated by MacCulloch {Staiisiical Account nf tu 
British Empire) at 962 square miles, or 609,406 Eii«:l •. 
acres, of which 463,666 are in cultivation, 131.063 uinu 
proved mountain or bog. and 24,787 lakes. In the rcu i. * 
of the population for 1831, the area is stated to be 5r>:.n< 
acres. We believe MacCulloch*s statement, which is la^c - 
from a table furnished by Mr. Griffith, the engineer, to ii.o 
Lords' Committee on Tithe, to be the most exact. 1 h* 
population in 1831 was 249,613, giving 262 inhabitants t . 
a square mile. In area it ia rather below the average • f 
the Irish counties, but in amount and density of populjti. i. 
rather above the average. Roscommon, the capital, u ^ 
English miles in a direct line west by north of Dublin. orS« 
English miles by the road through MuUingar, Lon^fuid, an J 
Lanesborough, or by MuUingar, Ballymahon, and Laiu.- 

Sur/acct Geology, Hydrography, Communicationt, — ^Tiio 
surface of the county is partly undulating, but along il«' 
banks of the Shannon and the Suck, and in other parts, it i« 
very flat. There are some mountains. The principal gu»i.\ > 
are the Braulieve, or Braughlieve, and Slie\h Curka;.:. 
mountains (estimated at 1000 or 1200 feet high), wh.* .i 
enter from the counties of Leitrim and Sligo on the north- 
west, and extend a little way into the county west of Li>i j!. 
Allen ; the Curlew mountains, on the bordera of Sligo nuc 
Boyle ; the Slievh Bawn mountains, 839 feet in the northiru 
part, and 867 feet high in the southern, parallel to the Sh:.Ti* 
non, and not far distant from it, on the east side of tl..' 
county; the hills between the Shannon and the Suck in the 
south; and Slievh Aelwyn, between Castlerea and Ball ii.* 
loHgh in the west. The Braughlieve and Slievh Curka^li 
have steep rugged acclivities and broad perpendicular fan « 
of rock near their summits. The eastern side of the SW\U 
Bawn mountains slopes gradually down to the bogs in tl.o 
valley of the Shannon at their base ; the western side a 
more broken ; the district at the foot is varied with wuud. 

The level parts of the county are for the most part urru> 
pied by. the formations belonging to the great carbon ifei\iu« 
limestone district of central Ireland. The impure argillacx- 
ous limestone, or 'calp,' the black shale, and the sandstone, 
which form one of the subdivisions of the limestone groLp, 
and the lower limestone, which constitutes another subdi- 
vision, subjacent to the calpi are found in thisoounty« Tb« 

R O 8 



Yery small, resting upon the earth ; for in a country so bare 
of timber and hedgerows, bougbs and bushes are scarce 
articles. If wet weather comes on and continues long, much 
of wbat lies below, next to the earth, perishes by attracting 
moisture: from the want of abroad and firm basis, the frail 
structure is liable likewise to be swayed by the wind ; and 
the tops and sides losing their original formi and being no 
longer capable of throwing off the rain, still more damage 
ensues. To such losses are likewise to be added the depre- 
dations from vermin, rats, mice, and small birds, whilst the 
corn remains out of doors. 

' As for bams, in the English and Continental acceptation 
of the term, they are literally unknown. The floor of some 
outhouse, or perhaps even that of the family room, may 
bo used for threshing; but a vast proportion of the grain is 
beaten out in the oi)en air, very commonly near the road 
side, where there happens to be a dry spot. These obser- 
vations, it must be understood, apply to the small holdings ; 
but upon such is raised a considerable quantity of the corn 
vhich is thrown into the market from the county of Ros- 
common.* (Weld's Statistical Survey qf the County qf 
Roscommon, Svo^ Dublin, 1832.) 

The common ploughs of the small farms are very wretched: 
whether the instrument works well or ill is a matter of 
chance, and the plough is commonly followed bv a man 
W4lh a spade, or rather a 'loy,' to turn back the earth, which 
would else, after the plough had passed, revert to its former 
bed. However, on the Innds of the principal gentry ex- 
amples may be found of excellent tillage, with Scotch 
ploughs of the most approved construction, drawn by a pair 
of horses and driven by the ploughman. The ' loy * men- 
tioned above is a sort of curved spade or shovel, of clumsy 
form, and with a handle of' unusual length, far inferior to 
the spade in general utility, but not ill adapted for use in 
turning up a light shallow soil in rocky districts, where the 
plough cannot be used. In certain districts of the county 
where spade labour is common, the labourers unite in com- 
panies, and work for each other in rotation. This is the 
case especially in busy times, such as potato planting or 
digging, and lightens their toil by the cheerfulness which 

' Wheat is commonly sgwn immediately after the crop of 
potatoes has been dug out. After the wheat, two or three 
crops of oats are taken, all for the one manuring for the 
potatoes ; and then the ground is sometimes laid down with 
grass seeds, in a state unquestionably too poor for the pur- 
pose; sometimes '*let out,*' in the phrase of the country, 
that is, left to nature to be clothed with grass of spontaneous 
growth, a process which is sure in time to be accomplished, 
though always more tardily than if the seeds were sown.' 
(Weld, Staiisiical Survey qf the County of Roscommon,) 
This practice of ' letting out* is very injurious; and it is 
supposed that by the introduction of stall-feeding, and the 
cultivation of the artificial grasses and other green crops, 
the productiveness of the soil might be increased two- 

Tho extensive grai^ng-farms of the county contrast 
favourably with the tillage land ; yet, even in these, much 
improvement is needed. Thistles are allowed not only to 
remain, but to spread ; so that it is no unfrequent circum- 
stance for sheep to be pricked in the eye and blinded by 
them. The highest quality of pasture land consists com- 
monly of natural grass. The favourite breed of oxen seems 
to be the long-horned Leicoster. The principal graxiers 
supply themselves at fairs for summer feeding: they raise 
only a few head themselves, and those of some superior 
breed. It is common also to have brood-mares on the large 
grazing- farms, and several fine horses of good blood are 
bred.* There are no dairies on a large scale, but butter is 
made more or less in every part of the county. The sheep 
are considered to be far better than those reared in the ad- 
jacent counties, a result attributable partly to the superior 
skill and intelligence of the sheep- farmers, and partly to the 
dry and wholesome nature of their sheep-walks. The fa- 
vourite breed is a cross between the old Connaught sheep 
and the Leicester, * which produces an animid little inferior 
in size to the former, with a greater disposition to fatten in 
a short space, and with less waste or offal on the carcass.' 
(Weld, Statistical Suney of the County of Roscommon,) 

The • con-acre ' system is general, but' in some parts of 
the county is not carried to any great extent. The con- 
solidation of the small farms into large has not been much 
practised ; in some instances where it has taken place the 

tenants who were dispossessed were assisted to emigrate. 
Emigration has taken place in most parts of the county, 
but not to any great extent: the emigrants have been from 
various classes. They have gone chiefly to Canada or u» 
the United States, but a few have gone to Australia. (A^^ 
pendix to First Report qf Commiuioners for inquiring tnt<* 
the State of the Irish Ihor.) 

The condition of the peasantry, or ' oottters,* is Tery ni^- 
rable. In some places they occupy cabins without pa vm;^ 
any rent; but more commonly they pay for a cabin, witbtiut 
land, a yearly rent varying with the locality, frequently 
rising to 1/., in some cases to \l, 10«., and in the town of 
Boyle, as high as 2/. lOi.; with land, the yearly rent ri>4*^4 
occasionally to 3/. and 3/. lOf. The rent is paid somettmvH 
in money, sometimes in labour, in which cases the rate *>( 
wages is about 6d, a-day, and occasionally Bd, or 9d, 7*1 k> 
cabins are wretched hovels, built of mud or sods; or, wbeu* 
stone is abundant, with stone walls, either dry or with mort ar. 
and thatched with straw or potato -stalks. Ine furniture is of 
the most miserable description, made up of a table, thtee or 
four stools, a box, and a pot or two. Beosteads are compara- 
tively rare ; and the bedding consists of straw, having a bla n- 
ket, perhaps only a sack, with the addition of the sleepct\ 
day-clothes for a covering. In some parts of the count) it i% 
common for two families, or even more, to reside in one ot 
these wretched habitations. The condition of the pearanii) 
has very generally deteriorated since 1815, partly in con<>c- 
quence of the linen manufecture having declined. Distur- 
bances have been frequent in many places, while in otli<.t» 
the people have been very peaceable. There are a few chari- 
table loan societies, some of them established from the 
funds raised in England for the relief of the Irish in l^zx 
Illicit distillation is prevalent, especially when com is at a 
low price. Employment is scarce, and only a small portion 
of the peasantry have constant work. Wages are common !% 
Sd, or sometimes lOd, a-day without diet; or 6d, with dieL, 
in summer; and 6cf. a-^day without diet in winter. In busv 
times, and in the neighbourhood of the towns, higher wa^<^ 
are paid. The average yearly gains of a labourer are \a- 
riously estimated, but commonly from 7/. or 8/. to 1 u/. a 
year. Women and children get little employment, except 
at busy seasons, such as potato setting and digging, and in 
harvest, when they earn Ad, or 5d,, or even 6^. a-day with- 
out diet. Herdsmen are usually better off. On a farm oi 
fifty acres, they get a cabin, an acre of potato or cabbag« 
garden, and grass for a cow; on a farm of a hundred acrv?. 
two acres of garden, and the grass of two cows, with \\ui 
opportunity besides of keeping a pig or a few . geese. The 
diet of the peasantry consists of potatoes, with the additi >:i. 
in some cases, of milk, or buttermilk, red herrings, ani 
oatmeal for gruel. Their clothiug is commonly of the mu?t 
wretched character. 

Divisions, Towns, ^.— The county is divided into su 
baronies, or halt-baronies, as follows :— 


Athlone . • • • S. 
Ballintobber* . . . W. 
Ballymoe (half barony) • S W. 
Boyle .... N. & N.W. 
Moycame or Moycarnon (half-barony) S. 
Roscommon • . , Central 

Vop, KA. 


7. JOJ 
66, UO 


There are, in the county, the assize and market town of 
Roscommon ; the market and post towns of Boyle, Casilen'o. 
Elphin, Frenchpark, and Strokestown ; and the post town^ 
of Athleague, Keadue, and Mount-Talbot. Portions of tl.<* 
borough of Athlone [Athlonb], and of the towns of Balii- 
nasloe[BALLiNASLOBj, Carrick-on-Sbannon, and Jamestown 
[Lbitriv, County of], and Lanesborough [LowopORrs 
County of], are also within the border. The principal 
villages ave Lough-Glynn, Ruskey, Knockcroghery, Tar- 
monbarry, and CastlePlunket. 

Roscommon is in one of the detached portions of the 
barony of Ballintobber. It appears to have derived it« 
origin and its name (Ros-Coman, 'the pleasant place of 
Coman') from an abbey fonnded about a.d. 550, by Su 
Oman or Comanns. Another abbey of greater magnificence 
was founded here for the order of Preaching Friars, about 
A.D. 1257, by 0*Conor, king or prinee of Connaught; and a 
few years after, a strong castle was built by Sir Robert de 
Ufford, one of the early Englisli adventurers. Of these la^t 

* Tha nriocipal part of the barony of BaUiniobber is oa the vr>t vlik of tl»« 
eoanty { but ih#r« ar* two other Utftv poUiuiM qoito dotaehod Umm t^ ob Hmo 
banks of the Shannon and Lough Rce. 

R O S 


R O S 

a hundred houses, most of ihem mere cabins, at the junction 
of four roads. There are a Catholic chapel, a school -house, 
and a sessions-house ; and a market-house has been erected 
within the last few years. The mansion and demesne of 
French -park, the seat of the French family, are close to the 
town ; and about half a mile distant, on the verge of a bog, 
are the ruins of Clonshanvill Abbey. The ruins consist of the 
walls of the church, with its steeple, two detached chapels 
in the burial-ground, and the remains of a square build- 
ing belonging apparently to the habitable part of the abbey. 
The ruins, from their situation in a flat open country, form 
a striking object at a distance, but are neither very pic- 
turesque nor of much antiauarian interest when viewed 
nearer. In the burial-grouna, which is still used, is a lofty 
cross. The population of the town, in 1831, was 447 ; that 
of the parish of Tybohan orTaughbojrne, in which it stands, 
was 16,460. Butter, yarn, and pigs are sold in the market, 
which is held on Thursday. • Tfiere are three yearlv fairs. 
Good sandstone is quarried in the immediate neighbour- 
hood, and limestone in the town itself. Petty sessions are 
held here. French-park has a dispensary. 

Strokestown is in the barony of Roscommon, between 
Elphin and I^nesborough. It contained, in 1831, about two 
hundred and sixty houses and 1547 inhabitants. The town 
consists of two streets crossing at right angles ; the one which 
runs east and west is nearly 1 50 feet wide, and has Lord Hart- 
land's demesne and mansion at one end, and a new church 
at the other. Three-fifths of the bouses are mere cabins, 
and more than another fifth are thatched cottages, little bet- 
ter than cabins. The rest are built of limestone or sand- 
stone, both of which are procured near the town, and are 
roofed with Welsh slates, imported into Sligo, and brought 
from thence by land carriage. Trade is prosperous, and the 
market is well attended ; a considerable quantity of wheat, 
for the growth of which the soil round the town is parti- 
cularly favourable, is sold ; and the country-people bring in 
linen, linen yarn, tow, woollen stockings, flannels, and a pe- 
culiar kind of woollen stuff which is dyed and dressed in the 
town. The market is also well supplied with lake and river fish, 
and some sea-fi^h, and goods of all kinds are sold in stalls. 
There are four vearly fairs. There are a sessions-house and 
bridewell, and the quarter-sessions for the Boyle division of 
the county are held here once in the year. There is also a 
dispensary. The old mansion-house of Lord Hartland has 
beon modernised : in the grounds, at a shost distance from 
the house, are the roofless walls of an old church, used as the 
family burial-place. Races are held at Ballynafad, three or 
four miles south of the town. 

Athleague is a small place, containing, in 1831, eighty- 
seven houses and 488 inhabitants : there is a long bridge, or 
rather series of bridges connected by a long causeway, car- 
ried obliouely across the river Suck, which here flows in a 
divided ciiannel. Athleague. is a dull place, with little trade; 
there is a flour-mill. Four. fairs are held in the year. The 
church is an old building in bad repair; there is a Catholic 
chapel in the town. Keadue is m Boyle barony, ten or 
eleven miles north-north-west of Carrick-on-Shannon ; it 
consisted, in 1831, of about furty houses, chiefly cabins. A 
market-house was then building ; and the place was increas- 
ing in orosperity from the neighbourhood of the Arigna 
iron- works. There are ten yearly faire. Keadue has a dis- 
pensary. Mount-Talbot is in Athlone baron v, on the banks 
of the Suck, and takes its name fhim the aemesne of the 
Talbot fomily, which is close to the village. It is a small 
place, pleasantly situated. Mount-Talbot has four fairs 
m the year. Petty sessions are held both here and at 

Lough-Glynn had, in 1831, about fiAy houses, chiefly ca- 
bins, but superior to those commonly met with; there were 
a Catholic chapel and a dispensary near the village, and a 
parish church at some distance : the population was 254. 
Kuskey or Rooskey is in Ballintobber hundred, and on the 
Shannon, over which is a bridge of nine arches ; the vil- 
lage extends across the river into Leitrim and Longford 
counties. The church of the parish of Tarmonbarry is in 
the village; also a Catholic chapel. Knockcroghery (pro- 
nounced Nocrohery) is in the barony of Athlone, about 5 
miles south-east of Roscommon, not far from Lough Ree. 
It has a new church and new school-houses. A considera- 
ble manufactory of tobacco-pipes is carried on; and there 
are two yearly fairs, one of them a large one. Tarmonbarry 
" •" Athlone barony, on the right bank of the Shannon, 
is her« difided into two arms, over each of whidi 

there is a bridge: these bridges are connected by a cause- 
wi|y over the intervening islanH. The Royal Canal termi- 
nates in the Shannon at Richmond harbour oppoaite Tar- 
monbarry : there are extensive basins, docks, and warebousc«k 
on the Longford side of the river. Castle-Plunket is a 
miserable place of about forty miserable cabins. Lougli- 
Glynn and Tarmonbarry have each four fairs in the year; 
Castle-Plunket has three. 

Divinons /or Ecclesiastical and Legal Purposee. — The 
number of parishes in the county is differently stated; wc 
believe the correct number to be Afky-six. These, with some 
of the adjacent parishes in the next counties, make up 
thirty-one benefices ; of which twenty-seven are in the t\n/ 
case of Elphin, one in that of Clonfert, one in Ardauh, 
and two in Tuam. All these dioceses were in the eccle- 
siastical province of Tuam, except Ardagh, which was in ti:e 
province of Armagh; but by the late alterations in tht 
Irish church, all are now in the province of Armagh. 

The county is included in the Connaught circuit : the 
assises are held at Roscommon, where is the county gauL 
The county is divided into two parts for the sessions busi- 
ness : the division of Athlone comprehends the baronies or 
halfbaronies of Athlone, Ballymoe, Moycame, and part of 
BaUintobber; the division of Boyle comprehends tlic baro- 
nies of Boyle, Roscommon, and the rest of BallintobUrr 
the sessions for the first are held alternately at Athlone and 
Roscommon; those of the second, twica in the year at 
Boyle, onro at Castle rea, and once at Strokestown. The 
county gaol is at Roscommon, and there are bridewelU at 
Athlone, Boyle, Castlerea, and Strokestown. The disctpUi.c 
of the county-gaol is very defective; the great objects uf 
prison discipline are altogether loft sight of; nor is the &ize 
of the gaol or the number of the cells sufiicient. The bride- 
wells of Athlone and Soyle are clean and well ordered. 
Those of Castlerea and Strokestown are for the tenipcirary 
lodgment of prisoners. The constabulary force, on 1st Janu- 
ary, 1838, amounted to 244, via. 1 subinspector, 6 chief roii- 
stables, 7 head-constables, 43 constables, and 187 subcon- 

There is a county infirmary at Roscommon, and dispensa- 
ries at Athlone, Boyle, Castlerea, Elphin, French- park. 
Strokestown, Keadue, Lough-Glynn, Croghan, TuUk, and 
Ballyleague. The county is included in the district of the 
Connaught lunatic asylum, which is at Ballinasloe. 

Two members are returned for the county, who are elccic<l 
at Roscommon. Athlune, which is partly in this county, » 
the only parliamentary borough. Ibe number of voters on 
the register for the county in 1834-5 was 1864; for the bo- 
rough of Athlone 274. 

The amount of grand-jury presentments in the year 1 ^37 
was 27,051^ \Se. 3c/.,vix. : for new roads, bridges. &c. '250 :/. 
3«. 6i(L ; for repairing roads, bridges, &c., 7884/. 2^. Hid, 
for building or repairing gaols, bridewells, and houses ctf 
correction, 4\L\Qs,; for prison and bridewell expense*, 
1915/. I5s, ; for the police and expenses of witnesses, 4r»b/. 
Or. \Ol(L ; for salaries of county ofiicers, not included in the 
foregoing heads, 3376/. 18#. ; for public charities, 14^47. 
17«. 2d, ; for the repayment of government advances, 5lu^/. 
6f. 10^.; and for miscellaneous.expenses, 572/. 3«. lOeC 

Hietory^ Aniiquiiies, ^-c — In the earliest historical pe- 
riod this county appeara to have been p^rtlv or wholly m 
possession of the Aoteri, a people mentioned by Plolem.v, 
and supposed by Sir James Ware {Hint qf Ireland^ vol. ii\ 
ch. vi.) to have inhabited some part of the counties of Gal- 
way and Roscommon. At a later period it was occupie^l by 
the septs or clans of O'Conor Ruadh (red). Rough, or Roe': 
and O Conor Dbunne (brown) Dunn, or Don, whose terri- 
tories comprehended respectively the baronies of Roscitiu- 
mon and Ballintobber ; and by the sept of the Macdermot^. 
whose territories now constitute the barony of Boyle ; tlie 
parts bordering on Galway were occasionally encr&aclu^i 
upon by the 0*Dalys and the 0*Kellys of Galway. The 
territories of the two tribes of the 0*Conors wer» called 
Hy-Onach; those of the Macdermots were called Moylar^ 
or Moylurg ; and those of the O'Dalys and O'Kellys. Hy- 
Maine or Mainech. Part of the county was included, wiili 
a portion of Galway, in Clanckonow, tlie territory of the 
Bcurka: the moat northern part was induded in Corcach- 
hinn, the territory of the O^Hanlys and 0*Broenans ; U^ 
tween the Suck and the Shannon was the district of Dealbna 
Nuadhat; Hy-Briun Sinna was another district along the 
bank of the Shannon ; and a district called Kierrigia-ai. 
afterwards Clan-K«therni was included in the county, but 

R O S 


R O S 

the plan of ft society for refining the English languiige and 
fixing its standard, and he is said to have been assisted in 
the design by John Dry den ; but no particulars upon this 
•ubieot are recorded. 

(Wood's Pagii Oxonientes; Johnson's lAvei qf the FoeU; 
Walpole*s lUmal and Noble Authore, Park's edition.) 

ROSE. [Rosa.] 



ROSEMARY. [Rosmari nus.I 

ROSEN, FREDERIC AUGUSTUS, was born on the 
2nd of September, 1805, at Hanover, and died in London on 
the 12th of September, 1837. He received his earliest 
education from his father, who still lives at Detmold in 
Westphalia, where he holds a high official situation in the 
government of the prince of Lippe Detmold. He afterwards 
went to the gymnasium at Gdttingen. In the year 1822 
Rosen went to the university of Leipzig, and two years 
afterwards to Berlin. The energy with which he applied 
himself to all branches of science and literature, and his 
great powers for acquiring knowledge, encouraged his 
friends to form the highest expectations of his future career. 
At an early period he had become distinguished for his 
classical attainments and his knowledge of the [Semitic 
languages ; but it was not until the year 1824 that he turned 
his attention to the Sanscrit, a language which at that time 
was almost unknown in Germany, although its importance 
in all questions connected with the early history of civiliza- 
tion had been pointed out by tbe two Sclilegels, Creuzer, 
and William von Humboldt. During a short visit which 
he paid to his family, he made himself acquainted, with his 
father*s assistance, with the anticnt language of the Brah- 
mans, in which he received further instruction at Berlin 
from Professor Bopp, who had just returned from London, 
and been appointed professor or Sanscrit at the university 
of Berlin. William von Humboldt, who devoted his time 
to the same pursuits, also encouraged him to proceed in his 
Sanscrit studies. The total want of all useful aids towards ob- 
taining a knowledge of this difilcult language, suggested to 
Rosen the idea of supplying the deficiency, which his acqui- 
sitions rendered him well able to do. Accordingly, in 1826, 
when he took his degree of doctor of philosophy, he pub- 
lished his 'Corporis Radicum Sanscritarum Prolusio,' 
wKlch was only the forerunner of his larger work ' Radices 
Sanscritse,' Berlin, 1827. This work, which abounds in 
learning and sound criticism, has contribute^ more than 
any other to recommend and facilitate the study of the 
Sanscrit language in Germany. It is now out of print, and 
the author had prepared a second edition, in which he had 
remodelled his original plan, in order to adapt his work to 
tbe then advanced state of Sanscrit literature. Rosen also 
had applied himself, with the greatest success, to the study 
of Arabic i^nd Persian ; and he had prepared for publication 
several large episodes of the * Shah N&hmah, the great 
epic poem of the Persians. This intense application 
to the literature and the languages of the East gave birth 
to a strong desire to visit Asia. A favourable opportunity 
presented itself, and he was appointed attach^ to the Prus- 
sian embassy at Constantinople. Shortly before he started 
however he received a flattering invitation to become Pro- 
fessor of Oriental Languages in the University of London 
(now U niversity College) then just established. He accepted 
the ufier, hoping to find in this country a wide field for his 
literal^ labours. Before going to London, he visited Paris, 
in order to become acquainted with De Sacy, Remusat, 
and De Ch6zy ; and after a short stay in that city he 
came to London. But his expectations of honour and 
profit were greatly disappointed ; for though he had a few 
pupils in Sanscrit, Arabic, and Persian, it soon became 
evident that a teacher of the Hindustani language was 
mure wanted at the London University than a professor of 
Oriental languages as the term is understood in Germany. 
His energy did not however fail him; and seeing that he 
could be useful in a secondary capacity, he appliea himself 
for several mouths with great industry to the Hindustani, in 
order that he might qualify himself to teach the lan- 
guage. Some years afterwards he resigned his professor- 
ship of Oriental longuagc:? ; but subsequently accepted 
the Sanscrit professorship in University College. The 
high opinion which the College entertained of his services 
may be collected from the Annual Report of the College for 
the year 1837-38, which was made after his death. 
Ue derived more satisfaction from his occupation u ho- 

Inonury foreign iecralary of the Royal Asiatic Society, and 
as secretary to the Oriental Translation Committee, then 
just established. This brought him into comroumratt >i\ 
with that great Oriental scholar Colebrooke, for ik horn he 
entertained the highest admiration. Bv Colebrooke's ad\>i-c 
he published, under the sanction of the Translation Coin- 
mittee, the Arabic text of the * Algebra of Mohammed U*n 
Musa,' with an English translation, accompanied with ex- 
cellent notes [Muail ; he also prepared for publication thf 
great 'Biographical Dictionary ' of Ibn KhalUkan, but \ht\ 
as well as another work, in which he intended to i(\\c .\ 
eomprehensive view of the system of Indian jurisprudeuci:, 
was never completed. 

Amidst these various oocupations he had not h>st si'^Iit 
of a higher and more arduous task, in which he wished lo 
concentrate all his attainments. Having discovered tint 
the character of the Indian literature and language could 
only be completely understood hy tracing them back to the 
earliest periods to which the * Vedas' belong, he desired tu 
remove the obscurity by which they are Burround«rd. 
In 1830 be published his 'RigVedae Specimen,' Ta^lvir. 
London, ana from that time his principal attention «as 
directed to this great object. In order to understand the 
obsolete language of these antient writings, he had to stud> 
the oldest of the grammatical works of the Hindus. Having 
done this, he applied himself to the Commentaries, wiihc'iu 
a full knowledge of which the texts are quite onintelligt\»ic 
All this was done under very disadvantageous circumstaiico. 
and it is a matter of great regret that he was not pUct «1 
in a situation which would have made other labour unne- 

Among his various literair labours at this period was the 
revision of the 'Dictionary, Bengali, Sanscrit, and English,' 
published bv Sir Graves Houghton, London, IB33-4. li« 
also made toe 'Catalogus Codicum ManuscriptorUm Syns- 
eorum et Carshunicorum in Museo Britannioo^' which' ha* 
been published, since his death, under the care of the Kc\. 
Mr. Forshall, who in his address to the reader has jusily 
attributed to Dr. Rosen all the merit of this catalogue. 
Unfortunately Dr. Rosen's name does not appear either o:i 
the title-page of this catalogue, nor after the prnfatio «bu-h 
he wrote, and which is printed at the head of tbe catalogue. 
To qualify himself for this labour, Rosen made himself 
master of the Syriac language, with which he was hith«rti> 
imperfectly acquainted. At Colebrooke's request he untiir - 
took the collection of his 'Miscellaneous Essays,' to which hr 
added an excellent index, 2 vols., London, 1827. He aKi 
wrote all the articles relating to Oriental literature in ihit 
work, from the article ' Abbasides,' to the article *Ethiopijn 
Language,' both included, 'together with several article* un 
Eastern Geography, such as ' Arabia' and * Armenia.* II o rc> 
vised the work on the Hindus, which was published in tb^ 
' Library of Entertaining Knowledge;* the chapter on thr 
literature is entirely by his hand. For the 'Journal uf 
Education' lie wrote a review of Bopp's 'Vergleicheniic 
Grammatik,' &c. (vol. viii.), and two reviews of Po(t\ 
'Etymologische Forschungen' (vols. 9, 10). He roainlamcil 
a constant correspondence with almost all the distingui&hol 
scholars on the Continent, and for the last ten years of li;« 
life no important publication connected with Eastern philo- 
logy or history was projected on the Continent to which he 
did not contribute either by his advice or by the aupplv of 
materials. His worth was fully appreciated on the Con- 
tinent, and a desire was often expreued that he should 
return to his native country ; but ueing anxious to aocom< 
plish his design of publishing the 'Vedas,' and eonceivms; 
that he was placed m a wider sphere of utility in Bngl«r» i. 
he preferred ^remaining in London; where he found such 
valuable treasures of Oriental literature. 

In the year 1836 he began to print the collection of tl.t 
hymns of the 'Rig Veda,' giving the Sanscrit text, a Laim 
translation, and explanatory notes. In the autumn of Isjt 
he had advanced so far that he intended to publish a fir^t 
volume, when his sudden death, in the prime of life and \u 
the full vigour of his intellectual powers, interrupted an 
undertaking for which no man in Europe was so well qua- 
lified or prepai*ed as himself. The Translation Commit uv 
published the hook after his death, as far as it was cvxii 
pleted, under the title 'Rig Veda Sanhita Liber Prim i:n 
Sanscrite et Latine,' London, 1838, 4to. Those who ina% 
hereafter profit by the studv of this work, should kn« .* 
at what price it has been obtained: it is only a fragmctiT. 
but it contains the energy of a whole life. Rescues poathu- 

R O S 


K O S 

RoMDkreuies/ Frankfort, 1617, in which there ii a story of 
a certain Cbristian Rosenkreui, a German noble of the 
fourteenth century, who, after travelling long in the East, 
returned to Germany; and there established a fraternity, 
or secret society, of a few adepts, under certain regulations, 
living toge^er in a building which he raised under the 
name of Sancti Spirit us, where he died, at 106 years 
of age. The place of his burial was kept a profound 
secret by the adepts, and the Society renewed itself by the 
admission of successive new raembiers in silence and ob- 
scurity, according to the last injunction of its founder, who 
directed the following inscription to be placed on a door of 
Sancti Spiritus:— * Post CXX. annos patebo.' 3, ' Ck>nfessio 
Fiaternitatis RosesB Crucis ad Erudites Europe,' which is 
appended to the preceding, and in which it is stated that 
the Order does not interfere with the religion or polity of 
states, but only seeks for the true philosophy; that many 
absurd fables have been told of the fraternity, either by iu 
enemies or by fantastic people. It states also that once a 
year the membcn are to meet at appointed places to con- 
verse together upon secret matters, and that new members 
are to Im admitted to supply the place of those who are de- 
ceased, and to work for the common purpose of the Order, 
giving no clue however for discovering what that purpose 
was. In fact the secret, if secret there was, has been effec- 
tually kept to the present day. This appearance of myste- 
riousness has given rise to various surmises. Some *iiave 
ascribed to the Rosicrucians the same hostile plans against 
all established churches and monarchies which have been 
also attributed to the Illuminati, Freemasons, Carbonari, 
and other secret societies. (Barruel, Memoirei oour nrvir 
d VHi»toire du JacMnitme,) Others say that the order of 
Rosicrucians is identical with that of Freemasons, one 
of whose degress or dignities is called in some countries the 
degree of the Red Cross. The Rosicrucians have not been 
hcMurd of as a separate order for nearly a century past, but 
some have thought that they continued to exist under the 
name of the Illuminati, who were much talked of in Ger- 
many and France in the latter part of the eighteenth cen- 
tury. Barruel, after describing the ceremonies with which 
candidates were admitted to the degree of Red Cross in 
some Freemasons' lodges, which however, he says, vary in 
different countries, observes that these ceremonies, which 
were apparently allusive to the Passion of Jesus Christ, were 
differently interpreted, according to the dispositions of the 
candidates ; that some saw in it a memento of the Passion, 
others an introduction to the arcana of alchemy and magic, 
and others at last a blasphemous invective against the 
founder of Christianity, which the Rosicrucians had derived 
from the Templars of old. This assertion however has been 
contradicted by others. The reader who wishes to investi- 
gate this obscure subject may consult F. Nicolai, ' On the 
Crimes ascribed to the Templars ;* Chr. Murr, * On the 
True Origin of the Rosicrucians^' 1803; and J. G. Buhle, 
Ueber don Ursprung und die vornehmsten Schicksale der 
Ordon der Rosenkreuzer und Freymaurer,' Gottingen, 1804. 
Buhle seems to thinks that the Rosicrucians are but a 
branch or affiliation of the Freemasons. The impostor Ong- 
liostro pretended that he was a Rosicruoian. [Caoliostro.] 


ROSMARI'NUS, a genus of planU belonging to the 
natural order Lamiaces. It is one of the genera be- 
longing to this order that are perennial and possess the 
character of shrubs. It is known by the following charac- 
ters :— calyx ovato, campanulate, with two lips, the upper of 
which is entire, and the lower two-parted ; corolla not 
ringed in the inside, the throat slightly inflated with 
two Uds, equal, the upper one emarginate, the lower two- 
parted, the middle lobe very large and hanging down ; sta- 
mens two ; filaments slightly toothed at the base ; style 
with the upper lobe very short. 

RnsmartntM qfhincJit, the common Rosemary, is an 
inhabitant of the southem parts of France, Spain, and 
Italy, the basin of the Mediterranean, and some parts of 
Asia Minor. It is a very leafy shrub, growing to the height 
of three or four feet; the leaves are sessile, linear, quite en 
tire, revolute at the edge, and covered with white hairs be- 
neath ; the flowers are tew, and in short axOlarv racemes ; 
the corolla has a dull leaden blue or white colour, with the 
tube protruding a little beyond the calyx , the flower-leaves 
or bracts are shorter than the calyx. The cultivated and 
~^vden plants differ very much in the shape and number of 
ir leav€«» on which account Miller described them as two 

species, the /?. anguitifolia and the R, latifolia. The hitt. 
of the leaves varies according to the soil and situation m 
which the plant grows. It is generally observed that \U\ 
broader and longer the leaves, the more vigorous is tl.« 
plant The rosemary is a very desirable plant for the gar- 
den, both on account of its evergreen character and itfe 
flowers, which appear from January to April. There arc 
three %arieties known in ^dens, the green or common, 
the gold-striped, and the sdver-striped, which are distin- 
guished principally by the colour of their leaves. The grevn 
variety is the hardiest, and is most generally used. It may 
be propagated by seeds, or slips or cuttings of the }oun;; 
shoots. The striped varieties may be best propagated b> 
layers of the young wood. They should be planted in a 
warm situation, as they are much more tender than the 
green. They are only cultivated as ornamental plants on 
account of their variegated leaves. The rosemary about wK 
in the district of Narbonne in France, where it is uscl tn 
form hedges for gardens, &c It is supposed to be tlio 
aroma of this plant gathered by the bees that gives to the 
honey of this district its peculiarly fine flavour. 

Rosemary was formerly held in high estimatbn, espe- 
cially on the Continent In the songs of the troubadours 
it is frequently mentioned as an emblem of constancy attd 
devotion to the fair sex. It was thought to be a comforter of 
the brain, and a strengthener of the memory ; and on the 
latter account used as a sign of fidelity amongst \o\ er». 
Shakspere makes Ophelia say, — 

'There*! raeeoury for jon : that*! Ibr rvmombrance.* 

In some parts of Germany rosemary is grown in lar^e 
quantities in pots for the purpose of selling small sprigs of it 
when in blossom, in winter and early spring, for various 
religious purposes. 

ROSMARINUS OFFiaNA'LIS, Botemary, called 
also Anthos, a term which is apt to lead to the confounding of 
Rosemary with the Ledum palustre or wild marsh-rosemar)'* 
which has very different and even dangerous properties. 
Genuine Rosemary is a shrub, a native of the south of 
Europe, Asia Minor, and China. The officinal part is the 
tops or upper part of the twigs. The leaves are about an 
inch lone, linear, slightly revolute at the margins, dark 
green ana reticulate on the upper surface, hoary and wbito 
on the under. The leaves and calyces of the flowers ba\e 
a strong, penetrating, aromatic odour, which is rendered 
stronger by bruising them ; and a bitter, burning, camphor- 
like taste. Tlicy owe this to the presence of tannic acid, 
bitter matter, perhaps resin, and especially to a volatile od. 
of which one arachm may, by distillation, be obtained fruin 
one pound of the leaves. 

Od of Rosemary (Oleum Rorismarini, or OL Anthoa) is 
chiefly prepared in Spain and the south of France, by dt& 
tillation of the leaves and flowers. At first it is ncarlr 
transparent and very limpid, but by time it becomes both 
yellowish and thicker. It possesses the strong penetrating 
odour of rosemary, with a oaraphor-hke intermixture, and 
a burning taste. It has an acid re-action. The specific 
gravity varies with the purity and age of the specimen ; u 
is commonly 0*91, but by rectification with alcohol it u 
brought to 0*89 or 0*85. It mixes with alcohol of *83 in 
every proportion. By evaporation or by shaking with potass, it 
deposits a stearopten, or rosemary-camphor. Hydrochlont* 
acid gas blackens it, but does not form an artifldiu oamphoi 
With iodine it partially explodes. 

The oil of rosemary of commerce is an artificial prepara 
tion of oil of turpentine distilled with rosemary; it is also 
adulterated with spike oil, obtained from the Lavantlula 
Spica. This may always be distinguished from the genuine 
by not reddening litmus-paper 

Rosemary possesses valuable stimulant and canninatnc 
properties; but it is chiefly employed as a perfume, entering 
into the composition of the Queen of Uunganr's Water, 
Eau de Cologne, and aromatic vin^ar. It is also said to 
promote the growth of hair and prevent baldness. 

ROSS and CROMARTY SHIRES, two Scotch oouo 
ties, intimately connected both locally and othorwiso Ross 
comprehends a considerable area on the mainland of Smt 
land, together with the large island of l^ewis, ontt <^ thr 
Mebrid^ ; and Cromarty is composed of a number of do 
tached portions, either interspersed among the inland part« 
of Ross or lying along its border The mainland portion 
of the two counties approximates in figure to a triangle, 
having its vertex (Tarbet Ness) towards the east; one sid*, 
facing the north, extending from Titfbet Ness to Loch 

R O S 


R O S 

nvall, watering Strath Bran, and pasging through several 
lake8» among which ia Loch Luichart, nearly five miles long 
by one broad. Loch Fannich, eighi miles long and a mile 
broad, is drained by another of these streams : it is near 
the centre of the counties. Loch Monar, five miles long by 
one mile broad, is drained by a stream which belongs to 
Inverness-shire; Loch Glass, five miles long, and many 
other lakes, most of them very small, are drained bv streams 
flowing into the friths of the eastern coast. All the above- 
mentioned lakes have their greatest extension from east to 

The streams on the western coast have a shorter course 
than those on the eastern. There are several lochs in this 
part. Loch Maree, the larf;est fresh-water lake in the 
counties, extending twelve miles in length, and two miles 
or two miles and a half across in the broadest part, is 
drained by the Ewe, which flows into Loch Ewe. Loch 
Na Shallaig* three miles long ; Loch Fair or Fuir, three 
miles long and above a mile wide; Loch Dambh or Damff, 
four miles long; Loch Lundie, three miles long; and Loch 
Clunie, partly in Inverness-shire, nearly four miles long, are 
drained by streams which flow into the sea on the west 

Lewis abounds inlakes ; but they arcall small, except Loch 
Langavat, which extends in length nearly ten miles from 
north to south, between Loch Seafurth and Loch Resort. 
Tiic streams in Lewis have all a very short course. 

The two counties have very few roads. The greater part 
of them, including those of chief importance, are on the 
east side, and lead to different places farther north. One 
leads ncnr the coast from Inv^ness. by Fortrose, Cromarty, 
and Tain, to Dornoch, Wick, and Thurso, the communica- 
tion being made in several places by ferries over the lochs 
and friths. Another road from Inverness to Wick and 
Thurso runs more inland, passing round the heads of Loch 
Be.iuley and the Frith of Cromarty, and through the town 
of Dingwall, which is at the head of Cromarty Frith : it 
crosses into 8uther1andshire bv Bonar Brids^c, which is 
thrown over the Kyle at the head of Dornoch Frith. There 
are several roads communicating between these two. A 
road from Dingwall leads across the country through Strath 
Bran to Loch Carron, a distance of 49 miles, sending off 
branches on the right to Ullapool on Loch Broom, to the 
heads of Loch Gairloch and Loch Ewe, by the side of Loch 
Maree, and to Loch Torridon. The road from Inverness to 
the Isle of Skye, with a branch to Loch Ahh and Loch 
Carron, runs tnrough Rhiabuio and Glen Shiel, in the 
southern parts of the county of Ross; and that from Dor- 
noch and the east coast to Loch Assynt just passes through 
the northern part of the same county. The greater part if 
not the whole of these roads are under the direction of the 
commissioners of Highland roads and bridges. 

Soil; Agriculture, — The arable land of the two counties 
is almost entirely confined to the eastern part, comprehend' 
ing the two peninsulas, 'An Oilcan Dubh,' or the Black 
Islo, between Loch Bcauley and Cromarty Firth ; and Easter 
Ross, between the Cromorty and Dornoch friths, together 
with the comparatively low and level tract immediately ad- 
jacent to these. The central and western parts are * wild, 
rugged, and mountainous, interpersed with lakes and nar- 
row glens that afford pasture for sheep and black cattle.* 
(MacCulloch, Statist. Jcct, qf Brit, Empire.) Since the 
commencement of the present century, ogriculture has im- 
proved in a most extraordinary manner. 'The fields were 
formerly detached pieces of land, ploughed irregularly, as 
the ground with the least labour suited. The carts generally 
UHod were of the poorest description, with a kind of tum- 
bler or solid wheel, and wicker conical baskets ; little or no 
lime was used for agricultural purposes.' ' I succeeded to 
a farm in this country about tnirty years ago (says Major 
Gilchrist, of Opisdale. Suthorlandshire), when the working 
strength consisted of sixteen oxen and twentv-four small 
horses called garrons; this farm is now laboured by three pair 
of horaes.* ^Appendix to Fburteenth R-port of Commissioners 
0/ Highland Roads and Bridges; Pari, Papers for lb28, 
vol. ix.) The individual who introduced the ploughing of 
laud in regular ridges, and the division of fields into any- 
thing like systematic arrant;eroent, was living in the em- 
p|r»y of Major Gilchrist at the period of the above Report. 
''J'h«* total amount of wheat then (viz., at the coronicuce- 
mmi of tlia present century) raised in the county was not 
^Mut to what is now produced on many single farms. It 
M not until 1813 that the first barley-mill north of the 

Cromarty Frith was erected, and in 1821 the first flour mil) 
(at Drummond, on the estate of Fowlis) by the same indi- 
vidual. To such an extent however has cultivation of latt 
been carried, that the growth of wheat alone is now (viz. 1 *^*^^ i 
estimated at 20,000 quarters annually ; and the ex porta t ion ut 
gram to London, Leith, Liverpool, &c. during the last ye?r 
amounted to upwards of 10,000 quarters; besides the suppiv 
of the extensive and populous pastoral districts of tlv 
county (of Ross), and the towns of Dingwall, Tain, Inver- 
ness, &c., to which places I am credibly informed upward* 
of 10,000 bolls of flour are now annuallv senl for the con- 
sumption of the inhabitants. Among other exports ni;iy K* 
mentioned the produce of various extensive wniskey di^t ti- 
leries, situated m different parts of the county, and a n»n* 
siderable quantity of salted pork from the ports of Cromarty 
and Invergorden. {Appendix to Report^ as above.) 

The soil in the peninsula of the Black Isle is various, an! 
much of it poor. The cultivated portion consists chiefl) of 
clayey loam, good black mould, and sandy loam. In Eu)»tt>r 
Ross there is a considerable extent of clayey loam and I'^^hi 
sandy soil. Around Dingwall the soil is clayey* Then* an- 
more than the usual number of gentlemen's seats and 
tations in the cultivated part of the two counties. TK<- 
usual fences are hedges and ditches, sometimes howcvor 
stone fences are employed. There is some good timber in 
the hedgerows. Turnips are grown equal to those of mnr« 
southern counties. The crops are clean, and for the m^^^t 
part rich. The houses of the principal farmera are neat ar *] 
commodious, and the cottages of the peasantry have mur!>. 
improved of late years. Many of the mansion houses an* 
well situated, and surrounded by omamcmtal plantaiion<. 
shrubberies, or fine timber-trees. Many of them have ex- 
cellent gardens; and a spirit of horticultural ireprovcmen: 
is very general. The gardens of the farmers, though sma:), 
are well stocked ; and the cottagers are fond of bavin;; a 
garden, whenever they have a suitable piece of ground 
Much, very much of the improvement in agricuhure i*- 
to be ascribed to the improved communications formed ar.d 
maintained by the government commission for Ilighlan<l 
roads and bridges. In some parts indeed, ignorance, or ptc- 
judice, or perhaps poverty, has induced an adherence tvi 
antient practices and a sturdy rejection of improved me- 

'A marked improvement in domestic animals of every df 
scription has taken place in the northern counties since ihr 
improved communication with the south. I need hardU 
allude to the introduction of the Cheviot sheep, to the p.iiL« 
taken in improving the breed of cattle by the iraportaxi 
of the most improved sorts from the West Highlands i.\.\ 
of cows from Ayrshire. Considerable attention has hex-/, 
recently paid to the breed of horses, both for the purp<ivs 
of agriculture and draught; and, in some instances, tho^i- <i 
the finest description have been successfully reared. N>« 
has the breed of pigs been neglected; several valual-K 
species, both pure and crosses, baving been introduced/ 
(Appendix to Reports as above.) The original native brc«?«l 
of cattle is hardy and compact, adapted to the c1imat«' 
Cattle were formerly more numerous than at present; and 
were much employed in agricultural labour, but this usc^ . f 
them is now almost entirely given up. The diminution 1.1 
their number is ascribed to the greater attention paid !•■ 
sheep- farm ing. 

The western side of the county, where it has not \tc^-^ 
thrown into large sheep-farms, is occupied by a poor cU.-» 
of tenants. They have some arable land, in which potatf«^, 
barley, and oats are raised ; bu'^ the number of acres un>^'i 
cultivation is not great, nor has planting been carried t.> 
any extent. The greater part of the country is an o(v :. 
waste. The houses of many of the peasantry, induding tlu 
smoll tenantry and the cotters, are very poor; some arv 
built of turf, others with stone, with or without mortar, ar. * 
have a roof of turf with heather or fern above it. They a rr 
commonly destitute of chimneys; the fire is kindled by ti. 
wall, or a stone in the centre of the room ; the smoke cscsp*^, 
as it can, by roof, door, or windows, which last arc cUi^«.^l 
at wdl with wooden shutters. The floor is made of mud <. r 
clsy. In many houses the cattle dwell under the satx.t* 
roof, and even enter at the same door with the familv, fr>..T;i 
which they are separated by a partition of boards, stone-, 
or wattles, having a door in the middle. Some of iIm? pooj-'.. 
are getting into the way of building separate sheds for \\u . 
cattle. Tlie food of the peasantry consists of i)otalues« li« r- 
rings, and oatmeal gruel. Tliose in better circumstance^ 




The popultlioD. in 1831. wib 290I» about one-foorlh agri- 
•aUuni : the popuUtioa of the town itself waa 2215, that of 
the country part of the parish 686. There are a hempen- 
cloth manufactory wliicl^mploys in all six hundred persons, 
two hundred of them in the factoiy itself, and a hrowery. A 
considerable trade is carried on with England in sidt pro- 
visions; and in 1831, about fifty men were engaged in the 
herring or white fishery. There are a branch bank and a 
post-othoe. Communication ia maintained by an omnibus 
with Inverness, and by steam-boats with Leith and London. 
Some ship-building is carried on. There are a market on 
Friday and one yearly fair. 

Cromarty was antienlly a royal burgh, but was disfran- 
chised at the reauest of the burghers, aj>. 1672, and was 
aeeountcd only a burgh of barony. Its privileges as a royal 
burgh have been restored by the Scotch Burgh Reform Act, 
but the magistrates can effect little from the want of funds ; 
the antient property of the burgh having been alienated 
before iu disfranchisement It unites with Kirkwall, Wick, 
Dornoch, Tain* and Dingwall to return a member to par- 
liament. ^ 
Dingwall is at the south-western extremity of Cromarty 
Frith, 23 miles from Inverness by a circuitous road, and 
178 miles (according to Chambers's Gaxeiteer qf Scoiiand) 
from Edinburgh. The parish comprehends an area of above 
ten square miles, three-fidhs of it moorland or upland paa- 
ture, and the remainder cultivated. Dingwall was probably 
a Danish settlement: it was erected into a royal buigh by 
Alexander 1 1., a-d. 12*27, and, by pavements and other 
traces of buildings which have been found, apnears to 
have been more extensive than it is now. It was the prin- 
cipal residence of the powerful earls of Rosa, and appears to 
have declined after the extinction of that earldom. Some 
traces of the antient oastle of these earls, comprehending the 
earthworks and a small portion of the massive walls, may be 
seen on the north-east side of the town. In the early part 
of the last eentury Dingwall was in a deplorable condition 
from poverty and neglect, and the public tranquillity was 
repeatedly broken by the frays of tiostile dans. Subse- 
quently to the suppression of the rebellion of 1745 great 
improvements took place, and the town has especially im- 
proved of late yeara. It consists at present of one main 
street running east and west, and one or two smaller ones 
branching from it ; the streets are naved, but either not 
lil^hted or very imperfectly so ; and tne police is too imper- 
fect to enforce cleanbness, so that even in the main street 
dunghills are sometimes seen in the front of the houses. 
Qeanliness is however gaining ground, and there are some 
good houses and shops. The kirk is a neat and commo- 
dious building, just out of the town ; near it is a pyramidal 
obelisk fifty -seven feet high and six feet square at the base, 
erected on a large artificiM mound, by a Ibrmer earl of Cro- 
marty, to mark out the burial-|Uace of himself and his 
family : the town-house, a curiouB old building with spire 
and dock, ia near the centre of the town ; and there is a 
small and wretched gaol and an episcopal chapel. 

The population of the parish, in 1 83 1, was 2 139 : about one- 
fifth ai^riculturaL There are good roads, and a short canal 
from the frith enables vessels with coals and other merchan- 
dise to come quite up to the town. There isaooach communi- 
cation daily with Invemesa, and steam-boats weekly fh>m 
Edinburxli, and every second week fkom London, touch at 
Invenrurdon, distant fourteen miles. There are a weekly 
market (on FriJay) and three yearly fisirs. 

The burgh council consists of fifteen members, including 
a provost, two baihes. a dean of guild, and a treasurer; the 
burgh unites with Kirkwsll. Wick, Dornoch, Tain, and 
Cfomarty in returning a member to parliament 

There were, in 1837, a parochial school an infant-school 
supported by subscription, and three other daily schools in 
the parish; also one large Sunday-schooL 

Fortroie is in the parish of Rosemarkie, and on the shore 
of Morav Frith, just within the narrow passage by which 
that frith ia contracted opposite Fort George. It was an* 
tiently the cathedral lowu of the bishopric of Roes, and is 
still sometimes called Csnonry or Chanonry of Ross ; it wsa 
arseted into a royal burgh by Jamea IL, aji^ 1444, and an- 
nexed lo the previously existing and adjarent bui^h of 
Rosemarkie. The prevent buigh eonsisu of the two thus 
united. Fortrose u a small town, with little manulhrture 
and \mrj little trade ; and Rotemarkie is an inst|;uificant 
fiahtng*village ; the two itlecce are about th r ee quarters of 
a mile d»tant fnm each other. There are soim remains of 

the antient cathedral at Fortrose, comprehending an aisle 
or chapel which was an appendage to tne main part of \\^ 
churchy an antient building, probably a vestry, wiih sn 
arched vault beneath; some tombs in niches in thr iii.l«, 
with effigies of the bishops, carved in stone, and much de- 
faced ; and an antient bell, now hung in a spire of m^rra 
erection. There are an episcopal chapel and a prison. Tli<* 
parish church is at Rosemarkie. For a long pcnod therhu f 
employment of the poor of Fortrose lias been shoe- making . 
of Rotteroarkie, weaving: the inhabitants arc engaged aN> 
in finhing. There is a rope walk at Rosemarkie. and a dutil !• t y 
at Fortrose. There is communication with Fort Gcorgr )•% 
a ferry ; and with Aberdeen, Dundee, Leith, and Lwud n 
by trading vessels. 

The poDulation of Rosemarkie parish, in 1831, was Kv?. 
The burgn council consists of a provost, three bailicv s 
dean of guild, a treasurer, and nine other mciiiUr^: 
fifteen in all. The burgh unites with Im'emess, Na.r:.. 
and Forres to return a member to parliament 

Stornoway, the only town in the isle of Lewis, i« situ» ' '. 
at the head of a bay on the east side of the island. 1 : l 
parish is extensive, extending sixteen ngiles in one dirt^t.iai 
and ten in another; with a population, in 183t, of 54Ji. i^ 
whom three- fifths were in the town or its immediate viciniM 
Stornoway consists of several streets. The bouses are m 
general good, with slate roofs, and many not only well I ut 
even elegantly furnished. There is a handsome kirk, Lu:tt 
in 1794, and lately repaired ; there are a neat custom- hu •.««-, 
a town-house, and an assembly-room. The houtcs ui i!«^* 
country parts of the parish are in general miserable and lu* 
describably filthy habitations. The principsl emplovtutnt 
of the inhabitants of the parish is fishing. ' The seai^uii i» 
divided between fishing, farming, and xelping, and m <%t 
families have a share of a boat and a lot of land.* (A'-v* 
SiaiisL Account r/ Scotland,) Cod and ling are cat..|:!.t 
and cured, and shipped for Ireland or the manufsctur.* -^ 
district round Glasgow. Haddocks are caught and ri.rv«l 
for home consumption; and flounders, hskcs, soles, ti.«>K«, 
and conger-eels, and occasionally whales, giampuseis ai. 1 
porpoises, are taken. 

Stornoway was founded by James VL of Scotland ? -1 
I. of England, for the purpose of intru<lucing ci%iliza' i 
into the Highlands. Tbe^ harbour is good siid mucU fu- 
quented. Sixty-seven vessels, with an aggregate loniu;!c • f 
3059 tons, and fifteen hundred boats, belong to the port anU i.» 
district. There are a corn-mill, a saw-mill, and a wouI*ca «i- 
ing mill, a ropewalk. and a large distillery. Kelp-makmi: a. I 
the manufacture of coarse pottery are carried on. Thcr<* t^ 
a well frequented yearly fair for cattle. Sheriff an.l <■« .. 
miflsary courta, bailie, excise, and justice of peace cour t «^ a r i- 
held regularly. There are thirteen schools in the r«'..h. 
vii. the parochial school, seven supported by the rhetn s i 
societies or individuals, two 'supported by the oi>ut,t-i 
people,* and three without any extraneous support. T\*k. x% 
are a circulating library and two friendly societies. 

Divitiont for Eedetioitical cmd Legal Purpotts: S ...*/ 
qf Crime, and EdueatioH,^-The thirty-three |«r.%li. <• 
in the two counties are comprehended in the five pn « 
byteries of Tain, Dingwall, Chanonry (i>. Fortr\>^- .. 
Lochcarron, and Lewia. The presbvtery of Tain twny re- 
hends nine parishes, in or adjacent to the peninsula of Ra%t t r 
Ross ; that of Dingwall, seven parisbes in and round L>« i ^- . 
wall; that of Chanonry, six pari»hes, in the penui«ula c-f 
the Black Isle ; that of Loclicarron, seven parishes, ori t i «. 
west coast (beside the parish of Glenelg, in luvemesa-%hi r t 
and that of Lawis, four parishes, in the inland of Lewis. 1\ . ^ 
presbyteries of Tain, Dingwall, and Chanonry are tn t ) r 
synod of Ross ; those of Lochcarron and Lea is, in the s\ c. . ; 
of Glenelg. 

Slienff' courts are held at Tain and Dingwall, in the n« a - 
land of Ross-shire; in Stornoway, in Lewis; and at C i. 
morty in Cromartyshire. The two counties are umlrr « . 
sherifl*. There are four prisons, vis. Tain. Diiij^wali, K 
rose, and Cromarty ; they are alt bad. Crime i* nc»i f ^ 
qiient in the two counties, and has diminuhcd cuuftulrr . > • 
within the last seventy or eighty years. Highway rvl- 1 ^ . « 
and eattle-steahng, which were common lor st.m** t.,/ . 
after the rebellion of 174A, have entirely disapi^a , 
and violent aMaults and child murder, which runMnf.« ^i . , 
be common till a much later period, have bcrotr.c* r * - 
Sheep-atealiog still goes on ; but the most common t-ifs 
are minor assaults, committed under the influcncr (.f «k i «. 
key, and petty thefts. The diminution of enmc ^ ^r . ! . j 

R O S 


R O S 

to the improTed eondition of the people, the spread of edu- 
eatiou, aim the more efficient administration of justice. Tbo 
moB»t serions offences are usually committed by hawkers, 
uuken, and other vagrants. The police, though improved, 
li f till inefficient ; and there is still.a good deal of pauperism 
and mendicity. {Inspector* qf PrisoM Second and Fburth 
BqfnrU^ 1836 and 1838; see Pari,* Pntpers for 1837, vol. 
ixxil, and 1839, xxii.) 

Ross-sbire and Cromartyshire unite to return one mem- 
ber to parliament. The number of voters registered in 
}»34-5. was 594; in 1835-6, 621. Dingwall, Tain, and 
Cromarty unite with Kirkwall, Wick, and Dornoch to re- 
turn a member ; the number of electors registered for the 
iLstrict, in 1834-5. was 571. Fortrose unites with Invert 
&es6» Forre^ and Nairn ; the number of rei^istered voters, 
la 1834-6, was 699, exclusive of those for Nairn, of whom 
ro return had been received. (Parliamentary Pipers for 
1537, vol. xlix.) 

Kducation has been greatly extended and improved of 
Ux« years. In 1833-4 there were thirty- three parochial 
schools, with as many . teachers, and one hunared and 
r»«nty>four schools not parochial, with one hundred and 
t«enty*nine teachers; total, qpe hundred and fifty-seven 
schools and one hundred and sixty-two teachers. The 
greatest number of scholars in these schools dur- 
\\^ the vear was 5118 boys and 2880 girls, together 
7'j9% children ; the least number, 1958 boys and 1043 girls, 
toother 3001 children. The number of children under 
CAeen who could read or were learning to do so was 9718 ; 
tb« namber who could write or were learning to do so, 3021. 
fPxrL Papers^ 1837, voL xlvii.) The schools established 
during the last few years, by the General Assembly, are in 
particular reported as working welL In these schools the 
improved system of teaching introduced among the poorer 
rtsases by Mr. Wood, of Edinburgh, is, it is said, generally 
adopted; so that the children, instead of being stuffed with 
2 quantity of .cruder indigestible matter, as heretofore, are 
DOW led to analyze and clearly underatand all they are 
tao^hti Small libraries too are often appended to these 
fcboola. Tain appean to be distinguished for the increased 
Attention paid to education. In addition to the regular 
parochial school, a public academy has been opened durine 
the last lew years, in which an education of a superior kind 
:« given. A great many of the adult population are unable 
Xm read easily, or indeed to read in any way. On the western 
K'ltf of the county it is difficult to find a person forty 
>esn of age (of course, excepting the richer classes) who is 
sble to read. Under these circumstances it is not surpris- 
ing that there is in fiict but little reading among the people 
It present, although the taste is on the increase. The only 
library lor the labouring classes is a. small one at Loch- 
lUh. snpported partly by the subscriptions of the members 
in4 partly by donations. {Second Report f\fthe Inspectors 
tj Prisons.} 

History and Antiquities, — At the earliest historical period 
thb chantry appears to have been inhabited — the western 
fm by the Creones, the eastern part by the Cants 
<(inrrai), and the centre by the Caledonii (KaXi^^oiioi) of 
I Pu>leni7 ; but it is impossible to assign the limits of their 
I n^pective territories. The Bay Volsas {OvoKtraz koXtoc) of 
■^ tame geographer may be identified with Loch Broom. 
lije seat nary (fi^wtc) of Varer (Ohapap), or Varase, as it is 
-. tome editions of Ptolemy, which is mentioned also by 
Richard of Cirencester, was probably the Moray Frith. The 
Srst fininm Imperii Romani of Richard may perhaps be fixed 
r. the ness or promontory of Tarbet, and the Abona cestuary 
/ the same writer may be identified with Dornoch Frith. 

Of this early period Ross-shire contains several remains. 

!: Kincardine and Fearn parishes are some Druidical 

r-jrles ; and on the eastern shore of Loch Roig, in Lewis, 

SHE (he very entire remains of a Druidical circle, the stones 

' ' «h«cfa» some of them very large, stand on end, at a dis- 

tusee of five or six yards from each other, and are in a rou^h 

file as when taken fh>m the shore. There are cairns m 

fltirent places on the summits of hills. The Druidical 

z:n of the circles is disputed by Dr. M'Culloch QiBigh- 

u.*dft, &e. of Scotland,' vol. iii., p. 229, seq.). To the long 

Hz.fd of darkness'nvhich extends over this part of the 

•iM after the departure of the Romans, may be assigned 

\i duns, or dounes, or Picts' houses, as they are termed, 

h some suppose to be Danish forts, though some ascribe 

. . -a to an earlier period than that of the Danish ravages. 

i.^oe ooffinsy vitrified ruins, stone obelisks, on or near the 

eastern coast, and the traces of habitations in the caves of 
the western coast, belong to early but unascertained periods. 

At a subsequent period Ross became an earldom, which 
was united with the lordship of the isles {i e. the Western 
Isles) by the marriage of Donald M'Donald, the lord of the 
isles, with the daughter of the earl of Ross. These honoura 
were held, about the middle of the fifteenth century, by 
Barl John, who allied himself with Edward IV. of England 
(A.D. 146 IX rebelled against the government of Scot- 
land during tho minority of the king James III., and pro- 
claimed himself king of Ross and the Hebrides. He was 
supported by Donald Balloch, lord of Isla, and by the earl 
of Douglas, now in banishment The rebellion was attended 
by the most dreadful atrocities ; but Ross was assassinated 
in the course of it, in the castle of Inverness, and the re- 
bellion came to an end without its chiefs having attained 
their object. 

The succeeding earl appears to have inherited the tur- 
bulence of Earl John. He was involved in hostilities with 
the earl of Huntley, another powerful Highland chieftain, 
and, adhering to his predecessor's English alliance, re- 
belled against James III. But the extent of the king's 
preparations induced him to submit to the royal clemency 
(a.d. 1476). He was deprived of the earldom of Ross, the 
lands of Knapdale and Kintyre [Aroyle, vol. ii., p. 3131, 
and the bereditaryshrievalty of Inverness and Nairn, which 
were all annexed to the crown. He was in return created 
a peer of parliament with the title of John de Isla, lord of 
the isles. During this period Ross gave title to a bishopric, 
erected by David I., king of Scotland ; the cathedral was 
at Fortrose. 

There are several remains of antient castles in Ross- 
shire. Lochlin Castle is on an eminence six miles east of 
Tain; it consists of two square towers sixty feet high, 
united at one corner of each, with a staircase at the 
point of junction, and large turrets raised upon the towers. 
Craighouse Castle, on the southern shore of Cromarty Frith, 
is an antient tower of five stories ; the castles of Killcoy 
and Redcastle are on the shore of Moray Frith, or rather of 
Loch Beauley. There are some ruins of Cadbole Castle on 
the east coast, between Cromarty and Moray friths, and of 
Donan Castle, on the shore of Loch Alsh, on the west coast. 
There are also some ecclesiastical ruins. Lochlin Abbey 
(or Fearn Abbey) is near the castle of that name, east of 
Tain; and there are the ruins of a number of antient 
chapels in Lewis, especially of St. Mulvay's chapel, in the 
north part of the island. 

In 1649 the M'Kenzies of Ross broke out into rebellioni 
to revenge the execution of Charles I., but were defeated. . 
The Inst battle fought by the gallant Marquis of Mont- 
rose was in this county, at Craigchenichan (t.^. the rock 
of lamentation), in Kincardine parish, just on the northern 
border of the county, where he was defeated bv Colonel 
Stracban; he swam over the Kyle into Sutherlandshire, 
was apprehended in Assynt, in that county, and afterwards 
executed at Edinburgh (a.d. 1650). The earl of Seaforth 
having forfeited his estates, which lay in the west side of the 
county, by his share in the rebellion of 1715, and the mili- 
tary not being able to penetrate into so inaccessible a dis- 
trict and levy the rents for the crown, the faithful clansmen 
regularly paid theirs to an agent, who transmitted them to 
the earl, then in exile. In 1718, Donan Castle was seized 
by the earl of Seaforth and one or two other Jacobite noble- 
men, who arrived on the coast in tiro Spanish frigates, 
with a small body of Spanish troops ; a few Highlandera 
took arms and joined them, but they were defeated in 
Glensbiel by the government troops, and the leadera com- 
pelled to make their escape. ' Rob Roy* was engaged among 
the insurgents in this conflict. 

{New Statistical Account qf Scotland ; Play fair's Descrip- 
Hon qf Scotland ; Forsyth's Beauties qf Scotland ; Cham- 
bers's Gazetteer qf Scotland; Ty tier's and Scott's Histories 
qf Scotland; Parliamentary Patpers,) 

ROSS. [Hkrefordshihb.] 


ROSTELLUM, a botanical term applied occasionally to 
very different parts: 1, it is most freauently used as a dimi- 
nutive of rostrum, to express any small beak-shaped process i 
2, it is applied to the short beak-shaped process fbunu on the 
stigma of many violets, as Viola hirta, V, odorata, and V. ca- 
nina, &c ; and Orchidaceee, as Orchis^ Spiranthes, Listera, 
&c. ; 3, some writen have also used this term to indicate 
the radide or descending element of the embryo of the seed. 

R O S 



ROSTOCK, the largest town in the grand-duchy of 
Mecklenburg-Schwerin, is situated in 54' 5' N. lat. and 
12^ 20' E. long. It stands on an eminence, in a flat and 
very fertile country, on the bank of the river Warnow, which 
is there 2400 feet broad, and forms the harbour. The War- 
now fells into the Baltic at Warnemunde, nine miles below 

the town. 

Rostock consists of three parts, the old, the middle, and 
the new town, besides the suburbs, and it is surrounded 
with antient fortiBcations. A great part of the city is built 
in the old fashion of the firee German cities, with the gable 
ends toward the street, but it has been very much improved 
within the last twenty-live years by the erection of many 
large and elegant houses. Most of the streets are straight 
and pretty broad, and well paved. On the whole the old 
town is the most irregular, the middle town the handsomest, 
and the new town the most regularly built. The principal 
public buildings are the grand-ducal palace, more remark- 
able however fur its extent and its admirable situation than 
for the style of its architecture; the university, a very ex- 
tensive building ; the court of justice, and the town-hall, 
both modem edifices; the theatre, and the churches of 
St. Mary and St. Peter. The church of St Mary is 
300 feet long. 240 broad, and 96 feet high up to the cupola. 
It has one of the finest organs in Northern Germany. This 
church contains the tomb of Grottus. St. Peter's church, 
which was founded at the end of the twelfth century, is 
chiefly remarkable for its fine steeple, which, with the very 
lofty conical spire, is 420 feet in height. The university 
Was founded in 1419. It has 23 professors, but only about 
1 10 students. The library consists of above 80,000 volumes, 
including many very rare and valuable works, and has been 
much increased by the collection of Professor Tych sen, espe- 
cially in Oriental and Spanish literature; likewise a cabinet 
of medals, a museum of natural history, a botanical garden, 
and an anatomical theatre. There are also a theological 
seminary, a Bible Society, and other useful institutions. 
The number of inhabitants is 18,200. 

Rostock was a town of the Wends, or Vandals ; it was taken 
in 1 161, bv Waldemar, king of Denmark, and burnt, with its 
celebrated idol. In 1323 it was annexed to Mecklenburg, 
joined the Hanseatic League in 1630, and was for a long 
timo the next city in rank in the Baltic after Liibeck. 
Great privileges were granted it by the dukes of Mecklen- 
burg, many of which it still retains, such as the right of 
choosing its own magistrates, the right of taxing itself, of 
coining money, the jurisdiction over all its inhabitants, and 
their estates in the country. Though its commerce is not 
' so considerable as in the time of the Hansa, it is still the 
principal trading port of Mecklenburg: it has about 150 
ships, which sail under its own flag, and the number of ships 
that arrive every year is about 600, the foreign vessels being 
mostly English, Russian,Swedish, and Danish. The exports 
are chiefly corn and wool. The imports are colonial produce, 
wino, and' bay salt. There are manufactures of canvas, linen, 
baize, ships' anchors, soap and vinegar, and some breweries, 
distilleries, and sugar refineries. 

{CiknnMchy Handbuch ; Siein*s Lexicon ; Siem*s Hand' 
buck, by Horschelroann ; HempeVs Mecklenburg,) 

ROSTOU. [Yaraslow.] 

ROSTRUM, or, more properly, ROSTRA, was a plat- 
form or elevated space of ground in the Roman forum, from 
which the orators used to address the people, and which 
derived its name from the circumstance that after the con- 
quest of Lalium the beaks (rostra) of the Antiattan ships 
were affixed to the front of it. (Liv., viii. 14.) The rostra 
was between the Coroitium, or place of assembly for the 
Curia), and the Forum, properly so called, or place of as- 
sembly for the Comitia Tributa. Bunsen, in his work on the 
Roman Forum, quoted by Arnold {History of Rome, yo\, ii., 
p. 1G5), judging from the views of the rostra given on two 
coins in his possession, supposes that it was a circular build- 
ing, raised on arches with a stand or platform on the top, 
bordered by a parapet, the access to it being by two flights 
of steps, one on each side. It pointed towards the Comitium, 
and the rostra were affixed to the front of it, just under the 
arches. Its form has been, in all the main points, preserved 
in the ambones, or circular pulpits, of tne most antient 
churches, which also had two flights of steps leading up to 
them, one on the east side, by which the preacher ascended, 
and another on the west side, for his descent Speci* 
mens of these old pulpits are still to be seen at Rome, in 
the churches of S« Clement and S. Lorenzo fuori le Mure. 

The orators appear to have walked up and down the 
rostra in addressing the people, and did not, like modern 
speakers, remain standing in one spot. Down to the xitu*> 
of Caius Gracchus even the tribunes in speaking uvl 
to front the Comitium ; but he turned his back to it, an i 
spoke with his fkce towards the Forum. (Niebuhr, Hnthrj 
of Rome, vol. i., note 990 ; vol. iii., note 268.) 

ROSTRUM, a botanical term applied to any rigid pfi> 
longation of remarkable length, or to any additional pr«>- 
cess at the end of any of the parts of a plant Under ili:^ 
term are included most processes ana long pointa of an 
irregular character, as the thin apices upon the operrulutti 
of the sporangium of many mosses, the lengthened tuU> • f 
the calyx upon the achenia of Scabiosa, Tragopogon, Lv - 
tuca, and many other Compositas, also of Scanaix and An- 
thriscus, the remaining ana often enlarged ntyle upon nu^ 
fruits, as of Brassica, Sinapris, SaxifVaga, and many dtli r 
prolonged points, as those upon the utriculate itKiuvi.i • i 
CarecD flava and C. ampullacea. The term comu is oft> ., 
applied to parts similar to rostrum. 

ROT, DRY. [Dry-Rot] 

ROTA'LIA. [FORAMINIFKRA, vol. X., p. 348.] 

ROTATE, a botanical term applied to either the calnc nr 
corolla, when the tube is very smaller entirely wanting, an ] 
the petals or sepals are united and spreading. Exan)p!« •> 
aro seen in the genera Anagallis, Lysimachia, Borago, 8^1 1- 
num, Verbascum, Galium, and Rubta. 

ROTATION {Rota, a wheel). The popular oonceptiiri 
of a bodv in rotation is vague, except only in the ca^.^ m 
which tne rotation is made about an immoveable a\.v 
This subject has accordingly been usually treated by maih*.- 
matical methods; and mathematicians, content with t!u - 
results, and with their power of interpreting thein» <! - 
nothing towards the improvement of the manner of \\k- 
senting the elementary view of rotation. Witliin the li-: 
seven years however, a French philosopher of a truly r< • 
markable genius for simplifying the elements of mcchai\i< >. 
M. Poinsot,* has presented the subject in a point of v;ii\ 
which would excite wonder that ideas so simple slut.: 
never have occurred to any one before, if it had not l»\« 
so often seen that simplicity is not a fruit of the first gr<> •^ r.i 
In this article it is to be remembered that we confine our>i '.\ > 
to notions connected with motion, independently of its (• 
ducing force, reserving the latter for Thborv of Cor pi. - s 
an arrangement dictated rather by our desire to keep in - 
article what may be accessible to the general reader, tl ».. 
by its own intrinsic propriety. For the mathematical \ ^r. 
of the subject, so far as we enter into it, see Virtual \ t- 


Tliere is this parallel between the conception wc f - . 
of the simple motion of a point and that of a solid b . • 
namely, that each has a case of peculiar simplicity, by \i h- . 
others are rendered more easy to describe. A point n; \ 
move in a straight line, or may preserve its direction i. *• 
altered; a body may revolve round a fixed axis, or i.^ .. 
point may preserve its circle of revolution unaltered. B '. 
owing to the comparative simplicity of the motion of i 
point, it is easy [Direction] to carry with us, when it m«'t • * 
m a curve, the idea of its still having a different direction 
every point of the motion, namely, that of the tanglnt : 
the curve. It is not so easy to see that whenever a )• • 
moves about a fixed point, no matter how irregularly. ti..« 
is always, at every instant of the motion, some one a\« 
which is, for that instant, at rest. This notion of an 
stantaneous axis of repose, not continuing to be such f r 
any finite time — answering to that of an instantaneous ^ 
rection in curvilinear motion, which does not oontmuc f < 
any finite time to jepresent the direction — must be first d.^ 
tinctly formed, before any satisfactory account of the tjU* 
tion of a body can be given. 

Let us suppose a uniform sphere, with a fixed cent:., 
but otherwise free to move in any way. Let a succc&b. i; « f 
forces act upon it, gradual or not, in such a mannar thu: .t 
will never move round one axis for any finite time Uur . z 
the coptinuance of their action. At a certain moment, U : . 
the forces cease entirely, leaving the sphere to it^^elf. It :» 
easy enough to see that from and after the moment of .1 ^* 
continuance, the sphere will move round an axis 
remains unaltered; or, if this be not perfectly perctrp:. 
the geometrical considerations presently to be gi\en. v. 

• In a Memoir w.vl to the Acudomv of Sri<*iico«. May 19, JSM. of ^ • 
All extnirt. explainiajt general conskleralioba oud rasult*. hat tvm v^' • » 
ParU, BacUelifr, 1831. 

»• I 




made about a point at an infinite distance— one of those ex- 
treme conclusions which require interpretation. The fact 
is that these two rotations give only a simple motion of 
translation = AB X Angular velocity per second, and such 
as to make the system move upwards or downwards on the 
paper according as the separate rotations would make the 
points A and B move upwards or downwards. This parti- 
cular case will be more intelligible when looked at witn the 
help of the Theory of Couples. 

But if the rotations be in the same direction, so that A 
will be lowered and B raised, or vice versd, each by the 
rotation about the other: — Take a point D, dividing AB so 
that AD is to DB as the angular velocity about B is to that 
about A. Then will the axis of repose at starting be a 
parallel drawn through D to the axes passing through A 
and B, and the angular velocity will be the sum of the an- 
gular velocities about A and B, its direction being that which 
lowers A on the paper and raises B, or vice verad, according 
as is done by the given angular velocities. 

Lastly, let the axes be neither parallel nor intersecting, 
asABand CD: — ^Through the point in which CD meets the 
common perpendicular draw £F parallel to AB, and at the 

instant at which the rotations round AB and CD commence* 
give a couple of equal and contrary rotations about £F, 
each equal to that about AB. Tliis last pair produces no 
effect, so that the composition of the four rotations gives the 
same result as that of the two. Now, as above stated, the 
rotation round AB, and its equal and contrary round £F, 
produce nothing but a motion of translation, while the re- 
maining rotation about £F, compounded by the first rule 
with that about AB, gives what would be an axis of repose, 
if it wero not for that translation. The whole result then 
is, that the system begins to move about an axis, which axis 
begins to undergo a translation in space. 

Tliere is no work to which we can refer the reader for a 
simple demonstration of these rules, apart from higher con- 
siderations. But the student of mechanics who does not 
pay attention to the simple phenomena of translation and 
rotation, will rarely find himself able to attain a complete 
comprehension of the equations by which these phenomena 
are applie<l in phvsics. 

ROTATION OF CROPS. It has been observed in a 
former article [Arable Land] that a repetition of the same 
crops in succession has a peculiar eflect on the soil, so that 
if grain of the same nature be sown year after year in the 
Mme ground, it will not produce the same return of the seed, 
even wlien abundantly manured. The reason of this is not 
satisfactorily explained, but the experiments which have 
been made by men of science lead us to conclude that the 
real cause will be gradually discovered ; and considerable 
advances have been made towards a rational solution of the 
question. It has been observed that it is the formation of 
the seed which principally causes the deterioration of the 
•oil ; for i( the crop ho fed off in a green state, or mown 
before the seed is formed, the same may be safely ropeated, 
and no diminution of the plants is apparent. Thus grasses 
M a meeilow which are mown before the blossom is faded or 
thn need formed, will spring up again vigorously; but if the 
Mri«d !• allowed to ripen, the roots die away, and the best 
i/itt4ft<«s gradually disappear. It is thus that when a meadow 
;• mown year after year for hay, and the earliest grasses are 
M.lowM to ripen their seed, the crop will be later and later, 
and all the earliest grasses will disappear. Irrigation pre- 
verita this, and seems to restore to the land whatever the 
grasses require for their oontinuanoe. Feeding of the mea- 
dows does the same; and this leads to the conclusion that 
water restores the power of production; and that, the 
gra<ise» not being permitted to run to seed, the deteriorating 
•fivct is not produced. 

If it bad been a mere exhaustion of the nutritious par- 

***\9$ iu the soil which caused the deterioration of the sub* 

'cnt crojis, some kind of manure might restore the fer- 

tility; but this IS not the case. However judieiousty the 
land may be manured, it is not practicable to raise a crop of 
wheat or clover, or of many other flants, on a soil which ha^ 
shown that, as the farmers say, it is tir^d of that crop ; but 
clover grows well after wheat, and wheat after clover, »> 
that the same effect is not produced in the toil by these two 
crops. Experiments have oeen made by eminent chemi^t%, 

Sarticularlv by Macaire of Geneva, at the reauestof De Cari- 
olle, which lead one to suppose that, in the formation of the 
seed or other nutritious parts of plants, the sap is digesioU 
that it takes up certain elements and deposits others. whir:j 
are the residue of the process: and these neing no longer tie- 
cessary to the formation of the seed, are rejected by t lie %itj! 
action of the plant, and exude by the roots. Thus ceriiitn 
inferior animals, which in many respects have some ana1<«::% 
with vegetables in their growth, as the polypi, take in nourish • 
menthy the same openings or pores by which theexcremen'^ 
are voided after digestion ; and the different constitution < ( 
different animals enables one class to feed on theexcreroen: \ 
of another ; whereas no animal in a healthy state ean deri> c 
nourishment from that which it has already digested ar.'I 
voided. Our ignorance of the functions of vegetable life 
prevents us from foreseeing the effects produced on the sap 
oy the expansion of the blossom or the ripening of the seed ; 
but experience leads us to perceive that certain plantt 
thrive best after certain others; and that in this case they 
are always of distinct and different natures. A plant which 
has fibrous roots, and throws up a seed-stem with few leavn^ 
thrives best after one which has a fiieshy root and man% 
succulent leaves on a branching stem. Thus, wheat thrt\ t» 
after beans, vetches, or clover; barley and oats after tur- 
nips, carrots, or potatoes. Independently of the manurr 
which may be put into the grouno, the crops will be bcti«T 
where the proper succession is attended to, than wboa> 
plants of a similar kind are made to follow each other. T > 
ascertain the cause of this, Mr. Macaire and some otlinr 
scientific men observed the change which took place in il. - 
water in which wheat had been made to grow. They four 1 
a deposit in the water of the nature of a bitter extract : ari ] 
this they concluded to be excrementitious. Whether ihe<^<' 
experiments were conclusive or not, they found that hvw > 
grew well in the water in which wheat had deposited t ! » 
supposed excrement; and, on the other hand, wheat tlimvo 
in the water in which beans had grown. This confinned iK • 
well-known fact that heavy soils of a rich quality and u< 
manured will bear alternate crops of wheat and bca::^ 
without the intervention of a fallow for a long scries of \ ea ^ 
as is practised in some parts of Kent. The effect of fall>>vt* 
ing land is explained on the same principle ; the exrron:* t 
is washed out by the rains, or is decomposed by the Iu: i 
and air to which it is exposed by the repeated pIoul;Lm . 
Thus the land is said to be stveetened, an cxpres^stun \i .-^ 
common among those farmers who adhere to (he fal! .*. 
ing system. 

if the chemical nature of the excrement of each p».i;i 
cultivated could bo accurately ascertained* artificial tnta ^ 
micht be discovered, by which the same effect might be* c\ 
peditiously produced, which now reouires a whole ^casim f 
fallowing. But experience and obsen*ation have au::!.- 
pated science, as is often the case ; and a judicious rutu*. . 
of crops has been found to prevent the bad effects ot t-.r 
change in the constitution of the soil which is caused by t - f 
growth of particular classes of plants; whether it be'thi: 
the^ deprive it of peculiar salts, as some will have it, or rk- 
posit deleterious particles, according to others. IIowcmt 
interesting it may be to the curious inquirer to ascertain ihe 
real cause, it is sufficient for the practical farmer to learn b^ 
experience what crops succeed nest after each otlier, ari \ 
how soon the same kind of seed may again be sown in ti. • 
same ground with a reasonable prospect of its prodocnic a 
good crop ; and this after all can only be learned from aciunl 
experiment and observation. 

In all countries where peculiar attention has been paid t » 
agriculture, the most advantageous succession of crop» i> 
generally known ; and if any deviation takes place, it is a» ji.i 
exception to the rule, and is not looked upon as a model f ;>r 
imitation, but rather as an experiment of a doubtful rc<^u.t. 
Certain general principles are commonly admitted as f'-lli 
established; the chief of these is. that a plant with a luk. . 
stem and farinaceous seed should follow one with a bni;:* r - 
ing stem and a fieshy root, which has been taken from tt. 
ground by mowing or feeding before the seed was rtpc ; r . f 
all these conditions cannot be obtained, tliat some of uicu. 




at least should be complied with. Wheat sown after clover, 
whi'h is allowed to be the best succession on light soils, fulfils 
all the conditions: when it is sown aAer beans, the condition 
of the precedinfi^ crop not ripening its seed is given up ; and 
consequently this succession is inferior to the other. Potatoes, 
at fin»t sight, appear to fulfil all the necessary conditions ; 
but although they do not oAen ripen the seed above ground, 
the bulbs of the roots contain so much farina, that in the 
^rmation of these the soil is notoriously deteriorated ; and 
farmers well know that, except in peculiar cases which form 
exceptions, wheat never thrives so well after potatoes as it 
docs after clover, even when the ground has been so richly 
manured as to contain more organic matter in a soluble 
state than there is in the roots of the clover. 

A knowledge of the different plants which may succeed 
each other on the same land is of great importance in form- 
ing a judicious rotation, so as to obtain the most valuable 
produce from any given <;oil, in as quick recurrence as possi- 
ble without the risk of failure. In the triennial system, 
vhich could only be profitable where much of the land 
ntmained in a state of pasture, two crops of corn were taken 
m succession after a complete fallow. But even here it 
«as found advisable to have different kinds of grain, and 
riut to re^t the same crop without a fallow intervening. 
In very rich soils wheat and barley were the usual crops 
after the fallow ; and the manure was obtained by means of 
rattle or sheep kept on the pastures in summer and on hay 
aiul straw in winter. Repeated ploughings were indis- 
pensable; and the farmer wno stirred his land the most was 
the most certain of good crops. But when pastures were 
broken up, this system soon exhausted the soil for want of 
manure, and it became indispensable to devote some portion 
of the land to raise food for the animals whose dung is 
nquired to keep up the fertility. Hence the introduction 
«f roots and artificial grasses. It was soon observed that 
the ciupe of com were much better on the land which had 
bone these roots and grasses, even with less manure, than 
^*^t crops of grain ; and a rotation was adopted in which 
green crops were raised between every two crops of corn. In 
{ifoceas of time the fallows were found to be superfluous 
a bcfever green crops could be raised with advantage ; and 
the land was kept clean by careful weeding and hoeing. 
Tbe effect of a judicious rotation on the produce raised in a 
given time was so evidently advantageous, that it gave rise 
to a notion that in this alone consisted the whole art of the 
farmer, even to the neglect of manure ; and clauses were 
introduced in leases prescribing the rotation to be strictly 
a»ibe»~ed to, o.^en with detriment to the land and loss to the 
tenant, when the circumstances required a deviation from 
tbe rule. 

In order to find the crops which may advantageously 
•ttceeed each other in rotation, many circumstances must 
be taken into consideration. First of all the quality of the 
lod, and its fitness for particular crops ; next the wants of 
tbe farmer and his family, and the maintenance of the 
itock required to produce a sufficient supply of manure. It 
a anreasonable to expect poor light lana to produce wheat 
u>d beans, although by high cultivation these crops may be 
forted. Rye, oats, and roots may give the farmer a better 
^mfiu by being raised at a less expense than more valuable 
crops, vhich must be forced with manure, and at best are 
pTManons in soils not adapted to their growth. In moderate 
teams wheat mf y recur every fourth or fifth year, whereas 
'£. very licb compact loams it may recur every third, and 
<««Q every alternate year. Clover and many artificial 
p9sae* do not succeed well if they recur oftener than every 
ftnih year, or with even a longer interval. Rape, flax, 
wd petstoft require a still more distant recurrence on tbe 
ame ground. All these considerations lead the farmer 
Ui tbe selection of the most advantageous rotation for 
tbe sotl of his farm ; and where tbe land in a considerable 
cutrict is nearly of an uniform quality, experience soon 
fitabltsbes a course which no one finds it prudent to de* 
rate from. It happens firequently however that a great 
rzriety of soils, veiy different in their nature and fertility, 
ire inlarmixed ; and then, unless the farmer can apply the 
:rj^ principles of rotations, he may greatly err by following 
tbv course, whieh may be very judicious for tbe prevailing 
•jd of tbe district, but not at all suited to some of his fields. 
Here tbe old advice to a young fiirmer, to 'look over his 
aeishbonr's hedge,' may not be a prudent one to follow ; 
lad even if there were no difference in the nature of the 
«aii, cr in Uie state of fertility in whiehit is at the moment* 

I a blind adherence to the practice of others will never lead 
to any improvement: for such improvement can only be 
effected by some knowledge of the reasons on which any 
practice is founded. Hence a knowledge of the crops suited 
to any particular soil, and the order in which these crops 
should succeed each other, is indispensable to the advan- 
tageous cultivation of a farm. 

That which forms the food of man is always the principal 
object in tbe cultivation ; and, excepting rice, which only 
grows in warm climates, there is no food more unrversaJly 
used than that which is made from wheat. Rye, barley, 
oats, and pulse are only substitutes where wheat cannot be 
raised in sufficient quantities. Next to grain comes meat, 
chiefly beef, mutton, and pork, of which the consumption 
increases with the wealth of a nation and the advance of its 
agriculture. Wheat and fat cattle are therefore primary 
objects with every good farmer ; and he who can raise most 
wheat and fatten most oxen or sheep or pigs will realise the 
greatest profit. 

Many circumstances may indicate a deviation from the 
course which, as a general rule, is most advantageous. The 
facility of purchasing manure from neighbouring towns 
may allow of more frequent crops of corn, and of nutritious 
roots which require much manure, such as potatoes, and 
which give no return to the land in the shape of dung. But 
we must lay down rules for those who are to rely on their own 
resources to recruit the land with manure, so that it may 
give the greatest produce without diminishing in fertility ; 
and this can only be done by a judicious feeding of live- 

The simple rotation of wheat and beans alternately would 
be by far the moat profitable in rich clay soil, as both these 
crops always obtain a good price in the market; but if a 
whole farm were so cropped, nearly all the manure must bo 
purchased ; for, after a few crops, the wheat-straw and bean 
halm would not produce half the manure required for the 
land. Hay and oats must be purchased for the horses re 
quired for the tillage, which migiit not be procured so rea- 
dily or so cheap as they may be raised on the farm. On very 
lignt sands wheat or beans cannot be raised, except by a 
very expensive mode of cultivation ; but rye, oats, peas, 
buckwheat, and roots for cattle must be substituted. On 
chalky loams the principal crops are barley and artificial 
grasses for sheep. In short, no particular rotation can be 
prescribed without a complete knowledge of the soil, the 
locality, and every circumstance connected with any parti- 
cular farm. As the most universal rule, it may be laid down 
that every alternate crop should be consumed by animals on 
the farm, and that, as much as possible, the plants which 
succeed each other should be of different natural botanic 
families. Experience has generally shown the time that 
should be allowed to intervene between the recurrence of 
the same kiud of crop, and we have only to form our plans 

In order to prove that the principles we have here laid 
down are not formed on mere theory, we have only to show 
that experience and observation have led to the same prac- 
tical results, and that those rotations which have stood the 
test of the longest experience have been gradually brought 
to a considerable perfection in consequence of the failures 
which generally mllowed any great deviation from the true 
rational course. 

Of the old triennial course (fallow, wheat, barley or oats) 
it must be observed that tbe two corn-crops so rapidly dete- 
riorate tbe soil, that a complete year of fallow is required to 
purify it, and a good manuring to keep the land in heart , 
and that all tbe industry of the farmer cannot keep up the 
fertility of the land without extraneous help, either from the 
manure made in towns, or in the farm-yard by cattle bred 
and kept in commons or pasture-grounds. This system, 
which prevailed so long, cannot be called a rotation ; and no 
real improvement was introduced into agriculture until the 
notion of its perfection was exploded, and tenants were per- 
mitted to deviate from it. The rotations adopted in the 
place of this old system necessarily partook at first of its 
main defects. Green crops were introduced of necessity to 
supply tbe loss of the commons and pastures* which, as toe 
population increased, were gradually cultivated as arable 
land : but the two white crops remained in succession, and 
even now, such is the force of habit and early impression, 
that one of the most difficult points to be gained with mere 
practical farmers is to make them have patience when their 
land is in a good state, and to prevent tbeir sowing a white 





crop, which is immediately profitable and obtained at little 
or no expense, instead of a green crop, which will keep the 
land in neart and improve it for future crops, but which 
does not figure in the account of sales. Yet it can be 
clearly shown, that in roost cases the second corn-crop is 
dearly purchased by the expense required to restore the 
land to the state in which it was when the seed was sown 
a second time; manure alone will not do this ; fallowing and 
repeated ploughing can alone effect it: and whether you 
plough several times before a crop, or are forced to do 
so after it, there is no diflference in the expense of labour, 
although there may be much in the value of the subsequent 

The Norfolk course (turnips, barley, clover, wheat), which 
is so well known and deservedly in repute for light sands, 
has only one defect, which is the too frequent recurrence of 
clover. Rye grass, the usual substitute in sandy soils, un- 
loss it be fed off young, is far inferior to clover as a prepara- 
tion for wheat, and this accords with the theory ; for wbeat 
and rye grass are both of the natural family of the grami- 
neee. Tares or vetches are a good substitute in hea\y soils, 
as well as beans, both of which are leguminoses^ but not 
well suited to light sandy soils. Peas arc sometimes intro- 
duced; but they are apt. to encourage weeds, unless the 
crop be very heavy, and then they exhaust the soil, and 
l^ave little vegetable matter behind them in their roots. 

In many countries there are other vegetable products, 
which are required for the food of the inhabitants, or supply 
the raw materials of manufactures : tliese must be introduce d 
into the rotations, according to their effect on the sod and 
the cultivation they require. Indian corn, or roaixe, and 
French beans, for their seed, are cultivated in more southern 
climates as field crops. Potatoes are now an essential pro- 
duct in some districts, and one which, after maize, produc^^s 
the greatest quantity of food for man from a given portion uf 
land. But potatoes require much manure, and cannot pixrHt- 
ably be cultivated to a very great extent as a farm produce, 
nor repeated on the same land, for any length of time, oficn<. r 
than once in eight or ten years; they should however always 
enter into the rotation in that portion of the land which m 
to be much worked, cleaned, and manured after a crop uf 
corn. Flax, colsa. hemp, and many other plants are culti- 
vated in various districts. By a little management a great 
variety of produce may be introduced with some regularity ; 
and, as a specimen, we will give a rotation which is generally 
adopted in the neighbourhood of Lille in France, and wui 
noticed in the 'Journal of the Royal Agricultural Society of 
England,* vol. i., part iii., page 292. 

Tlie quantity or land is 15 bonniers (about 60 imperial 
acres). Each bonnier is divided into 16 cents; each cent is 
conaequeatly one-fourth of an acre. 

Rotation qf Craps /or Four Years, 

Pint Ytar. 

Bon. Cent. 

12 Colsa plants 

6 Turnips 

C Cow cabbage 


SmoimI Year. 

iSjn. Ceut. 
I 8 

Tlird Year. 



8 Wheat 




Flax . 
Colsa . 



Oats . 




Rye and tares 
Rye . 

Winter barley 
Beet- root . 



' 1 




Rye . 


Winter barley 






Beet-root . 





CoUa plants 






8 Wheat 



Flax . 

8 Colsa . 

8 Beans 


Bou. Cent. 

1 Clover 
8 Flax . 

8 CoUa 

8 Beans 

I 8 Oats . 

r Tares, &e. (as^ 

8< in the second > 

I year) J 

Fourth Year. 

lion. Cont. 

4 8 Wheat 


4 8 Wheat 


r 1 Clover 

8 Flax . 

2 8 Colsa . 

8 Beans 

1 8 Oats 

* 5> 

4 8^ 


f Tares. 8cc. (as 
in second 
and third 


The tares, r}e, winter barley, and clover are mostly cut green for fodder. 

In this rotation there are a great many different crops, 
but the chief is wheat, which occupies 18 acres in 60, anc* 
thus recurs nearly every third year on the same ground. It 
invariably follows clover, flax, colsa, and beans, all plants of 
different families from the graminea. After the wheat, 
various green crops follow, and, excepting a very small por* 
tion of winter barley and rye, which are generally cut green 
for the cattle, all these are hkewiseof different families from 
wheat. Then come colsa, beans, and oats, all but the last 
of different families from the two preceding ; and it roust be 
observed that the colsa plants raised to be transplanted are 
followed by beans, and the turnips and cow-cabbage by oats, 
while the colsa for seed comes after tares, rye, winter 
oarley, and clover. This rotation is not a theoretical one, 
but actually and strictly adhore<l to by all those who are 
considered good farmers in the district where it has been the 
rule for a century and more. It is not the result of physio- 
logical theories, but it is most probably the parent of the 
theory which is now almost universally adoptea by all scien- 

'^ agriculturists. 
\r. Blackie, who may be oonsidered as very good authority 

in modern British farming, was requestedtwhen in Paris* 
to recommend a course of cropping or a rotation suited lo 
the northern portion of France. Probably without anv 
knowledge of what was actually the practice in a part of it. 
he composed a table of crops, which he considwea as suited 
to a very rich soil in a very genial climate ; and if we com- 
pare this with the foregoing rotation, we shall be surprised 
to find how nearly they agree in principle. Il has been the * Gardeners' Magazine,* vol. ii., and repub- 
lished in a paper by Mr. Towers in tlie second part of vol. 
i. of the ' Journal of the Roy. Agr. Soc. of England/ and 
as it is an interesting agricultural document, we insert it 
in the following page. 

It will be remarked in perusing tliis rotation, that the 
true principles are strictly adhered to:^wheat follow « 
clover, vetches, beans, and potatoes; and aAer the wheal 
we have rooU and green crops. The only remark which 
strikes a practical farmer is that ten acres of wheat ai« suc- 
ceeded by potatoes, and these by wheat again. There U 
very little land in Great Britain which wUI bear so severe 
cropping, without mueh more manure than a hrm of J 00 

3 veiches 1 IS ^lieal , 

2 beans . | 

9 cabbages 
3i beul 
2i carrot , 
10 lucem 

10 potatoes . 
3 vGicbes . 

5 barley 
10 lucern 

2 bean:* 
15 wboat 

10 lucem 

*(Td be ploughed up after leven years, and rullowed by vrbeal.) 

10 lucern 

a caiTols 
lU luccrll* 

til res can afford for a tenth part of it : but this ii very 
l'.imIv modiSed bf eubatiluling a ^reen crop fur a potlioti 
';'i.-i'hjp4one-bBtr)ortbe potatoes, and lotting tbe poiotuea be 
s'.i.iieded by barley or oats insleiid of wbeai. The rotation 
uiil iliun be ]eM scourging, and belter adajiled to laud of 
I.'. I'lerate fertility, nhcre extraneous manure cannot be 
ii.'|:<.-ni!ed upon. We give it a» an example ^f Ibe applica- 
ri ,n uf the true theory of rotations, and it is reraarliable 
h i\i nearly it accords wilh that which was tlie result of 
{'ij<.'1ii-e aloni nithout theory. We have ourselves for 
it>:iiiy yean adopted b rotation without being tied dovn lo 
u]ii pii-iitive rule, whiuli has been suggested by eircuni' 
-■.amvs, and in some measure regulated by our nonviciion of 
I i,L' tt ulU of the theory vie have atleniptcJ to elucidate. In 
a cl:iyi^y loam on an impervious subsoil, but nnoally com- 
{ li'K'iv drained, we have had turnips and Swede* on high 
i.'l:;ej, lares, mangel wuriel. potatoes, and a portion of 
n^' 10 cut up green; succeeded by barley and oats sown 
"ill clover, rycgraai. and other biennial grass seeds. 
I ..M^c were mown Tor hay the first year, and sometimes the 
' i'uiid alM, but generally depabtured one year at least; 
1..1II followed beans, and after these wheal. The green 
' : .ps were put in after repealed and deep tilUgc, and with 
.':i ample allowance of manure. The whole of the layer 
Vii-i ii>|;-drcssed with peat or coal ashes in ihe first year, 
iii'l vliat manure could be got or spared was put on the 
■" iMiid year befure winter, when it was ploughed up. All the 
'.,111 crops were put in upon one shallow ploughing. We 
iinve bad no reason to repent of pursuing this course : but 
'.I' iilltiw that one year only in clover would probably bo 
... re prufllable. The land is not suHlciently fertile by 
: .i:iire u> bear wheat after the 6rst year of clover, instead of 
; . liiiig or making it into hay. This would bring it t.> some 

i ilie rolatioQ* adopted in rich alluvial soils. It is a rule 
'-.nK-K should never be tra